International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment and Diagnostic Products, Second Edition - PDF Free Download (2023)

Second Edition

International Labeling Requirements for

Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

Second Edition

International Labeling Requirements for

Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products Charles Sidebottom

Interpharm /CRC Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

Important Disclaimer The material in this publication is of the nature of general comment and opinion only. It is not offered as advice in regard to the subject matter covered and should not be taken as such. The author and the publisher disclaim all liability to any person in respect to anything and the consequences of anything done or omitted to be done wholly or partly in reliance upon the whole or any part of the contents of this publication. The reader should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any matter contained in this publication. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sidebottom, Charles B. International labeling requirements for medical devices, medical equipment, and diagnostic products/ Charles B. Sidebottom. -- 2nd ed. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-1850-5 1. Medical instruments and apparatus--Packaging. 2. Medical instruments and apparatus--Labeling. I. Title. [DNLM: 1. Product Labeling--legislation & jurisprudence. 2. Product Labeling--standards. 3. International Cooperation. 4. Reference Standards. WA 33.1 S568i 2003] R857.P33S53 2003 343¢.0855681761--dc21

2003046076

This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2006.

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Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com © 2003 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-1850-5 Library of Congress Card Number 2003046076 ISBN 0-203-48839-3 Master e-book ISBN

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Foreword The publication of the International Labeling Requirements in 1994 has been an asset to the medical device industry. It is widely recognized that labeling instructions on the appropriate use of a device is as important as the device itself in ensuring the device’s safe and effective use. Labeling requirements vary across the spectrum of medical devices and regulatory systems as well. The Þrst edition presented those requirements in the environment of the early 1990s. But medical devices evolve. New diagnostic and therapeutic devices have been introduced and existing devices continue to expand and reÞne their capabilities. Similarly, our understanding of what information to provide and how to provide it continues to evolve. Finally, the regulatory environment has evolved in existing regions and expanded signiÞcantly in Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America. Thus the publication of a second edition of International Labeling Requirements is timely. I have spent the bulk of my career as a regulatory professional in the medical device industry. I have come to understand the differing expectations of users (health care professionals and lay persons, regulators, and the industry) for medical device labeling. As Mr. Sidebottom noted in the Preface to the First Edition, this book is not and cannot be a “cookbook”. Nevertheless, the Second Edition continues to provide practical guidance for industry to facilitate international regulatory approvals and appropriately educate users in today’s environment. Charles H. Swanson, Ph.D. Vice President and Chief Regulatory OfÞcer Medtronic, Inc. August 2002

Foreword (To the First Edition) I can still remember the feeling I had when I saw a young child being kept alive by the external, wearable, battery-powered transistor pacemaker I had developed. It was an unbelievably moving experience. Besides being immensely satisÞed and fulÞlled, when I saw my device lying next to that child I was nearly overwhelmed with a feeling of responsibility. We had demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of this device in the animal physiology lab; and yet, seeing it sustain human life was an extremely sobering experience. The Þrst prototype was eventually used on more than 100 children. Initially, the other engineers who worked on this device and I were on hand to advise the physicians about its use, so labeling needs were minimal. We soon realized, however, that to ensure the safety and effectiveness of this device, we needed to label indications and contraindications for use. That was in 1957, long before the Cooper Committee and the Food and Drug Administration had tackled the issue of medical device labeling. Even in those infant years of the medical device industry, most of us realized that device manufacturers had a duty to both the patient and the physician to make certain our products were safe and were used properly. This concern continues today. The primary purpose of medical device labeling is to protect patients, both from unproven devices that could be dangerous and from unsafe applications of approved devices. A secondary purpose is to ensure that patients derive full value from medical devices. The more patients understand about how devices work in context of their physiological needs, the more effective devices are. Labeling not only helps the doctor or health professional achieve the full utility of the device, but also assists him or her in educating the patients to maximize the device’s therapeutic beneÞts. Yet there is another emerging purpose for medical device labeling: to enable device users to apply these new therapies in the most cost-effective manner. Given the current global trend of scrutinizing healthcare expenditures, this growing cost consciousness is extremely important in device design and labeling. Far from being annoying hurdles to medical device approval, labeling requirements serve a much-needed societal purpose: ensuring safe, cost-effective therapies and maintaining the quality of patient life. While device approval times in some countries continue to be inordinately long, a solid understanding of national labeling requirements will go a long way in helping device manufacturers secure faster approvals and, at the same time, assure that new therapies are safe and effective. Charles Sidebottom’s book will be a valuable tool in building this essential understanding. Earl E. Bakken Founder, Medtronic Inc. Waikoloa, Hawaii August 1994

Preface To begin, it may be useful to indicate what kind of book this is—its scope, its overall intent, and its limitations—and what kind of book it is not. It is not a cookbook. It contains no easy-to-follow recipes that guarantee success. After all, the term “medical device” spans an extremely broad range of diagnostic, therapeutic, and prosthetic devices—from tongue depressors to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, implantable cardiac pacemakers to tissue heart valves. These devices employ diverse technologies ranging from sophisticated computer systems to genetically engineered tissue. These devices are intended to be used by people with a wide variety of backgrounds and training. The potential users extend from laypersons to highly trained healthcare professionals. Combine this diversity with the mixture of regulatory approaches practiced by the responsible authorities in the major markets, and you have a sure-Þre prescription for confusion. Delineating all of the permutations and combinations of requirements and acceptable solutions is certainly beyond the scope of any single book. This book is about the regulation of labeling for medical devices in the major medical device markets. Like the law or diplomacy, there is no last word in regulation. Regulation is a process that continues to evolve. It relies on precedent, but each case is different. While regulatory systems strive to be predictable, often they are not. It would be presumptuous to suggest that I have the answers to all the confounding labeling problems that the reader will encounter. Furthermore, I work on a very broad canvas in writing this book. Some regulatory requirements are very prescriptive and leave little room for interpretation—“The label must bear the word STERILE.” Other regulatory requirements—adequate directions for use is an example—require a detailed understanding of the design of the device, its potential users, and the clinical situation in which it will be used. These topics could be the subject of a multivolume treatise that would need to be supplemented periodically with new interpretations and recent developments. Thus, I do not presume to tell all that there is to know about any of the subjects I discuss. Ultimately, the fundamental purpose of labeling is to enable the user of a medical device, be that user a healthcare professional or a layperson, to apply the device safely for the purposes intended by the manufacturer. This book presupposes that the reader understands the product in question, the potential users, and what “safely for the purposes intended” means within the clinical environment. The Þrst edition of this book was completed in late 1994. That edition covered regulatory requirements for labeling of medical devices in the highly regulated markets of Australia, Japan, North America, and the European Union (EU). At the time, this group accounted for a little over 92 percent of the world market for medical technology. In the ensuing seven years, the world market has grown by nearly 30 percent. This group still accounts for 88 percent of the consumption and nearly 100 percent of the production of medical technology. However, the importance of other markets, particularly East Asia and Eastern Europe, continues to grow. In addition, the number of countries adopting regulatory schemes that go beyond simple product registration is also growing. This trend is particularly strong in East Asia and South America. In Eastern Europe, regulation is also increasing, and it seems to be following the EU model, largely because many of these countries hope to join that economic union. In this edition, I have updated the regulatory requirements covered in the Þrst edition. There have been several major changes, such as a major overhaul of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)

in Japan, the revision of the Australian Therapeutic Goods Act to implement mutual recognition with the European Union, and a signiÞcant update to the Canadian Medical Device Regulations (CMDR) to increase harmonization with both US and European regulations. In Europe, the In Vitro Diagnostic Device Directive (IVDD) has come into force and a new directive with a direct bearing on the regulation of medical devices was approved—the Radio and Telecommunications Equipment Directive. In the United States, the regulations applicable to labeling have not changed signiÞcantly. However, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) continues to publish guidance documents that outline their current thinking on what is required for particular devices to provide “adequate directions for use.” There have also been signiÞcant developments relating to “off-label use” and to the Internet as a vehicle for distributing information about medical devices. Under the provision of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA), the FDA has implemented many process changes including a program to recognize consensus standards and accept a declaration of conformity to those standards including the labeling requirements that they may specify. More change should be expected in the near future. Australia is preparing a new handbook on requirements to implement the 2002 changes to the Therapeutic Goods Act. In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW) is working on yet another revision of the PAL. Since the Þrst edition was published, several new regulatory systems have been developed or are now being seriously enforced. In this edition, I have added information on the most mature of these systems. These include Argentina, Brazil, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. Hopefully, you will Þnd this book a good starting point and a useful guide to assist you in your professional work. I have drawn upon my experiences working as a product development manager and, more recently, working in regulatory affairs. However, I do not purport to advise readers about problems I have not had the opportunity to analyze. So, if you think you have a problem—or if you know you have one—this book should be a helpful beginning to enlighten you, but it is not a replacement for a good lawyer or other professional adviser. To help you make this decision, and to implement your decision in your own work environment, I hope this book will become a useful aid that you will reach for often and Þnd a reliable guide in the business of medical device labeling. Charles Sidebottom Plymouth, Minnesota

Acknowledgments My debt to the various authors, committees, and literally hundreds of dedicated professionals who have labored diligently to produce the reference material will be apparent, and I extend my thanks to all of them. I appreciate the special efforts of my colleagues from around the world who provided background material, asked critical questions, and critiqued the drafts of the Þrst or second editions of this work: Adriana Gonzales (Argentina), Lesley C. Pink (Australia); Dr. John Gams (Canada); Anita Li (PRC), Dr. Hwal Suh (Republic of Korea), Julie Reyes-Sandoval and Maria Alvarado (Mexico); Kenji Chikuni and Kazuo Murata (Japan); and Maarten Roelofs Heyrmans, Auke Poutsma, and Jacques Thielen (European Union). I would also like to thank Dr. Charles Swanson and Mr. Doyle (Chip) Whitacre for their support and encouragement. A special note of appreciation to Robert C. Flink for providing a steady stream of good ideas and for sharing his insights into medical device regulation. Most of all, I would like to thank Carolyn Sidebottom for her unfailing support in this project. She was editor, proofreader, and cheerleader who understood when night after night I would disappear for hours on end to work on this project. She may also be the only person in the world besides myself who has read every word of this work not once, not twice, but at least three times. Without her, this book could not have been completed. It is to her that this work is dedicated. Full source details of material cited in this work are given in the reference section. The reader’s attention is directed to these references by the abbreviated citations within the text. The reference section is arranged alphabetically according to the abbreviation used in the text citations. Readers will Þnd that many references are cited several times. The system of citation and reference used in this work has been devised to increase text readability and to assure full recoverability of the works cited. The reader will note three variations in references. Two different citations of page numbers are used in the text, as follows: “(Lowery, Puleo p. 1–6)” indicates citation to a section and single page; “(Backinger pp. 18–30)” indicates reference to a sequence of pages. A third type of reference is frequently used when referencing regulations or works published on the Internet, as follows: “(CC&CR, §15(4))” indicates a reference to a chapter, section, clause or numbered paragraph within the work.

Credits Certain material in this book is subject to international copyright protection. That material is reproduced with the permission of the copyright owner. Material from Australian Medical Device Requirements version 4 (DR4) under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 is reproduced by permission of the Therapeutic Foods Administration of the Department of Health and Aging. Material from the Therapeutic Goods Regulations is used by permission of the Commonwealth Copyright Administration. All legislation herein is reproduced by permission but does not purport to be the ofÞcial or authorized version. It is subject to Commonwealth of Australia copyright. Extracts from British Standards are reproduced with the permission of BSI under license number 2003/SK013. British Standards can be obtained from BSI Customer Services, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL, United Kingdom. (Tel +44 20 8996 9001). The author thanks the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for permission to reproduce information from its International Standards IEC 60417-1 and IEC 61010-1. All such extracts are copyright of IEC, Geneva, Switzerland. All rights reserved. Further information on the IEC is available from www.iec.ch. IEC has no responsibility for the placement and context in which the extracts and contents are reproduced by the author; nor is IEC in any way responsible for the other content or accuracy therein. The symbols taken from ISO 7000, Graphical symbols for use on equipment — Index and synopsis, are reproduced with the permission of the International Organization for Standardization, ISO. This standard can be obtained from any ISO member and from the Web site of the ISO Central Secretariat at the following address: www.iso.org. Copyright remains with ISO. The author thanks Yakuji Nippo, Ltd. for permission to use Table 19.1, Table 19.2, Table 19.3, and the tables in Appendix E from Guide to Medical Device Registration in Japan, 6th Edition and the Japanese Standards Association for permission to use the material in Table 19.4 and Table 19.5 from JIS T 1001. Table 28.1 on paper sizes is reproduced with the permission of the author, Mr. Markus Kuhn. Table 27.1 includes material from Effective Writing for Engineers, Managers and Scientists, 2nd Edition by H.J. Tichy and is used with the permission of the publisher John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

List of Figures FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE

1.1 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 9.2

Global medical device market 2000......................................................................................................... 5 Example of a hazard symbol on a large label ..................................................................................... 120 Example of a hazard symbol on a small label..................................................................................... 121 Explosive symbol.................................................................................................................................. 124 Flammable symbol................................................................................................................................ 125 Corrosive symbol .................................................................................................................................. 127 Toxic symbol......................................................................................................................................... 131 X-ray warning symbol .......................................................................................................................... 137 Alternate x-ray warning symbol........................................................................................................... 139

FIGURE 9.3 Ultrasonic radiation warning symbol ................................................................................................... 142 FIGURE 11.1 CCIB safety certiÞcation mark............................................................................................................. 157 FIGURE 11.2 Basic CCC mark ................................................................................................................................... 165 FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE

11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 14.1 14.2 18.1 18.2 23.1 23.2 23.3 27.1

Basic CCC mark indicating type of certiÞcate .................................................................................... 165 Registered-product standard code number layout................................................................................ 167 Form of the registration number for medical products produced in China ........................................ 169 Form of the registration number for imported products...................................................................... 170 China certiÞcation commission for medical devices (CMD) mark..................................................... 170 Examples of Chinese dates................................................................................................................... 171 CE conformity marking ........................................................................................................................ 206 Alert sign............................................................................................................................................... 209 Example of a trade name containing Japanese and alphanumeric characters..................................... 297 Table of reagents................................................................................................................................... 306 Warning logotype A.............................................................................................................................. 395 Warning logotype B.............................................................................................................................. 396 Declaration of conformity logo. ........................................................................................................... 410 Example of a warning statement .......................................................................................................... 463

List of Tables TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE

2.1 2.2 2.3 4.1

TABLE 7.1

Products Whose Labels Identify Them as Atoxic, Sterile, and Free of Pyrogens................................ 10 Products Included in Article 1 of the Degree No. 2,505/85.................................................................. 10 List of Reference Countries.................................................................................................................... 11 Diseases, Conditions, Ailments, and Defects for Which Advertising of Serious Forms is Restricted............................................................................................................................................. 31 Registrable Therapeutic Devices ............................................................................................................ 34 List of Materials Designated Biological Materials by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS)............................................................................................................... 41 Diseases, Disorders, or Abnormal Physical States ................................................................................ 75

TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE

7.2 7.3 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 11.1 12.1 12.2

Medical Devices Other Than IVDs ClassiÞed According to Rule 16 of Schedule 1, Part 1 ............... 76 IVDs ClassiÞed According to Rule 9 of Schedule 1, Part 2 ................................................................. 77 Medical Devices ClassiÞed as Implants............................................................................................... 105 Menstrual Tampon Absorbency IdentiÞcation ..................................................................................... 108 Marking on the Outside of Medical Electrical Equipment.................................................................. 114 Colors for Indicator Lights and Push Buttons and their Recommended Meanings ........................... 115 Minimum Hazard Symbol and Signal Word Size................................................................................ 122 Minimum Height and Body Size of Type............................................................................................ 122 Required Information for Devices with Substances ClassiÞed as Corrosive...................................... 128 Required Information for Devices with Substances ClassiÞed as Very Corrosive ............................. 130 Required Information for Devices with Substances ClassiÞed as an Irritant ..................................... 131 Required Information for Devices with Substances ClassiÞed as Toxic............................................. 132 Required Information for Devices with Substances ClassiÞed as Harmful ........................................ 133 SpeciÞcation for Standard-Size CCC Mark ......................................................................................... 165 KFDA Authorized Testing Agencies .................................................................................................... 176 KFDA Clinical Trial Agencies ............................................................................................................. 177

TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE

14.1 14.2 14.3 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 16.1 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4

OfÞcial Languages of the European Union ......................................................................................... 197 Key Technical Harmonization Standards for Medical Device Labeling ............................................. 199 Markings to Facilitate Reuse and Recovery of Packaging and Packaging Waste .............................. 213 Examples of Protective-Equipment ClassiÞcation ............................................................................... 216 Examples of Medical Devices/Medicinal Products ............................................................................. 217 Graphical Symbols for Use in Labeling Medical Devices .................................................................. 219 Units Outside the International System that Can be Used on Equipment .......................................... 221 Marking on the Outside of Medical Electrical Equipment.................................................................. 230 Colors for Indicator Lights and Push Buttons and their Recommended Meanings ........................... 231 Examples of Active Implantable Medical Devices .............................................................................. 238 Examples of Recommended Storage-Temperature Intervals ............................................................... 253 Symbols for Marking In Vitro Diagnostic Instruments........................................................................ 257 Hazard Symbols and Indications of Danger ........................................................................................ 269 Minimum Hazard-Label Sizes.............................................................................................................. 271

TABLE 4.2 TABLE 4.3

TABLE 18.1 TABLE 18.2 TABLE 18.1 TABLE 18.2 TABLE 18.3 TABLE 18.4 TABLE 18.5 TABLE 21.1 TABLE 21.2 TABLE 21.3 TABLE 21.4 TABLE 21.5 TABLE 21.6 TABLE 22.1 TABLE 25.1 TABLE 25.2 TABLE 27.1 TABLE 28.1 TABLE 28.2 TABLE A.1 TABLE B.1 TABLE B.2 TABLE B.3 TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE

B.4 B.5 B.6 B.7 C.1 D.1 E.1 E.2

TABLE E.3 TABLE E.4 TABLE E.5 TABLE E.6 TABLE E.7 TABLE F.1

Summary of the Regulatory Requirements for the Four Classes of Medical Devices in Japan ................................................................................................................................... 277 Designated Medical Devices in Japan.................................................................................................. 278 Medical Devices Subject to Japanese Mandatory Performance Standards ......................................... 293 Medical Devices Subject to Japanese Approval Standards ................................................................. 293 Warnings and Directions by Device Category .....................................................................................296 Markings on the Outside of Medical Electrical Equipment ................................................................ 301 Colors for Indicator Lights and Push Buttons and their Recommended Meanings ........................... 302 Type Size as a Function of Label Area for OTC Devices................................................................... 343 U.S. Abbreviations for Weights and Measures .................................................................................... 344 OTC Device Labeling in Terms of Weight or Liquid Measure........................................................... 344 OTC Device Labeling in Terms of Linear or Area Measure............................................................... 345 U.S. Symbols And Abbreviations for Weights and Measures ............................................................. 346 SI and Customary Inch-Pound Conversion Factors ............................................................................. 347 Minimum Type Size Requirements ...................................................................................................... 379 Menstrual Tampon Terms of Absorbency ............................................................................................ 448 Minimum Type Size Requirements ...................................................................................................... 449 Examples of Cluttered Language ......................................................................................................... 466 International (ISO) Paper Sizes ............................................................................................................ 473 Safety Colors and Contrast Colors....................................................................................................... 476 U.S. Department of Commerce NAICS ClassiÞcations ...................................................................... 480 Goods Declared to Not be Therapeutic Goods .................................................................................... 485 Goods Declared to be Drugs ................................................................................................................ 486 Therapeutic Goods Exempt From Registration or Listing on the Australian Registry of Therapeutic Goods .......................................................................................................................... 486 Therapeutic Goods Exempt from the Operation of Part 3 of the Act Subject to Conditions ............ 487 SpeciÞc Listable Device Policies ......................................................................................................... 489 Goods Exempt From Licensing to Manufacturer ................................................................................ 489 Persons Exempt from Licensing as Manufacturers ............................................................................. 490 International Symbols for Medical Device Marking ........................................................................... 492 KFDA Categories of Medical Devices................................................................................................. 497 Japanese MHWL Categories of Medical Devices ............................................................................... 518 Japanese MHLW Medical Devices Exempted From Approval on a Product-by-Product Basis ............................................................................................................. 524 Japanese MHLW Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) for Medical Devices ...................................... 527 Japanese MHLW Medical Devices Subject to the Partial License (Kubun-kyoka) System............... 534 Japanese MHLW Medical Devices Exempted from the Requirements of Medical Device Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)................................................................... 535 Japanese MHLW Medical Devices to be Approved by Prefectural Governor.................................... 537 Japanese MHLW Devices for Which Labeling Exceptions are Permitted.......................................... 538 U.S. DHHS Medical Device ClassiÞcations ........................................................................................ 540

Contents PART I Negotiating a Common Understanding Chapter 1

The Global Market for Healthcare Technology ............................................................................................ 3

Technology and the Healthcare Delivery System..................................................................................................... 3 Industry and the Global Market ................................................................................................................................ 4 Industry Composition ................................................................................................................................................ 4 Industry and Regulation ............................................................................................................................................ 5

PART II Argentina and Brazil Chapter 2

Argentina........................................................................................................................................................ 9

Background and General Intent of the Law ............................................................................................................. 9 Scope of the Regulations........................................................................................................................................... 9 Bringing Devices to Market in Argentina............................................................................................................... 10 Importing Products......................................................................................................................................... 11 Technical Director.......................................................................................................................................... 12 Adulteration and Misbranding................................................................................................................................. 12 General Requirements for Labeling of Medical Devices ....................................................................................... 13 Packaging and Labeling Materials ................................................................................................................ 13 Considerations for Sterile Packing ................................................................................................................ 14 Arrangement of Labels .................................................................................................................................. 14 Package Label Contents................................................................................................................................. 14 Language Requirements................................................................................................................................. 14 Device Reuse ........................................................................................................................................................... 15 Device Reprocessing ............................................................................................................................................... 15 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................... 15 Chapter 3

Brazil............................................................................................................................................................ 17

Background and General Intent of the Law ........................................................................................................... 17 Scope of the Regulations......................................................................................................................................... 17 Bringing Devices to Market in Brazil..................................................................................................................... 18 Product Registration....................................................................................................................................... 18 Import of Medical Products........................................................................................................................... 19 Misbranding ............................................................................................................................................................. 20 General Labeling Provisions ................................................................................................................................... 20 Language Requirements................................................................................................................................. 20 Minimum Labeling Requirements ................................................................................................................. 20 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................... 20

PART III Australia Chapter 4

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia .................................................................................................... 25

Background and General Intent of the Law ........................................................................................................... 26

The Therapeutic Goods Amendment of 2002......................................................................................................... 26 Scope of the TGA Regulations ............................................................................................................................... 27 The Regulations ....................................................................................................................................................... 27 Labels and Labeling ................................................................................................................................................ 27 Labeling and Advertising ........................................................................................................................................ 28 Adulteration and Misbranding................................................................................................................................. 28 False or Misleading Labeling.................................................................................................................................. 29 Advertising and Promotion...................................................................................................................................... 29 Bringing Devices to Market in Australia ................................................................................................................ 32 Registration of Therapeutic Devices.............................................................................................................. 33 Claiming Equivalence to a Registered Device .............................................................................................. 35 Listing of Therapeutic Devices...................................................................................................................... 37 Claiming Equivalence to a Listed Device ..................................................................................................... 38 Licensing of Therapeutic Goods Manufacturers ........................................................................................... 39 Commencing the Supply of a Registered or Listed Device .........................................................................40 Export of Therapeutic Devices................................................................................................................................ 40 Import of Therapeutic Devices................................................................................................................................ 40 Standards For Therapeutic Devices......................................................................................................................... 41 Exemptions For Special and Experimental Uses.................................................................................................... 42 Investigational Use......................................................................................................................................... 42 Clinical Trial NotiÞcation (CTN) Scheme........................................................................................... 42 Clinical Trial Exemption (CTE) Scheme............................................................................................. 43 Custom Devices ............................................................................................................................................. 43 Goods Exempted for Regulatory Purposes ................................................................................................... 44 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................... 44 Chapter 5

General Therapeutic Device Labeling in Australia..................................................................................... 45

Misbranding ............................................................................................................................................................. 45 Adequate Directions for Use................................................................................................................................... 45 General Requirements for Labels for Therapeutic Devices ................................................................................... 46 Presentation Requirements (§4(2)(c))............................................................................................................ 46 General Labeling Requirements .................................................................................................................... 47 Name of the Therapeutic Device (§7(a))....................................................................................................... 47 Name and Place of Business (§ 7(b))............................................................................................................ 47 Batch or Serial Number (§7(c))..................................................................................................................... 48 Multiple Devices in a Package (§7(d)).......................................................................................................... 48 Labeling of Sterile Devices and Nonsterile Implantable Therapeutic Devices............................................ 48 Unit Packages (§10)....................................................................................................................................... 49 Outer Packages (§13)..................................................................................................................................... 50 Small Packages (§11)..................................................................................................................................... 50 Individually Wrapped Goods (§12) ............................................................................................................... 50 Transparent Packages (§§14 and 15)............................................................................................................. 51 In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Goods ............................................................................................................................ 51 Devices Supplied for Home Use and as a Commonwealth Pharmaceutical BeneÞt ................................... 52 Devices Incorporating Material of Human Origin ........................................................................................ 52 Devices Used for the Diagnosis of Infection with Human ImmunodeÞciency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)......................................................................................................................... 52 Application of the Registration Number................................................................................................................. 52 Labeling of Components and Kits .......................................................................................................................... 52 Information to be Supplied For SpeciÞc Registrable Devices ............................................................................... 53 Heart-Valve Prostheses................................................................................................................................... 53 Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMDs)............................................................................................. 53 Drug-Infusion System (Powered, nonimplantable) ....................................................................................... 54 Breast Prostheses (Not Saline or Water) ....................................................................................................... 54

Therapeutic Devices of Animal Origin ......................................................................................................... 54 Therapeutic Devices of Human Origin ......................................................................................................... 54 Intraocular Lenses (IOLs).............................................................................................................................. 55 Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices (IUCDs) ................................................................................................ 55 Barrier Contraceptive Devices ....................................................................................................................... 56 Saline Breast Prostheses ................................................................................................................................ 56 HIV/HVC IVD Kits ....................................................................................................................................... 56 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................... 56 Chapter 6

The Therapeutic Goods Amendment of 2002............................................................................................. 59

Scope of the New Regulation.................................................................................................................................. 60 The Approach................................................................................................................................................. 60 Device ClassiÞcation...................................................................................................................................... 60 Essential Principles ........................................................................................................................................ 61 Standards ........................................................................................................................................................ 61 Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG)...................................................................................... 61 Export of Medical Devices ............................................................................................................................ 62 Import of Medical Devices ............................................................................................................................ 62 Postmarket Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 62 Essential Principles for Labeling ............................................................................................................................ 62 General Requirements.................................................................................................................................... 63 Language Requirement .................................................................................................................................. 63 Labeling Format ............................................................................................................................................. 63 Label Requirements ....................................................................................................................................... 63 Instructions-for-Use Requirements ................................................................................................................ 64 Medical Devices Used for a Special Purpose ............................................................................................... 66 Custom-Made Medical Devices..................................................................................................................... 66 Devices Intended for Clinical Investigations or Experimental Purposes...................................................... 66 System or Procedure Pack ............................................................................................................................. 67 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................... 67

PART IV Canada and Mexico Chapter 7

The Food and Drugs Act of Canada ........................................................................................................... 71

Background and General Intent of the Law ........................................................................................................... 71 Scope of the Therapeutic Product Directorate Regulations.................................................................................... 73 The Regulations ....................................................................................................................................................... 73 Labels and Labeling ................................................................................................................................................ 73 Labeling and Advertising ........................................................................................................................................ 74 Adulteration and Misbranding................................................................................................................................. 74 False or Misleading Labeling.................................................................................................................................. 74 Advertising and Promotion...................................................................................................................................... 75 Bringing Devices to Market in Canada................................................................................................................... 76 Device ClassiÞcation...................................................................................................................................... 76 Establishment License.................................................................................................................................... 77 Distribution Records ...................................................................................................................................... 78 Complaint Handling....................................................................................................................................... 78 Mandatory Problem Reporting ...................................................................................................................... 78 Implant Registration....................................................................................................................................... 79 Safety and Effectiveness Requirements......................................................................................................... 79 Class I Medical Devices ................................................................................................................................ 81

Class II, III and IV Medical Devices ............................................................................................................ 81 Device License ..................................................................................................................................... 81 General Requirements for a Medical Device License Application..................................................... 81 Class II Medical Device License Application ..................................................................................... 82 Class III Medical Device License Application .................................................................................... 82 Class IV Medical Device License Application....................................................................................83 Amended Medical Device License Application .................................................................................. 84 Issuance of License .............................................................................................................................. 85 Foreign Manufacturers ......................................................................................................................... 85 Standards for Medical Devices ............................................................................................................................... 85 Recognition of Standards............................................................................................................................... 86 Use of Recognized Standards ........................................................................................................................ 87 Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) ................................................................................................................ 88 Sale of Custom-made Devices and Medical Devices For Special Access.............................................................89 Export of Medical Devices...................................................................................................................................... 90 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................... 90 Chapter 8

General Medical Device Labeling in Canada ............................................................................................. 93

Misbranding ............................................................................................................................................................. 93 General Labeling Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 93 Device IdentiÞcation ...................................................................................................................................... 94 Instructions for Use (IFU) ............................................................................................................................. 95 Sterile Devices or Devices with a Limited Life............................................................................................ 96 Class III or IV Devices .................................................................................................................................. 97 Prominence of Required Information...................................................................................................................... 97 Requirements for Medical Devices Intended to Be Sold to the General Public at a Self-Service Display ......... 97 Language Requirements .......................................................................................................................................... 97 In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices.......................................................................................................................... 98 Package Insert ................................................................................................................................................ 98 Device IdentiÞcation ............................................................................................................................ 98 Instructions for Use (IFU).................................................................................................................... 98 Sterile Devices or Devices with a Limited Life ................................................................................ 101 Class III or IV Devices ...................................................................................................................... 102 Other Material .................................................................................................................................... 102 Immediate Container Label ......................................................................................................................... 102 Device IdentiÞcation .......................................................................................................................... 102 Instructions for Use (IFU).................................................................................................................. 102 Sterile Devices or Devices with a Limited Life ................................................................................ 103 Class III or IV Devices ...................................................................................................................... 103 Reagent Label .............................................................................................................................................. 103 Device IdentiÞcation .......................................................................................................................... 103 Instructions for Use (IFU).................................................................................................................. 104 Sterile Devices or Devices with a Limited Life ................................................................................ 104 Class III or IV Devices ...................................................................................................................... 104 Labeling for IVD Devices Containing Explosive Materials or Components............................................. 104 Implant-Registration Card ..................................................................................................................................... 105 Labeling for Investigational Devices..................................................................................................................... 106 Labeling of Custom-made Devices and Medical Devices for Special Access .................................................... 106 Export of Medical Devices.................................................................................................................................... 107 Special Labeling Requirements for SpeciÞc Devices........................................................................................... 107 Labeling for Soft Contact Lenses................................................................................................................ 107 Labeling for Menstrual Tampons................................................................................................................. 108 Labeling for Contraceptive Devices ............................................................................................................ 109 Individual Containers for Contraceptives Devices ............................................................................ 109

Contraceptive Effectiveness ............................................................................................................... 109 Prophylactic Effectiveness.................................................................................................................. 110 Individual Containers for Synthetic Condoms................................................................................... 110 Instructions for Use (IFU) of a Synthetic Condom........................................................................... 110 Labeling for Medical Gloves ....................................................................................................................... 110 Examination Gloves Only (Sterile And Non-Sterile) ........................................................................ 110 Material of Manufacture..................................................................................................................... 111 Powdered Natural Rubber Latex........................................................................................................ 111 Powderless Natural Rubber Latex...................................................................................................... 111 Natural-Rubber Latex with a Thin Inner Polyurethane Coating....................................................... 112 Bilayer Neoprene-Latex Rubber ........................................................................................................ 112 Neoprene............................................................................................................................................. 112 PolyoleÞn or Other Thin Film Copolymer ........................................................................................ 112 Vinyl ................................................................................................................................................... 112 Hydrocarbon Polymer ........................................................................................................................ 112 Labeling for Medical Electrical Equipment ................................................................................................ 112 Markings on Electromedical Equipment ...........................................................................................113 Documents Accompanying Electromedical Equipment .................................................................... 116 Instructions for Use (IFU).................................................................................................................. 116 Technical Description......................................................................................................................... 117 Guidance on Labeling Devices in Pressurized Containers .........................................................................118 Principal Display Panel................................................................................................................................ 118 Manner of Disclosing Required Information .............................................................................................. 119 Placement of Information on Display Panels .................................................................................... 119 Hazard Symbols ................................................................................................................................. 121 Signal Words....................................................................................................................................... 121 Primary Hazard Statements................................................................................................................ 122 Additional Hazard Statements, Negative and Positive Instructions, and First Aid Statements........ 122 Small Packages ............................................................................................................................................ 122 Labeling for Home-Use Devices ................................................................................................................. 123 Devices with Contents under Pressure ........................................................................................................ 123 Labeling for Flammable Products ............................................................................................................... 124 Devices with Combustible or Spontaneously Combustible Contents ............................................... 125 Devices with Flammable Contents .................................................................................................... 126 Devices with Very Flammable Contents............................................................................................ 126 Labeling for Corrosive Products.................................................................................................................. 127 Devices with Corrosive Contents....................................................................................................... 127 Devices with Very Corrosive Contents .............................................................................................. 129 Devices with Contents ClassiÞed as an Irritant................................................................................. 129 Labeling for Toxic Products ........................................................................................................................ 129 Devices with Contents ClassiÞed as Toxic........................................................................................ 129 Devices with Contents ClassiÞed as Harmful ................................................................................... 132 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 134 Chapter 9

Radiation-Emitting Device Labeling in Canada ....................................................................................... 135

Background and General Intent of the Law ......................................................................................................... 135 The Regulations ..................................................................................................................................................... 135 Labels and Labeling .............................................................................................................................................. 136 Labeling Requirements for Radiation-Emitting Products..................................................................................... 136 Dental X-ray Equipment with an Extra-Oral Source.................................................................................. 136 Labeling .............................................................................................................................................. 137 Instructions for Use (IFU).................................................................................................................. 138 Photoßuorographic X-Ray Equipment ........................................................................................................ 138 Labeling .............................................................................................................................................. 138

Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment...................................................................................................................... 139 Labeling .............................................................................................................................................. 139 Instructions for Use (IFU).................................................................................................................. 140 Ultrasound-Therapy Devices ....................................................................................................................... 141 Labeling .............................................................................................................................................. 141 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 142 Chapter 10 Mexico ....................................................................................................................................................... 143 Background and General Intent of the Law ......................................................................................................... 144 Scope of the Regulations....................................................................................................................................... 144 Bringing Devices to Market in Mexico ................................................................................................................ 145 Product Registration..................................................................................................................................... 145 Qualifying for Sale to the Mexican Government........................................................................................ 147 Misbranding ........................................................................................................................................................... 149 General Labeling Provisions ................................................................................................................................. 149 Types of Packaging ...................................................................................................................................... 149 Minimum Labeling Requirements ............................................................................................................... 150 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 151

PART V China, Korea, and Thailand Chapter 11 People’s Republic of China....................................................................................................................... 155 Background and General Intent of the Law ......................................................................................................... 155 Scope of the Regulations....................................................................................................................................... 156 Misbranding ........................................................................................................................................................... 157 Bringing Devices to Market in China ................................................................................................................... 158 Medical Devices Manufactured in China .................................................................................................... 158 Medical Device Registration .............................................................................................................. 158 Class I Devices ................................................................................................................................... 158 Class II and III Devices ..................................................................................................................... 159 Drug/Device Combinations ................................................................................................................ 160 Medical Devices Imported into China......................................................................................................... 160 Business Licensing and Quality-System Approval ..................................................................................... 162 Production License ............................................................................................................................. 162 Operation License............................................................................................................................... 162 Quality System ................................................................................................................................... 163 Registration CertiÞcate Alteration ............................................................................................................... 163 Compulsory Product CertiÞcation System (CPCS) .................................................................................... 164 Medical Product Standards .......................................................................................................................... 166 Postmarket Surveillance............................................................................................................................... 167 Medical Devices Exported from China ....................................................................................................... 167 Investigational Use ................................................................................................................................................ 168 Advertising and Promotion.................................................................................................................................... 168 General Labeling Provisions ................................................................................................................................. 168 Product Manual ............................................................................................................................................ 168 The Acknowledgment Symbol for Medical Equipment.............................................................................. 169 The Chinese Language .......................................................................................................................................... 169 Chinese Writing ........................................................................................................................................... 170 The Chinese Calendar.................................................................................................................................. 171 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 171 Chapter 12 Republic of Korea...................................................................................................................................... 173 Background and General Intent of the Law ......................................................................................................... 173

Scope of the Regulations....................................................................................................................................... 174 Labeling and Advertising ...................................................................................................................................... 175 Bringing Devices to Market in Korea................................................................................................................... 175 Premarket NotiÞcation ................................................................................................................................. 175 Premarket Approval...................................................................................................................................... 175 Clinical Trials............................................................................................................................................... 176 Importing Products....................................................................................................................................... 176 Grandfathered Products................................................................................................................................ 177 General Requirements for Labeling of Medical Devices ..................................................................................... 178 Adequate Directions for Use ....................................................................................................................... 178 Package Label .............................................................................................................................................. 178 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 178 Chapter 13 Thailand ..................................................................................................................................................... 181 Background and General Intent of the Law ......................................................................................................... 181 Scope of the Regulations....................................................................................................................................... 181 Adulteration and Misbranding............................................................................................................................... 182 Bringing Devices to Market in Thailand .............................................................................................................. 183 Device Registration ...................................................................................................................................... 183 Device NotiÞcation ...................................................................................................................................... 184 General Medical Devices............................................................................................................................. 184 Required Postmarket Reporting................................................................................................................... 184 Thai Labeling Requirements ................................................................................................................................. 185 Labels ........................................................................................................................................................... 185 Accompanying Documents .......................................................................................................................... 185 Language Requirements............................................................................................................................... 186 Expiration Dates........................................................................................................................................... 186 Advertising............................................................................................................................................................. 186 In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices........................................................................................................................ 186 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 187

PART VI European Union Chapter 14 The European Medical Device Directives ................................................................................................ 191 Background and General Intent of the Law ......................................................................................................... 192 Mutual Recognition Agreements........................................................................................................................... 193 Australia ....................................................................................................................................................... 194 Switzerland................................................................................................................................................... 194 Scope of the European Union Regulation ............................................................................................................ 194 The Medical Device Directive (MDD)........................................................................................................ 195 Active Implantable Medical Device Directive (AIMDD)........................................................................... 195 In Vitro Diagnostic Device Directive (IVDD)............................................................................................. 195 Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive (R&TTED).......................... 195 Labels and Labeling .............................................................................................................................................. 196 Language Requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 197 Standards................................................................................................................................................................ 197 Bringing a Device to Market in the European Union .......................................................................................... 198 Devices Conforming to the Essential Requirements................................................................................... 200 Conformity Assessment...................................................................................................................... 200 NotiÞed Bodies................................................................................................................................... 200 Competent Authorities........................................................................................................................ 201 Devices for Clinical Evaluations ................................................................................................................. 202

Devices for Performance Evaluation or Reevaluation ................................................................................ 202 Custom-Made Devices ................................................................................................................................. 202 Devices for Trade Fairs, Exhibitions, and Demonstrations ........................................................................ 203 Postmarket Surveillance and Vigilance ................................................................................................................. 203 Postmarket Surveillance............................................................................................................................... 203 Vigilance....................................................................................................................................................... 204 The Safeguard Clause .................................................................................................................................. 205 CE Marking of Conformity................................................................................................................................... 206 CE Conformity Marking on Devices Covered by the MDD ...................................................................... 207 CE Conformity Marking on Devices Covered by the AIMDD .................................................................. 207 CE Conformity Marking on Devices Covered by the IVDD ..................................................................... 208 CE Conformity Marking on Devices Covered by the R&TTED ............................................................... 208 CE Conformity Marking on Devices Covered by Overlapping Directives ................................................ 209 Investigational Device Marking ............................................................................................................................ 210 Performance-Evaluation Device Marking ............................................................................................................. 210 Custom-Made Device Marking ............................................................................................................................. 210 Other Directives of Interest ................................................................................................................................... 211 Proprietary Medicinal Products ................................................................................................................... 211 Low-Voltage Equipment .............................................................................................................................. 211 Machinery..................................................................................................................................................... 211 Dangerous Substances.................................................................................................................................. 211 Packaging and Packaging Waste.................................................................................................................. 212 Local Requirements ............................................................................................................................................... 213 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 213 Chapter 15 The Medical Device Directive (MDD) ..................................................................................................... 215 Device ClassiÞcation ............................................................................................................................................. 217 Misbranding ........................................................................................................................................................... 218 General Labeling Provisions ................................................................................................................................. 218 Controls and Displays (§12.9) ..................................................................................................................... 220 Intended Purpose (§13.4)............................................................................................................................. 220 Devices with a Measuring Function...................................................................................................................... 221 Measurement, Monitoring, and Display Scales (§10.2).............................................................................. 221 Units of Measure (§10.3)............................................................................................................................. 221 Particulars on the Label......................................................................................................................................... 221 Manufacturer IdentiÞcation (§13.3(a)) ........................................................................................................ 222 Identity of the Device (§13.3(b))................................................................................................................. 222 Sterile Device Marking (§§13.3(c), 13.3(m), and 8.7) ............................................................................... 222 Product IdentiÞcation (§§13.3(d) and 13.5) ................................................................................................ 223 Expiration Dating (§13.3(e))........................................................................................................................ 223 Year of Manufacture (§13.3(l)).................................................................................................................... 223 Single-Use Devices (§13.3(f)) ..................................................................................................................... 223 Storage and Handling Conditions (§13.3(i)) ............................................................................................... 223 Special Operating Instructions (§13.3(j)) .................................................................................................... 224 Warnings and Precautions (§13.3(k)) .......................................................................................................... 224 Markings for Special-Purpose Devices (§§13.3(g) and 13.3(h))................................................................ 224 Devices Incorporating Stable Human Blood Derivatives (§13.3(n)).......................................................... 224 Instructions for Use (IFU)..................................................................................................................................... 224 Particulars from the Label (§13.6(a)) .......................................................................................................... 225 Performance Intended by the Manufacturer (§13.6(b)) .............................................................................. 225 Connection to Other Medical Devices (§§9.1 and 13.6(c))........................................................................225 Installation and Maintenance (§13.6(d)) ..................................................................................................... 225 Reciprocal Interference (§13.6(f)) ............................................................................................................... 226 Sterile Packaging (§13.6(g)) ........................................................................................................................ 226

Reusable Devices (§13.6(h))........................................................................................................................ 226 Device Preparation (§13.6(i)) ...................................................................................................................... 226 Radiation-Emitting Devices (§§11.4.1 and 13.6(j)) .................................................................................... 226 Implantable Devices (§13.6(e)) ................................................................................................................... 226 Patient Information ................................................................................................................................................ 227 Changes in Performance (§13.6(k))............................................................................................................. 227 Exposure to Environmental Conditions (§13.6(l)) ...................................................................................... 227 Administration of Medicinal Products (§13.6(m))...................................................................................... 227 Disposal of the Device (§13.6(n)) ............................................................................................................... 227 Medicinal Substances Incorporated into the Device (§13.6(o)) ................................................................. 227 Measuring Accuracy (§13.6(p)) ................................................................................................................... 227 Special Labeling Requirements for SpeciÞc Devices........................................................................................... 228 Markings on Medical Electrical Equipment................................................................................................ 228 Documents Accompanying Medical Electrical Equipment......................................................................... 232 Instructions for Use (IFU).................................................................................................................. 232 Technical Description......................................................................................................................... 233 Medical Electrical Systems ................................................................................................................ 234 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 235 Chapter 16 The Active Implantable Medical Device Directive (AIMDD) ................................................................. 237 Misbranding ........................................................................................................................................................... 238 General Labeling Provisions ................................................................................................................................. 238 Product IdentiÞcation (§11) ......................................................................................................................... 239 Noninvasive IdentiÞcation (§12).................................................................................................................. 239 Controls and Displays (§13) ........................................................................................................................ 239 Particulars on the Sterile Package Label............................................................................................................... 240 Manufacturer IdentiÞcation (§14.1(iii))....................................................................................................... 240 Identity of the Device (§14.1(iv))................................................................................................................ 240 Sterile Device Marking (§§14.1(i), 14.1(ii), and 14.1(vii)) ........................................................................ 240 Expiration Dating (§14.1(ix)) ...................................................................................................................... 241 Date of Manufacture (§14.1(viii)) ............................................................................................................... 241 Connection to Other Devices (§9.(iv)) ........................................................................................................ 241 Markings for Special-Purpose Devices (§§14.1(v) and 14.1(vi))............................................................... 241 Particulars on the Sales Package Label................................................................................................................. 242 Manufacturer IdentiÞcation (§14.2(i)) ......................................................................................................... 242 Identity of the Device (§§14.2(ii), 14.2(iii), and 14.2(iv)) ......................................................................... 242 Sterile Device Marking (§14.2(vii)) ............................................................................................................ 243 Expiration Dating (§14.2(ix)) ...................................................................................................................... 243 Date of Manufacture (§14.2(viii)) ............................................................................................................... 243 Storage and Handling Conditions (§14.2(x)) .............................................................................................. 243 Connection to Other Devices (§9(iv)) ......................................................................................................... 243 Device Containing Radioactive Substances (§8(v)).................................................................................... 243 Markings for Special-Purpose Devices (§§14.2(v) and 14.2(vi))............................................................... 243 Instructions for Use (IFU)..................................................................................................................................... 244 Particulars from the Labels (§15(ii)) ........................................................................................................... 244 Performances Intended by the Manufacturer (§15(iii)) .............................................................................. 244 Selecting a Suitable Device (§15(iv)).......................................................................................................... 245 Device Operation (§15(v))........................................................................................................................... 245 Reciprocal Interference (§§15(vii) and 8(iv)) ............................................................................................. 245 Sterile Packaging (§15(viii))........................................................................................................................ 245 Reusable Devices (§15(ix)).......................................................................................................................... 246 Implantable Devices (§15(vi)) ..................................................................................................................... 246 Year of Authorization to AfÞx the CE Mark (§15(i))................................................................................. 246 Device Containing Radioactive Substances (§8(v)).................................................................................... 246

Medicinal Substances Incorporated into the Device (§10.) ........................................................................ 246 Noninvasive IdentiÞcation (§12.)................................................................................................................. 246 Patient Information ................................................................................................................................................ 246 Lifetime of the Energy Source (§15(x))...................................................................................................... 247 Changes in Performance (§15(xi)) .............................................................................................................. 247 Exposure to Environmental Conditions (§15(xii)) ...................................................................................... 247 Administration of Medicinal Products (§15(xiii)) ...................................................................................... 247 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 247 Chapter 17 The In Vitro Diagnostic Device Directive (IVDD) ................................................................................... 249 Improper Labeling ................................................................................................................................................. 249 General Labeling Provisions ................................................................................................................................. 250 Intended Purpose (§8.5)............................................................................................................................... 250 IVDs Intended for “Self-Testing” (§7)........................................................................................................ 250 Product IdentiÞcation (§8.6) ........................................................................................................................ 250 Devices with a Measuring Function...................................................................................................................... 250 Measurement, Monitoring, and Display Scales (§3.6)................................................................................ 251 Units of Measure (§9.2)............................................................................................................................... 251 Particulars on the Label of Reagents .................................................................................................................... 251 Immediate Container.................................................................................................................................... 251 Product Name (§13.4(b)) ................................................................................................................... 252 Manufacturer (Supplier) (§8.4(a))...................................................................................................... 252 Lot Number (§8.4(d))......................................................................................................................... 252 Expiration Date (§8.4(e)) ................................................................................................................... 252 Contents (§8.4(b)) .............................................................................................................................. 252 Intended Use (§§8.4(b), 8.4(g), and 8.4(k)) ...................................................................................... 252 Cautionary Statements (§8.4(j)) ......................................................................................................... 252 Storage Information (§8.4(h)) ............................................................................................................ 253 Sterile Device Marking (§8.4(c)) ....................................................................................................... 253 Markings for Investigational Use (§8.4(f))........................................................................................ 253 Outer Container............................................................................................................................................ 253 Product Name (8.4(b)) ....................................................................................................................... 253 Manufacturer (Supplier) (§8.4(a))...................................................................................................... 253 Lot Number (§8.4(d))......................................................................................................................... 254 Expiration date (§8.4(e)) .................................................................................................................... 254 Contents (§8.4(b)) .............................................................................................................................. 254 Identity of the Device and Intended Use (§§8.4(b), 8.4(g), and 8.4(k)) .......................................... 254 Cautionary Statements (§8.4(j)) ......................................................................................................... 254 Storage Information (§8.4(h)) ............................................................................................................ 254 Special Operating Instructions (§ 8.4(i)) ........................................................................................... 255 Sterile Device Marking (§8.4(c)) ....................................................................................................... 255 Markings for Investigational Use (§8.3(f))........................................................................................ 255 Particulars on the Label of IVD Instruments and Equipment.............................................................................. 255 Product Name (§13.4(b)) ................................................................................................................... 256 Manufacturer (Supplier) (§8.4(a))...................................................................................................... 256 Lot Number (§8.4(d))......................................................................................................................... 256 Expiration Date (§8.4(e)) ................................................................................................................... 256 Intended Use (§§8.4(b), 8.4(g), and 8.4(k)) ...................................................................................... 257 Warning Markings (§8.4(j)) ............................................................................................................... 257 Other Markings (§8.4(i)) .................................................................................................................... 258 Markings for Investigational Use (§8.4(f))........................................................................................ 260 Instructions for Use (IFU)..................................................................................................................................... 260 Instructions for Use for Reagents................................................................................................................ 261 Particulars from the Labels (§8.7(a))................................................................................................. 261

Application and Intended Use (§8.7(d)) ............................................................................................ 261 Composition of Reagents (§8.7(b)).................................................................................................... 261 Additional Materials and Devices (§8.7(e)) ...................................................................................... 261 Methodology (§8.7(h)(1))................................................................................................................... 261 Performance Criteria, Limitations, and Possible Errors (§§8.7(d), 8.7(h)(2), and 13.7(h)(4)) ........ 262 Reagent Preparation (§8.7(h)(3)) ....................................................................................................... 262 Storage and Shelf Life after Opening (§§8.7(c) and 8.7(j)) ............................................................. 262 Specimens (§8.7(f)) ............................................................................................................................ 262 Test Procedure (§8.7(g))..................................................................................................................... 262 Reading and Explanation of Results (§§8.7(i), 8.7(k)(1), 8.7(k)(2), and 8.7 (l))............................. 262 Follow-up Action (§§8.7(t)(1), 8.7(t)(3), and 8.7(t)(4)) .................................................................... 263 Precautions and Warnings (§8.7(s)) ................................................................................................... 263 Sterile Package (§§8.7(o) and 8.7(p))................................................................................................ 263 Radiation-Emitting Products (§5.3) ................................................................................................... 263 Literature References (§§8.7(h), 8.7(i), 8.7(k), and 8.7(l)) ............................................................... 263 Particular Information that May Be Omitted (§8.7(t)(2)) ................................................................. 263 Date of Issue for the Instructions for Use (IFU) (§8.7(u)) ............................................................... 264 Instructions for Use (IFU) for Instruments and Equipment ....................................................................... 264 Particulars from the Labels (§8.7(a))................................................................................................. 264 Application and Intended Use (§8.7(d)) ............................................................................................ 264 Additional Materials (§8.7(e)) ........................................................................................................... 265 Methodology (§8.7(h)(1))................................................................................................................... 265 Performance Criteria, Limitations, and Possible Errors (§§8.7(h)(2) and 8.7(h)(4)) ....................... 265 Specimens (§8.7(f)) ............................................................................................................................ 265 Instrument Operation and Test Procedure (§8.7(g)).......................................................................... 265 Reading and Explaning of Results (§§8.7(i) and 8.7(l)) ................................................................... 266 Follow-Up Action (§§8.7(t)(1), 8.7(t)(3) and 8.7(t)(4)) .................................................................... 266 Internal Quality Control (§8.7(k))...................................................................................................... 266 Literature References (§§8.7(h), 8.7(i), 8.7(k), and 8.7(l)) ............................................................... 266 Installation, Calibration, and Changes in Performance (§§8.7(n), 8.7(q), and 8.7(j)) ..................... 266 Technical SpeciÞcation (§§8.7(h)(2) and 8.7(r)) ............................................................................... 268 Particular Information that May Be Omitted (§8.7(t)(2)) ................................................................. 268 Date of Issue for the Instructions for Use (IFU) (§8.7(u)) ............................................................... 268 Devices Incorporating Dangerous Substances ...................................................................................................... 269 Hazardous Substance Labeling (Article 23)................................................................................................ 269 Implementation of Labeling Requirements (Article 24)............................................................................. 270 Exemptions from Labeling and Packaging Requirements (Article 25)...................................................... 271 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 271

PART VII Japan Chapter 18 The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of Japan ................................................................................................ 275 1994 Revision to the PAL ..................................................................................................................................... 275 The Regulations ..................................................................................................................................................... 276 Enforcement Ordinance of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (EOPAL)...................................................... 278 Enforcement Regulations of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (ERPALs) .................................................. 278 Adulteration and Misbranding............................................................................................................................... 279 False or Misleading Labeling................................................................................................................................ 279 Advertising and Promotion.................................................................................................................................... 279 Exhibitions for Specialists Promoting Academic Research........................................................................280 Exhibitions for the General Public Promotion of ScientiÞc/Technical Issues and/or Related Industry .... 281 Exhibitions for the General Public Providing General Information........................................................... 281

In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Products ...................................................................................................................... 282 Bringing Devices to Market In Japan ................................................................................................................... 282 Medical Device Manufacturer’s (Importer’s) License ................................................................................ 282 Medical Device Approval ............................................................................................................................ 283 Determine Substantial Equivalence and Reexamination............................................................................. 284 Changes in Approved Devices..................................................................................................................... 285 Medical Device Approval for Imported Products ....................................................................................... 286 Role of the Prefecture Governments ........................................................................................................... 286 Medical Device Approval for Products Manufactured by Foreigners ........................................................ 287 Designated Medical Devices ................................................................................................................................. 287 Medical Device Vigilance...................................................................................................................................... 287 Adverse Event Reporting............................................................................................................................. 288 Device Tracking ........................................................................................................................................... 288 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 288 Chapter 19 General Medical Device Labeling in Japan .............................................................................................. 291 Misbranding ........................................................................................................................................................... 291 General Labeling Provisions ................................................................................................................................. 291 Immediate Container (PAL Article 63) ....................................................................................................... 292 Name and Address of the Manufacturer or Importer (ERPALs Article 61) ..................................... 292 Performance Standards Established by Ordinance (ERPALs Article 60–2, Item 1) ........................ 292 Approval Standards Established by Ordinance (ERPALs Article 60–2, Item 1).............................. 293 Medical Devices Manufactured in Foreign Countries (ERPALs Article 60–2, Item 2)................... 293 Package Insert (PAL Article 52).................................................................................................................. 294 Warnings and Directions for Use (PAL Article 52, Item 1) ............................................................. 294 Warnings and Directions for Use by Device Category (PAL Article 52, Item 3)............................ 296 Warnings and Directions for Use SpeciÞed by Ordinance (PAL Article 52, Item 4) ...................... 296 Prominence of Required Statements (PAL Article 53) ..................................................................... 296 Language Requirement (ERPALs Articles 58 and 62) ...............................................................................296 Trade Names .......................................................................................................................................................... 297 Export of Medical Devices (ERPALS Article 66)................................................................................................ 297 Import of Medical Devices (ERPALS Articles 53–2, Item 3, and 60–2, Item 2) ............................................... 298 Testing of Medical Devices (ERPALS Article 43) ............................................................................................... 298 Clinical Trials (Erpals Articles 67, 68, 69–2, and 70).......................................................................................... 299 Warnings and Directions for Use by Device Category (PAL Article 52, Item 3) ................................................ 299 Electrical Medical Equipment ..................................................................................................................... 300 Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment................................................................................................................ 303 Radiation-Related Apparatus ....................................................................................................................... 303 Surgical Laser Apparatus ............................................................................................................................. 303 Dental Materials........................................................................................................................................... 304 Disposable Products..................................................................................................................................... 304 Small Steel Devices ..................................................................................................................................... 305 Contact Lenses ............................................................................................................................................. 305 Intraocular Lenses (IOLs)............................................................................................................................ 305 Electrical Therapy Apparatus for Household Use....................................................................................... 306 Labeling Requirements For In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Products......................................................................... 306 Inner Label or Wrapper of an In Vitro Diagnostic Reagent (ERPALs Article 56–2) ................................ 307 Package Insert for In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Reagents (ERPALs Article 57) .......................................... 308 Outer Container Label or Wrapper of In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Reagents (ERPALs Article 56–2)........ 309 Labeling Requirements For Metals for Dental Use (ERPALS Article 60–3)...................................................... 309 Labeling Requirements For Household-Use Devices ........................................................................................... 310 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 310

PART VIII United States Chapter 20 The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ............................................................................................. 315 Background and General Intent of the Law ......................................................................................................... 316 Related Laws ......................................................................................................................................................... 321 Scope of the FDA Regulations.............................................................................................................................. 322 The Regulations ..................................................................................................................................................... 322 Labels and Labeling .............................................................................................................................................. 323 Labeling and Advertising ...................................................................................................................................... 324 Adulteration and Misbranding............................................................................................................................... 324 False or Misleading Labeling................................................................................................................................ 325 Advertising and Promotion.................................................................................................................................... 326 Promotion of Off-Label Uses ...................................................................................................................... 329 Reprints of ScientiÞc Articles...................................................................................................................... 330 Continuing Medical Education .................................................................................................................... 333 Advertising on the Internet .......................................................................................................................... 334 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 336 Chapter 21 General Device Labeling in the United States .......................................................................................... 337 Misbranding ........................................................................................................................................................... 338 General Labeling Provisions ................................................................................................................................. 338 Name and Place of Business (§801.1) ........................................................................................................ 338 Intended Uses (§801.4) ................................................................................................................................ 339 Adequate Directions for Use (§801.5) ........................................................................................................ 340 Misleading Statements (§801.6) .................................................................................................................. 340 Prominence of Required Statements (§801.15)........................................................................................... 340 Spanish Language (§801.16) ....................................................................................................................... 341 Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter (Nonprescription) Devices .......................................................... 341 Principal Display Panel (§801.60)............................................................................................................... 341 Statement of Identity (§801.61)................................................................................................................... 342 Declaration of Net Quantity of Contents (§801.62) ................................................................................... 342 Customary Inch-Pound Declarations ........................................................................................................... 344 SI Declarations............................................................................................................................................. 345 Conversion between Systems....................................................................................................................... 345 Use of the Term “Net”................................................................................................................................. 346 Use of the Term “Weight” ........................................................................................................................... 347 Exemptions from Adequate Directions For Use ................................................................................................... 347 Prescription Devices (§801.109).................................................................................................................. 348 Indications for Use....................................................................................................................................... 348 Contraindications ......................................................................................................................................... 349 Warnings....................................................................................................................................................... 349 Precautions ................................................................................................................................................... 350 Adverse Reactions........................................................................................................................................ 350 Retail Exemption for Prescription Devices (§801.110) .............................................................................. 351 Medical Devices Having Commonly Known Directions (§801.116)......................................................... 351 In Vitro Diagnostic Products (§801.119) ..................................................................................................... 351 Medical Devices for Processing, Repacking, or Manufacturing (§801.122) ............................................. 351 Medical Devices for Use in Teaching, Law Enforcement, Research, and Analysis (§ 801.125) .............. 351 Medical Devices: Expiration of Exemptions (§801.127)............................................................................ 352 Other Exemptions .................................................................................................................................................. 352 Medical Devices: Processing, Labeling, or Repacking (§801.150)............................................................ 352 Sterile Devices ....................................................................................................................................................... 353

Reprocessed Single-Use Devices .......................................................................................................................... 355 Electromagnetic Compatibility Labeling .............................................................................................................. 355 Electronic Labeling................................................................................................................................................ 356 Special Requirements for SpeciÞc Devices .......................................................................................................... 356 Export of Medical Devices.................................................................................................................................... 357 Export of Approved Devices ....................................................................................................................... 357 Export of Unapproved Devices ................................................................................................................... 357 Other Provisions of the ER&EA ................................................................................................................. 359 Exporting for Investigational Use ...................................................................................................... 359 Exporting for Marketing or in Anticipation of Foreign Marketing Approval .................................. 360 Devices Intended for Treatment of Non-US Diseases ...................................................................... 360 Import of Medical Devices.................................................................................................................................... 360 Banned Devices ..................................................................................................................................................... 363 Labeling (§895.25)....................................................................................................................................... 363 Veterinary Use (§895.1(d)) .......................................................................................................................... 364 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 364 Chapter 22 In Vitro Diagnostic Product Labeling........................................................................................................ 365 General IVD Labeling Provisions ............................................................................................................... 366 Labeling on the Immediate Container (§809.10(a)).................................................................................... 366 Labeling Requirements for Package Inserts (§809.10(b)) .......................................................................... 367 Special Cases ......................................................................................................................................................... 370 Exemptions from IVD Product Labeling Requirements (§809.10(c)) ....................................................... 371 Labeling for General-Purpose Laboratory Reagents and Equipment (§809.10(d)) ................................... 371 Product Class Models for IVD Products .............................................................................................................. 372 Clinical Chemistry/Toxicology .................................................................................................................... 372 Clinical Microbiology/Immunology ............................................................................................................ 373 Clinical Hematology/Pathology ................................................................................................................... 373 Home-Use IVD Products....................................................................................................................................... 374 Hazardous Substances ........................................................................................................................................... 375 Labeling Requirements ................................................................................................................................ 376 Prominence, Placement, and Conspicuousness of Labeling ....................................................................... 376 Prominent Label Placement ............................................................................................................... 377 Area of Principal Display Panel .................................................................................................................. 378 Type-Size Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 379 Accompanying Documents .......................................................................................................................... 380 Outer Container or Wrappings..................................................................................................................... 380 Caustic Poisons ............................................................................................................................................ 380 Storage Instructions and Expiration Dates............................................................................................................ 381 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 381 Chapter 23 Radiation-Emitting Device Labeling......................................................................................................... 383 General Labeling Requirements for Electronic Products ..................................................................................... 383 Product CertiÞcation (§1010.2) ................................................................................................................... 384 Product IdentiÞcation (§1010.3) .................................................................................................................. 384 Variances (§1010.4) ..................................................................................................................................... 384 Exemptions for Products Intended for US Government Use (§1010.5)..................................................... 385 Export of Electronic Products (§1010.20)................................................................................................... 385 Ionizing Radiation-Emitting Products................................................................................................................... 385 Television Receivers (§1020.10).................................................................................................................. 385 Cold-Cathode Gas Discharge Tubes (§1020.20) ......................................................................................... 386 Diagnostic X-Ray Systems and their Major Components (§1020.30) ....................................................... 386 IdentiÞcation of Components (§1020.30(e))...................................................................................... 386

Information Provided to the Assembler (§1020.30(g)) ..................................................................... 387 Information Provided to the User (§1020.30(h))............................................................................... 387 Warning Label (§1020.30(j)).............................................................................................................. 389 Repair of Components (§1020.30(d)(2)(iv))...................................................................................... 389 Radiographic Equipment (§1020.31) ................................................................................................. 389 Fluoroscopic Equipment (§1020.32).................................................................................................. 390 Computed Tomography (CT) Equipment (§1020.33) ....................................................................... 390 Cabinet X-Ray Systems (§1020.40) ............................................................................................................ 393 Microwave and Radio-Frequency-Emitting Products ........................................................................................... 394 Light-Emitting Products ........................................................................................................................................ 394 Laser Products (§1040.10)........................................................................................................................... 394 Labeling Requirements (§1040.10(g)) ............................................................................................... 395 User Information (§1040.10(h)(1)) .................................................................................................... 399 Purchasing and Servicing Information (§1040.10(h)(2)) .................................................................. 400 SpeciÞc-Purpose Laser Products (§1040.11)............................................................................................... 400 Medical Laser Products (§1040.11)................................................................................................... 401 Surveying, Leveling, or Alignment Laser Products........................................................................... 403 Demonstration Laser Products ........................................................................................................... 403 Sunlamp Products and Ultraviolet Lamps Intended for Use in Sunlamp Products (§1040.20) ................ 403 Sunlamp and Ultraviolet Lamp Labels (§1040.20(d)) ...................................................................... 403 Information Provided to the User (§ 1040.20(e)).............................................................................. 404 High-Intensity Mercury Vapor Discharge Lamps (§1040.30)..................................................................... 405 Sonic, Infrasonic, and Ultrasonic Radiation-Emitting Products........................................................................... 405 Ultrasound Therapy Products (§1050.10).................................................................................................... 405 Discovery of a Product Defect or Failure to Comply .......................................................................................... 406 Radio Frequency Emitting Devices....................................................................................................................... 407 Radio-Frequency Radiators.......................................................................................................................... 407 Intentional Radiators (§15.201) ......................................................................................................... 408 Unintentional Radiators (§15.101)..................................................................................................... 409 Incidental Radiators (§15.13)............................................................................................................. 409 Industrial, ScientiÞc, and Medical Equipment ............................................................................................ 409 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 410 Chapter 24 Bringing Devices to Market in the United States ..................................................................................... 413 Premarket NotiÞcation (510(K)) ........................................................................................................................... 414 Premarket NotiÞcation Review Program..................................................................................................... 414 Submitting a Premarket NotiÞcation (510(k)) for a Change to an Existing Device.................................. 415 The Meaning of Intended Use ..................................................................................................................... 416 PMA Approval....................................................................................................................................................... 417 PMA Supplements (§814.39) ...................................................................................................................... 418 Special PMA Supplement (§814.39(d)) ...................................................................................................... 418 Licensing of a PMA Approval..................................................................................................................... 418 Final PMA Labeling Review ....................................................................................................................... 419 Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE)............................................................................................................. 419 Labeling of Investigational Devices (§812.5) ............................................................................................. 420 Prohibited Practices (§§812.5(b) and 812.7)............................................................................................... 420 Advertising of an Investigational Device (§812.7) ..................................................................................... 421 Advertising for Investigators.............................................................................................................. 421 Recruiting Study Subjects .................................................................................................................. 422 Manufacturing Practices for Investigational Devices (§812.20(b)(3))........................................................ 423 Exempted IDE Investigations (§812.2(c)) ................................................................................................... 423 Investigational Use of Marketed Products................................................................................................... 424 Investigational Exemption for Intraocular Lenses (IOLS) ................................................................................... 424 Custom Devices (§812.3(b))........................................................................................................................ 425

Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) .............................................................................................................. 425 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 426 Chapter 25 Good Manufacturing Practice in Labeling ................................................................................................ 429 Gmp Applications .................................................................................................................................................. 430 GMP Exemptions ......................................................................................................................................... 430 Custom-Device Manufacturers........................................................................................................... 431 Contract Manufacturers ...................................................................................................................... 431 Contract Testing Laboratories ............................................................................................................ 431 Component Manufacturers ................................................................................................................. 431 Remanufacturers........................................................................................................................................... 432 Repackers and Relabelers ............................................................................................................................ 432 SpeciÞcation Developer ............................................................................................................................... 433 QSR Labeling Controls ......................................................................................................................................... 433 Content Development and Approval (§820.30)........................................................................................... 434 Document Controls (§820.40) ..................................................................................................................... 434 Document Approval and Distribution (§820.40(a))........................................................................... 434 Document Changes (§820.40(b)) ....................................................................................................... 434 Label Integrity (§820.120(a)) ...................................................................................................................... 435 Purchasing (§820.50) ................................................................................................................................... 435 Receipt and Inspection (§§820.80 and 820.120(b)).................................................................................... 435 Handling (§§820.60 and 820.140)............................................................................................................... 436 Storage (§§820.120(c) and 820.150) ........................................................................................................... 436 Labeling and Packaging Operations (§§820.70 and 820.120(d)) ............................................................... 437 Nonconforming product (§820.90) .............................................................................................................. 437 Distribution (§§820.80(d) and 820.160)...................................................................................................... 437 Traceability (§§820.65 and 820.120(e)) ...................................................................................................... 438 Complaint Handling (§820.198) .................................................................................................................. 438 Overlabeling........................................................................................................................................................... 439 Shipping for Processing......................................................................................................................................... 439 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 439 Chapter 26 Special Labeling Requirements for SpeciÞc Devices in the United States ............................................. 441 Labeling For Contact Lens Solutions and Tablets (§800.12(C)).......................................................................... 441 Use-Related Statements ......................................................................................................................................... 441 Labeling of Articles Intended for Lay Use in Repairing and/or ReÞtting of Dentures (§801.405) .......... 441 Maximum Acceptable Level of Ozone (§801.415)..................................................................................... 443 Hearing-Aid Devices: Professional and Patient Labeling (§801.420)........................................................ 443 Hearing Aids: Conditions for Sale (§801.421)............................................................................................ 446 User Labeling for Menstrual Tampons (§801.430)..................................................................................... 447 Prescription and Restricted Devices Containing or Manufactured with Ozone-Depleting Substances (§§801.417 and 801.433) ............................................................................................................................. 448 User Labeling for Latex Condoms (§801.435) ........................................................................................... 450 User Labeling for Devices that Contain Natural Rubber (§801.437)......................................................... 450 Contraceptives and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)................................................................................. 451 Protection from Pregnancy .......................................................................................................................... 452 Protection from Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)............................................................................. 452 Electromagnetic Interference................................................................................................................................. 453 Electrically Powered Wheelchairs ............................................................................................................... 453 Label on the Product .......................................................................................................................... 454 Accompanying Product Literature ..................................................................................................... 454 Implantable Pacemakers/DeÞbrillators ........................................................................................................ 457 Cellular Telephones ............................................................................................................................ 457

Electronic Article Surveillance (Theft-Prevention) Systems............................................................. 458 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 458

PART IX Development of Device Labels Chapter 27 Reducing Labeling Problems .................................................................................................................... 461 Consider the Audience........................................................................................................................................... 461 Lay Users ..................................................................................................................................................... 461 Professional Users........................................................................................................................................ 462 Organize the Information ...................................................................................................................................... 462 Write to the Reader ............................................................................................................................................... 464 Choose Words Carefully........................................................................................................................................ 465 Avoid Clutter.......................................................................................................................................................... 465 Writing Instructions ............................................................................................................................................... 465 Text ............................................................................................................................................................... 466 Flowchart...................................................................................................................................................... 467 List................................................................................................................................................................ 467 Warnings and Cautions.......................................................................................................................................... 468 Labeling Evaluation............................................................................................................................................... 469 Limiting Liability .................................................................................................................................................. 469 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 470 Chapter 28 Designing Good Labeling ......................................................................................................................... 471 Conditions for Use................................................................................................................................................. 471 Device Labels............................................................................................................................................... 471 Accompanying Documentation.................................................................................................................... 471 Layout .................................................................................................................................................................... 472 Physical Attributes ................................................................................................................................................. 472 Type Fonts and Size .............................................................................................................................................. 474 Highlighting ........................................................................................................................................................... 474 White Space ........................................................................................................................................................... 474 Illustrations and Graphics...................................................................................................................................... 475 Color ...................................................................................................................................................................... 475 Things to Remember ............................................................................................................................................. 476 Appendix A: U.S. Department of Commerce Medical Device Product Categories/ClassiÞcation............................... 479 Appendix B: Australian Department of Health and Aging ClassiÞcation of Devices .................................................. 483 Appendix C: International Symbols for Medical Device Marking ................................................................................ 491 Appendix D: Korean Medical Device ClassiÞcation ..................................................................................................... 497 Appendix E: Japanese Medical Device ClassiÞcation ................................................................................................... 517 Appendix F: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Medical Device ClassiÞcation ................................... 539 Appendix G: Useful Web Sites....................................................................................................................................... 545

Glossary of Acronyms..................................................................................................................................................... 547 References ....................................................................................................................................................................... 553 Index ................................................................................................................................................................................ 567

Part I Negotiating a Common Understanding

Global Market 1 The for Healthcare Technology It is important to establish a clear deÞnition of healthcare technology. Some organizations employ a broad deÞnition, embracing most aspects of health treatment, including pharmaceuticals, devices, and medical procedures. Such a broad treatment is appropriate for many purposes; however, a more focused deÞnition of healthcare technology needs to be adopted for this book. The Health Care Technology Institute deÞnes healthcare technology as those products that fall into three speciÞc categories: medical devices, diagnostic products, and healthcare information systems (Briones p. 3). The medical device category ranges from simple products like tongue depressors to complex, highly sophisticated devices like implanted deÞbrillators. Diagnostic products are those products used to detect or diagnose diseases. This category includes X-ray machines, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems , electrocardiographs, and automated laboratory test systems. The diagnostic products category also includes some in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products. IVDs are included because they are typically regulated as diagnostic devices in a number of the major markets. Healthcare information systems are computerized systems used to keep track of patient and Þnancial information in healthcare facilities. These information systems maintain patient records, provide data useful in treating patients, and maintain laboratory test results. In this book, all three categories will be referred to simply as “medical” or “therapeutic” devices since that is how the agencies responsible for protecting public health in the major markets classify them for regulatory purposes. TECHNOLOGY AND THE HEALTHCARE DELIVERY SYSTEM Traditionally, the vast majority of healthcare in industrialized nations has been delivered in acute care hospitals or physicians’ ofÞces. While a substantial portion of care will continue to be delivered in these settings, there has been a shift in the site of care for many patients. This shift is the result of many factors, ranging from the incentives embodied in the reimbursement systems and changes in physicians’ practice patterns to advances in healthcare technology. New and emerging healthcare technologies have helped to make a wide range of diagnostic and treatment options possible. These include freestanding outpatient surgery and ambulatory centers, rehabilitation facilities, and even the home. Today’s patient beneÞts from a broad array of technologies that was not present a few years ago. Many hospitals offer interventional radiology that allows physicians to examine organs without the need for exploratory surgery. Physicians can plan and execute procedures with less invasive techniques. For example, Þberoptic technology allows surgeons to perform gallbladder surgery with only small incisions. Recovery is much quicker, reducing both the time spent in the hospital and the time spent recovering at home. Laboratory tests that once took days can now be completed by automated laboratory systems while the patient waits in the physician’s ofÞce. The care that patients receive in hospitals and physicians’ ofÞces has been transformed by healthcare technology. These same technologies have helped to facilitate treatment in nontraditional settings. Examples of technologies that have made care in such locations possible are MRI and 3

4

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) scans, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, outpatient intravenous therapy, cardiac catheterization, and improvements in anesthesia and surgical techniques. Clearly, technology-intensive diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has become increasingly integral to the treatment of patients. INDUSTRY AND THE GLOBAL MARKET The demand by patients and physicians for sophisticated treatment options has created a global market for healthcare technology that exceeded $120 billion in 2000 (Figure 1.1). Despite the international economic slowdown affecting most of the developed countries that are major consumers of healthcare technology, the demand for medical devices continues to rise. The aging population, the upgrading of healthcare systems, and the creation of a single market in Europe are some factors contributing to the continued growth of the global market. Through innovation, intensive research and development, and aggressive marketing of its products, the medical device industry has generated strong economic growth. The United States Department of Commerce tracks the performance of the industrial sectors of the economy using the North American Industry ClassiÞcation System (NAICS). There are six NAICS categories that encompass the majority of healthcare technology products. Appendix A provides a listing of the products that make up these categories. Innovation has enabled the industry to create a world market that grew to over $120 billion in 2000. The United States (US) is still the largest market, accounting for approximately 51 percent of the total world sales of medical devices in 2000 (see Figure 1.1). Western Europe, consisting of the countries of the European Union (EU) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), consumed 22 percent of the world production of medical devices. Japan accounted for 12 percent of the total consumption, and the rest of the world, including the fast-growing markets on the PaciÞc Rim, consumed 15 percent of the total production in 2000. The United States, the EU, and Japan produce more than they consume and have trade surpluses. The rest of the markets consume more than they produce and are net importers of medical devices. If the industry is going to continue its pattern of growth in the next decade, much of the growth will have to take place outside of the already established markets. Emerging markets in Eastern Europe and the newly industrialized countries of the PaciÞc Rim will account for much of the expansion of the healthcare technology market, as they will for other product sectors. As these countries attend to the growing needs of their populations, the demand for products should continue to increase. However, these markets are changing, too. Technology has facilitated instant communication, transport, and travel, making goods and services easily accessible and affordable to the world’s most isolated places. Suddenly, no place and no person is isolated. All parts of the world want the advanced products that the most developed markets already have. These products are wanted in their most advanced states of functionality, quality, reliability, service levels, and price competitiveness. Gone are the days when last year’s models or used equipment taken in trade could be sold in emerging markets. Gone are the days when prices, margins, and proÞts abroad were generally better than those at home. INDUSTRY COMPOSITION Given the size of the world market in medical devices, one might conclude that large companies dominate the industry. While the industry includes large multinational corporations that employ 80,000 or more workers, it is estimated that more than 70 percent of the 11,000 plus companies

The Global Market for Healthcare Technology

5

Other Asia 5%

Eastern Europe 3%

Australia/New Zealand 1%

Japan 12%

USA 51% EU 22%

Source: Trade

Americas 4%

Canada 2%

FIGURE 1.1 Global medical device market 2000. (Billion US Dollars.)

registered with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) employ less than 50 workers. Another 25 percent employ between 50 and 500 individuals. Only about 5 percent of FDA-registered medical device manufacturers have more than 500 employees. Clearly this industry is dominated, not by the multinationals, but by small entrepreneurial companies that have succeeded by bringing a steady stream of innovative products to market. Increasingly, however, these companies are being required to think beyond their own domestic markets in order to survive. Reimbursement for new technology, particularly in the absence of data on long-term effectiveness, is one issue. Product regulatory cycles are another. INDUSTRY AND REGULATION Regulation of medical devices is important in virtually all the major markets. Europe, long encumbered by a patchwork of regulatory systems, has harmonized much of the product approval process through the implementation of three directives that align the essential requirements for safety across all of the member states. The Active Implantable Medical Device Directive (AIMD) came into force on January 1, 1993. The Medical Device Directive (MDD) came into force on January 1, 1995. The third directive covering IVD products, the In Vitro Diagnostic Device Directive (IVDD), came into force on December 7, 1998. The European system focuses on the essential safety of the device and on proof that the device achieves the performance claimed by the manufacturer. Evaluation of devices is delegated to independent review bodies that perform their tasks on a fee-for-service basis. Decisions about the efÞcacy of the device are largely left to the marketplace. Most of the power to regulate medical devices in the United States is assigned to the FDA and is designed to assure that all medical devices are both safe and effective. The type of review a medical device undergoes depends, for the most part, upon the potential risk that the device poses to the patient. For those products that pose the most signiÞcant potential risk, the FDA requires an extensive and often lengthy premarket evaluation to determine if they are safe and effective. Japanese, Australian, and Canadian regulation of healthcare technology falls some place between the EU and the FDA. Most other countries simply require that medical devices be registered with the public health ministry prior to sale. For imported products, these countries rely heavily on product approvals from the regulatory entities in the country where the device was manufactured. Mexico is a prime example of a country that maintains a registry of medical devices. Regardless of their other similarities or differences, one element that all of the major regulatory systems have in common is relatively speciÞc requirements for labeling of the products. These

6

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

requirements vary from speciÞc messages that must be prominently displayed to broad general requirements such as “adequate directions for use.” Whether requirements are speciÞc or general, labeling is one area where even a minor error can lead to serious problems. A failure on the part of a manufacturer, importer, or distributor to label a product properly can lead, and often has led, to delays in commercializing the device when prior regulatory approval is required to enter the market. At the other end of the spectrum, falsely labeling or branding (i.e., misbranding) a device, omitting required information, including false or misleading information, leaving out pertinent or material facts, or failing to exercise proper control over labeling operations in manufacturing is a violation of the law in the major markets. The regulatory authorities have a range of remedies available, including mandatory Þeld actions to correct errors, product recalls, and civil and criminal penalties against the guilty party. When developing labeling, it is important to remember that the fundamental function of labeling is to enable the user of a medical device to apply the device safely for the purposes intended by the manufacturer. No product can be a success if its labeling fails to meet this objective. In accomplishing its objective, a responsible party would be ill advised to ignore the relevant labeling regulations. The balance of this book is devoted to a review of these regulations in the markets that account for 94 percent of the total consumption of medical devices.

Part II Argentina and Brazil

2 Argentina The República Argentina (Argentine Republic) occupies part of the southern cone of the continent of South America. Argentina is a founding member of the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur). On January 1, 1995, the Mercosur member states of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay put into effect the terms of the Protocol of Ouro Prûto. This agreement eliminated tariffs on about 90 percent of the goods traded between the member states and erected a tariff averaging 12 percent on goods imported from elsewhere. The Mercosur alliance has created a market of 219 million people with economic activity exceeding $1 trillion US dollars in 2000. At present, Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay have a developed system for regulating medical devices, although they have not yet put in practice the regulations necessary to harmonize product registration. Paraguay has not yet implemented a system for regulating medical devices. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW Regulation of medical devices in Argentina derives its statutory authority from a 1985 decree of the Ministry of Health and Social Action. Decree No. 2,505/85 established the need for regulations to cover certain technical aspects that contribute to a better handling of the activities covered by the decree. In addition, the regulations are expected to enable more efÞcient health oversight of these activities and of the products involved. The regulations foreseen by Decree No. 2,505/85 were published as Resolution 255/95. The Ministry of Health and Social Action has delegated the authority to promulgate and enforce the necessary regulations to the National Administration of Drugs, Foods, and Medical Technology (ANMAT). SCOPE OF THE REGULATIONS The Argentinean medical device regulations apply to the following biomedical products: 1. Those products that are for single use and whose labels identify them as atoxic, sterile, and free of pyrogens 2. Those products listed in Table 2.1 that may be resterilized, even if their manufacturer recommends that they are only for single use and if their labels identify them as atoxic, sterile, and free of pyrogens (The ANMAT may, from time to time, modify this list, as needs dictate.) 3. Other products included in Article 1 of the Decree No. 2,505/85 that are not included in items 1 and 2 above (These devices are listed in Table 2.2.) The regulations cover the production, processing, sterilization, fractionation, control, storage, distribution, marketing, importation, and exportation of medical devices. They also specify the requirements and conditions for the use and reuse of covered devices.

9

10

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

TABLE 2.1 Products Whose Labels Identify Them as Atoxic, Sterile, and Free of Pyrogens Catheters for coronariography and arteriography Counterpulsation balloons Catheters for coronary, visceral, cerebral, or limb arteries Metal guides Swan-Ganz catheters with optic point Catheters for electrophysiological studies Carotid shunts Retroplegia cannulas Source: ANMAT, Resolution 255/95, Annex I.

TABLE 2.2 Products Included in Article 1 of the Degree No. 2,505/85 Material in contact with blood Equipment and/or devices for transfusion and blood containers Equipment and/or devices for lungs and/or for the heart Equipment and/or devices for hemodialysis Catheters Needles and intravenous cannulas Material used for the administration of ßuids Equipment and/or devices for parenteral solutions Equipment and/or devices for peritoneal dialysis Equipment and/or devices for irrigation Equipment and/or devices for parenteral nutrition Devices used for anesthesia and/or breathing Needles for lumbar puncture Tubes for tracheotomy Equipment and/or devices for epidural anesthesia Devices used for drainage and/or suction Probes Equipment and material for surgical drainage Suture materials Syringes Gynecological implants (intrauterine contraceptive devcies [IUCD], etc.) External medical applications. Any other device or instrument used in medical procedures not mentioned speciÞcally in the above mentioned points Source: Ministry of Health and Social Action, Resolution 2,505/85, Article 1.

BRINGING DEVICES TO MARKET IN ARGENTINA The Argentinean regulations prohibit the manufacture, distribution, importation, and exportation of medical devices that are not registered with the ANMAT. To implement this part of the regulation, the ANMAT has created and maintains a Register of Biomedical Products. To obtain registration for a product family (each product and its variants), the manufacturer or importer must Þle an application providing the information listed in Annex VII of the regulations for domestically produced products or Annex VIII for imported products. The application must be signed by the head of the company or its legal representative and the company’s technical director.

Argentina

11

TABLE 2.3 List of Reference Countries Germany Australia Austria Belgium Canada Swiss Confederation Denmark Spain United States of America France Israel Italy Japan The Netherlands United Kingdom Turkey Source: ANMAT, Resolution 255/95, Annex IX.

The ANMAT will evaluate the application within 120 days from the date of its Þling. When dealing with products that are already authorized for marketing and use in any of the countries in Table 2.3, the ANMAT will evaluate the application within 40 days of Þling. For domestically fabricated products or imported products that are similar to products that are already registered and marketed in Argentina, the ANMAT has 40 days to act on the application. After that time, the company has the right to provisionally market the product until a deÞnitive pronouncement has been made by the ANMAT. Imported products must be processed in approved plants located in any country listed in Table 2.3 or in a plant located in another country that is approved by any of the countries listed in Table 2.3 or by the ANMAT. The period of provisional sale shall be interrupted if the ANMAT requests additions or clariÞcations to the application. Sale of the product may not resume until the request is satisÞed. For the purposes of this part of the regulations, the word “similar,” refers to that product that meets the conditions of: • identical material, and • equivalent clinical application and mode or form of use. To perform the control it deems necessary, the ANMAT may require the presentation of samples of the Þnished product. IMPORTING PRODUCTS Imported products must be approved for marketing and use in the country of origin and/or the source country prior to the application for registration or importation. When medical devices are manufactured in plants located in countries that are listed in the ANMAT’s List of Reference Countries, the analytical protocols and the certiÞcates of origin issued by the manufacturer will be accepted as valid. The ANMAT considers the countries listed in Table 2.3 to have high levels of health oversight.

12

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

If the product is manufactured in plants located in a country other than those listed in Table 2.3, but the plant is approved by the health authorities from one of these countries or by ANMAT, the analytical protocols and the certiÞcates of origin issued by the manufacturer will be accepted as valid. However, in this case, the manufacturer must also submit duly authenticated and certiÞed proof of the plant’s approval. The application for registration of an imported product must contain the technical details described in Annex VIII of the Argentinean regulations and the following must be enclosed: • An authenticated copy of the CertiÞcate of Free Sale or CertiÞcate of Registration in the country of origin certiÞed by an Argentina consular representative and the Ministry of Foreign Relations and Worship • If applicable, proof(s) of commercialization on the local market of similar product(s) The ANMAT will not certify to the National Customs Administration that an imported product is cleared to enter the market before it is registered. Any product that is not registered must be reexported or, failing that, destroyed. TECHNICAL DIRECTOR Companies that produce and/or import biomedical products in Argentina must be registered with the competent authorities. In order to become registered, a company must have a person on staff serving in the capacity of technical director. The technical director, along with senior management, is directly responsible for the activities or the processes required by the medical device regulations. Only a person with certain academic credentials is considered competent to discharge the duties of technical director for an establishment devoted to the production and/or importation of medical devices. For single-use products whose labels identify them as atoxic, sterile, and free of pyrogens, the technical director must hold the degree of pharmacist. For a Þrm devoted to the production and/or importation of other medical devices, it is necessary for the technical director to hold the degree of pharmacist, biochemist, engineer, industrial engineer, chemical engineer, licenciado (bachelor) of chemistry, or a university degree associated with those mentioned that, in the opinion of the competent authority, certiÞes the required training. To discharge the duties of technical director of an establishment devoted to wholesale or retail marketing of the products covered by the Argentinean regulations, it will be necessary to hold the degree of pharmacist. In all cases, an individual seeking the position of technical director must apply to the competent authority. Only after having received authorization from the ANMAT may the individual take up his or her duties. An individual may act as a technical director in only one company at a time. ADULTERATION AND MISBRANDING The Argentinean regulations do not use the terms “adulteration” or “misbranding.” These concepts, however, are clearly present in the regulations. Both in-country manufacturers and importers of medical devices must maintain premises that are deemed by the ANMAT to be adequate for the tasks to be performed. These premises must be adequately equipped for the production, processing, fractionation, and, if applicable, sterilization of the product. These processes include packaging and labeling of medical devices. Those establishments involved in the production or importation of medical devices are required to maintain an archive of samples in sufÞcient quantity of sales units for each batch, lot, and/or

Argentina

13

series. These must be kept for six months after the date of expiration of the product. These samples permit a quality check if the ANMAT so requires. The ANMAT may, in response to a request, authorize exceptions with regard to the number of samples retained. The manufacturer must maintain the following records: • A Fabrication and/or Fractionation Book in which are recorded the batches, lots, and/or series processed or fractionated, and the units obtained • A Quality Control Book corresponding to the control of the raw materials, intermediate products, and Þnished products that records the controls performed for each production batch, lot, and/or series, and the results obtained For a manufacturer, the Quality Control Book for raw materials must list the quantity received, the origin, and the supplier. Importers must maintain the following records: • A Record Book of Intake of Imported Products that reports the date of clearance to market, product type, number of batch, lot, and/or series, brand, quantity, source, and origin • A Quality Control Book that records the controls performed for each production batch, lot, and/or series, and the results obtained The importer’s Quality Control Book must make reference, when applicable, to the appropriate protocols and certiÞcates of origin of the device. Those organizations that provide services such as contract sterilization to a manufacturer or importer must also maintain records that are subject to inspection by ANMAT. Depending on the nature of the service, the same records must be maintained as those for the establishment of the company to which it provides the service. In all cases, the books must be numbered, must be approved by the ANMAT, and all the records entered in them must be signed by the technical director. For the purposes of determining compliance with the regulations, the technical ofÞcials from the ANMAT are authorized to perform inspections with or without removal of samples from the establishments where any of the activities mentioned above are performed or presumed to be performed. Any violation of the provisions of the regulations will be penalized in accordance with the stipulations of Law No. 16,463 and of Decree No. 341/92 without prejudice to the sanctions that may apply through the penal system. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABELING OF MEDICAL DEVICES The requirements for medical device labeling in Argentina are described in Section 5 of Annex IV of the medical device regulations. This section of Annex IV sets out the requirements for packaging materials, considerations for sterile packing, the arrangement of labels, the contents of the label or labels, and the language requirements for labeling. PACKAGING

AND

LABELING MATERIALS

Packaging materials shall be sufÞciently strong to withstand the transport, handling, and storage conditions to which the device may be exposed. In those products that have labels bonded to the packaging, the labels may not be removable from the packaging without tearing.

14

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

CONSIDERATIONS

FOR

STERILE PACKING

Sterile products must be packaged in a hermetically sealed, inviolable-unit package that ensures the protection of the product against contamination and maintains sterility. When multiple-unit packages are contained in an outer package, extraction of one unit shall not affect the sterility of the remaining unit packages. The effect of the sterilizing agent on the packaging materials, as well as on the product, must be considered when validating the sterilization process. The functional stability of the product and its packaging materials corresponds to the expiration date for the product. ARRANGEMENT

OF

LABELS

Each unit package will have a printed label. The unit package may be so small that it is not practical to set out on the label attached to the unit package all of the information required by the regulations. If the unit package cannot be labeled individually, then the labeling must be placed on an outer package that contains multiple-unit packages. The label on the outer package must specify the number of unit packages contained in addition to other labeling requirements. PACKAGE LABEL CONTENTS The labels of the products shall include the following data: • Full name of the product and, if applicable, the use for which it is intended • Recommendations for use, contraindications, incompatibilities, and/or warnings, if applicable • Production batch, lot, and/or series number • Name and address of the manufacturer and importer, as applicable • Name of the technical director • Sterilization method, if applicable • Date of sterilization and validity period, or expiration date, if applicable The following inscriptions: “Sterile,” “Single-use material,” “Atoxic, sterile, and free of pyrogens,” “Do not use if the packaging is not intact,” or phrases of equivalent meaning, as applicable* • Contents of the unit package • Special storage conditions, if applicable • Any other inscription that the ANMAT requires, considering the nature of the product and its intended use • The inscription, “Industria Argentina,” or “Made in [country of origin of the product],” as applicable LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS For all products, the information required by the regulations shall be in Spanish in addition to any other languages.

* Section 3.1 of Annex VI of the Argentinean medical device regulations speciÞes that one of the objectives of the sterilization process for medical devices is to ensure that a sterility safety coefÞcient (CSE) of 10-6 is obtained.

Argentina

15

DEVICE REUSE The reuse of products marked for single use and whose labels identify them as atoxic, sterile, and free of pyrogens is prohibited by Article 2 of Argentinean medical device regulations. Certain products, however, may be resterilized even if their manufacturer recommends that they are only for single use and if their labels identify them as atoxic, sterile, and free of pyrogens. These products are listed in Table 2.1. The ANMAT may, from time to time, modify this list, as needs dictate. An establishment that undertakes to reuse any of the devices listed in Table 2.2 must maintain a Book of Procedures, numbered and approved by the ANMAT, where the following information is recorded: • • • • •

Patient name Clinical record number Date of procedure Members of surgical team Biomedical product(s) used with indication of type, brand, and source

The establishment where this reuse is to take place must have authorization from the ANMAT. To obtain authorization, an application signed by the medical director must be Þled, demonstrating that the establishment meets all of the following requirements: • Have adequate structure, technical capacity, and suitable personnel to comply with the conditions for the sterilization procedures established in Annex V of the medical device regulations • Ensure that the products to be reused can be adequately decontaminated, cleaned, and sterilized, that their physical and functional characteristics are not affected, and that their use remains safe and effective • Give written procedures for decontamination, cleaning, preparation, packaging, labeling, storage, and destruction, as well as the controls that must be performed The labels to be placed on devices prepared for reuse must include the following data: • Name of the institution • Complete description of the product • Date of sterilization DEVICE REPROCESSING The Argentinean medical device regulations provide that the devices discussed in the previous section may be reprocessed if it is possible to guarantee the equivalent conditions of functionality and sterility as those of the original product. However, for purposes of the medical device regulations, “reprocessing” means the process applied to an unused product whose packaging has not been opened or damaged. THINGS TO REMEMBER The manufacture or importation of medical devices in Argentina is governed by the regulations published as Resolution 255/95. The Argentinean Ministry of Health and Social Action has delegated the authority to promulgate and enforce the necessary regulations to the ANMAT.

16

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

The Argentinean medical device regulations apply to (1) those products that are for single use and whose labels identify them as atoxic, sterile, and free of pyrogens; (2) those products listed in Table 2.1 that may be resterilized; and (3) devices that are listed in Table 2.2. The regulations cover the production, processing, sterilization, fractionation, control, storage, distribution, marketing, importation, and exportation of medical devices. They also specify the requirements and conditions for the use and reuse of covered devices. The Argentinean regulations prohibit the manufacture, distribution, importation, and exportation of medical devices that are not registered with the ANMAT. To obtain registration for a product family (each product and its variants), the manufacturer or importer must Þle an application providing the information listed in Annex VII of the regulations for domestically produced products or Annex VIII for imported products. While the regulations do not use the terms “adulteration” or “misbranding,” these concepts are clearly present in the regulations. Both in-country manufacturers and importers of medical devices must maintain premises that are adequately equipped for the production, processing, fractionation, and, if applicable, sterilization of the product. These processes include packaging and labeling of medical devices. Any violation of the provisions of the regulations will be penalized in accordance with the stipulations of the law without prejudice to the sanctions that may apply through the penal system. The minimum requirements for medical device labeling in Argentina are described in the medical device regulations. These include requirements for packaging materials, considerations for sterile packing, the arrangement of labels, the contents of the label or labels, and language requirements for labeling. Spanish is required on all labels. Those establishments involved in the production or importation of medical devices are required to maintain an archive of samples in sufÞcient quantity of sales units for each batch, lot, and/or series, to kept for six (6) months after the date of expiration of the product. These samples permit a quality check if the ANMAT so requires. The ANMAT may, in response to a request, authorize exceptions with regard to the number of samples retained. The reuse of products marked for single use and whose labels identify them as atoxic, sterile, and free of pyrogens is prohibited. Certain products, however, may be resterilized even if their manufacturer recommends that they are only for single use. An establishment that undertakes to reuse any of these devices must obtain permission from the ANMAT and must follow the procedure set forth in the regulations. Devices prepared for reuse must bear the minimal labeling speciÞed in the regulations.

3 Brazil The República Federativa do Brasil (Federative Republic of Brazil) is the largest country in South America both in land mass and population. It is also the third largest market for medical devices in the Western hemisphere, behind the United States (US) and Canada. Brazil, along with Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, is a founding member of the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur). BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW On December 31, 1998, the Brazilian President signed a Provisional Measure #1791, which created the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Brazilian National Health Vigilance Agency) or the ANVISA. The ANVISA replaced the National Secretary of Sanitary Vigilance (SVS), which was established in 1975 under Public Law #6360. The ANVISA has enforcement powers similar to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that enable it to regulate the manufacture, import, and distribution of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. The ANVISA was created as a public company under contract to the Ministry of Health. The ANVISA Director is nominated by the President of Brazil and serves a Þve-year term. The law provides for a formal separation between the ANVISA, which is responsible for all sanitary and health inspection, and the Ministry of Health, which is responsible for public policy related to health issues. As a public company, the ANVISA is expected to cover the cost of its operation through user fees. The ANVISA charges a fee for services including establishment registrations, good manufacturing practices (GMP) reviews, and product registrations. Product registrations are usually good for Þve years. Establishment registrations and GMP reviews are generally good for one year. SCOPE OF THE REGULATIONS The Brazilian law mandates registration for the following products (Brazil p.2): • Pharmaceuticals for human use, their active ingredients, and other related materials, processes and technology • Cleaners and sanitation products for decontamination and hygiene of hospitals, clinics, public transportation, and homes • Diagnostic kits, reagents, and other items intended for a similar purpose • Equipment and materials, devices for hospital, medical, dental, blood banks, laboratory use, and image diagnostics • Immune-biological products and their active ingredients • Blood and its derivatives • Organs and human and veterinary tissues for transplants or reconstructive surgery • Radioisotopes for in vitro diagnostics (IVDs), radio-pharmaceuticals, and radioactive products used in diagnostics and therapy • Any and all products posing any health risks, obtained by genetic engineering, processed or submitted to radiation sources The ANVISA also regulates the installations, equipment, technologies, environment, and procedures involved in manufacturing these items, their disposal, and respective residues. 17

18

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

BRINGING DEVICES TO MARKET IN BRAZIL It is virtually impossible to bring a device to market in Brazil without a local presence — a local manufacturing unit, ofÞce, distributor, or in-country agent. PRODUCT REGISTRATION Product registration in Brazil can be a laborious exercise for both domestic and foreign manufacturers. For imported products, the application process must be handled by the company’s local ofÞce or through an in-country agent. The registration is valid for Þve years and can be renewed continuously for the same period. Manufacturers should take a series of measures in order to guarantee its rights to the registration. These include (Brazil p. 13): • Appling for registration of the trademarks and patents with the National Industrial Property Institute (INPI) using a local law Þrm. • For imported products, establishing a solid contract with the distributor to protect the manufacturer’s rights, including the ownership of its registration. • For a foreign manufacturer, establishing speciÞc clauses in the contract to transfer the ownership of the registration from the agent to the manufacturer. A transfer of ownership can occur only if the foreign company opens an ofÞce or plant in Brazil, since no registration can be transferred overseas. Steps to protect intellectual property are extremely important because manufacturers must disclose many of the technical details of the product to the ANVISA. For example, product drawings and lists of components must be included with the registration application (Brazil p. 13). By law, the registration process is to be completed within 90 days after the registration is requested. However, the product registration process often takes more than one year (Brazil p. 13). Should the process take longer than three months, importers and producers are allowed to use a protocol number provided by the Brazilian authorities to distribute their products in Brazil. There is some risk of product liability claims should the manufacturer’s product be found to be unsafe by the ANVISA. The following information is required for registration of medical devices (Brazil pp. 13–14): • • • • • • • • • • •

Name of company Address Product name Product description including indications and contraindications from the instructions for use Final product drawings List of components/materials with particular attention to materials contacting tissue, including the material name, trade name, and the component(s) of the device where the material is used Summary of the manufacturing process (ßow chart) Labels/directions for use Description of the sterilization process and sterilization parameters (if applicable) Quality control testing (protocols and reports covering electrical, mechanical, and electromagnetic qualiÞcation) Clinical publications (rationale and published literature supporting no need for a clinical trial, or the full clinical protocol and report if new features are introduced where there is no supporting data or published literature) Product Brochure (catalog page)

Brazil

IMPORT

19

OF

MEDICAL PRODUCTS

Any product that comes in contact with the human body is controlled by the ANVISA. This includes pharmaceuticals, vitamins, cosmetics, and medical equipment/devices. These products can only be imported and sold in Brazil if (Brazil p. 12): • The foreign manufacturer establishes a local Brazilian manufacturing unit or local ofÞce, or • The foreign manufacturer appoints a Brazilian distributor who is licensed by the Brazilian authorities to import and distribute medical products, and • The product is registered with the ANVISA. All products applied to the skin, injected into the body, inserted into the eye (e.g., contact lens and cleaning liquids), or having any other medical application must be registered. For distributors to be able to register, import, and offer for sale medical products in Brazil, they must possess the proper permits issued by the sanitary authority of the state where they conduct business as well as a similar permit issued by the federal government (Brazil p. 12). The distributor must have a contract with a qualiÞed technician (such as a chemist, pharmacist, engineer, etc., according to different types of industry) who takes responsibility for the application. This document is called “Terms of Technical Responsibility,” and is signed by the professional. When registering a product, the in-country agent must submit the following documents (Brazil, p. 15): • An application form obtained from the ANVISA. • An original copy of the machine-stamped bank slip that serves as proof that the applicable registration fees have been paid. • A copy of the distributor’s Alvará de Funcionamento—a trading permit granted by the state sanitary authorities. This allows the company to import, distribute, store, and sell the product registered with the ANVISA. • A copy of the distributor’s Autorização de Funcionamento—a permit like the Alvará de Funcionamento, but granted by the federal government. • A quality-control certiÞcate issued by a recognized certiÞcation entity. (The distributor must have a contract with a local Brazilian laboratory to produce the quality-control certiÞcate for each of the products to be registered. This laboratory must be an “OCC–Organismo de Controle e CertiÞcação” [Control and CertiÞcation Laboratory]. This is an ofÞcial registered certiÞcation organization registered with the Brazilian Ministry of Health.) • A technical report on the product describing the instructions, directions, cautions, etc., and, if applicable, the components of the formula. • A label sample, brochures, and pertinent information about the product translated into Portuguese. • For a product not clearly mentioned in the Brazilian law, it is mandatory to provide information about its utilization in order to demonstrate its efÞcacy and safety. • A notarized copy of the registration granted to the products at the country of origin (or a copy of the Free Sale CertiÞcate). • A copy of the legal document in which the manufacturer authorizes its distributor to trade and distribute the products • For medical equipment, all documents demonstrating product safety, showing the country of origin, and detailing the equipment’s inner structure (exploded view), as well as any user manual.

20

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

MISBRANDING The Brazilian Customer Protection (BCP) code came into force on September 12, 1990. The BCP requires that product labeling provide the consumer with correct, clear, precise, and easily readable information about the product’s quality, quantity, composition, price, guarantee, shelf life, origin, and risks to the consumer’s health and safety. Failure to provide this information or providing false or misleading information is a violation of the BCP and can lead to penalties being assessed against the manufacturer or the manufacturer’s in-country agent. GENERAL LABELING PROVISIONS Brazilian law authorizes the ANVISA to regulate the labeling of all medical devices imported into or distributed in Brazil. LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS Portuguese is the ofÞcial language of Brazil. For imported products, the instructions, directions, cautions, labels, brochures, and any other pertinent information about the products must be translated into Portuguese. The Portuguese translation may appear on the labels and in accompanying documents along with the same material in other languages. MINIMUM LABELING REQUIREMENTS The product labeling must provide the intended user with correct, clear, precise, and easily readable information about the product’s quality, quantity, composition, price, guarantee, shelf life, origin, and risks to the consumer’s health and safety. The instructions for use must include the indications and contraindications for use of the product. Because metric units are the ofÞcial units of measure in Brazil, products should be labeled in metric units or show a metric equivalent. THINGS TO REMEMBER In Brazil, medical devices must be registered with the quasi-public organization health department—the ANVISA—prior to sale. As a public company, the ANVISA is expected to cover the cost of its operation through user fees. Brazilian law mandates registration for a wide variety of products including pharmaceutical, cleaning and sanitation products, IVD kits and reagents, equipment used in hospitals, dentistry, blood banks, and diagnostic imaging, organs and human and veterinary tissues for transplants or reconstructive surgery. The ANVISA also regulates the installations, equipment, technologies, environments and procedures involved in manufacturing these items, their disposal, and respective residues. Product registration in Brazil can be a laborious exercise for both domestic and foreign manufacturers. For imported products, the application process must be handled by the company’s local ofÞce or through an in-country agent. The registration is valid for Þve years and can be renewed continuously for the same period. For distributors to be able to register, import, and offer for sale medical products in Brazil, they must possess the proper permits issued by the sanitary authority of the state where they conduct business, as well as a similar permit issued by the federal government. To obtain registration, the manufacturer or his in-country agent must submit a dossier on the product. The manufacturer should take steps to protect its intellectual property because many of the

Brazil

21

technical details of the product must be disclosed during the registration process. For example, product drawings and lists of components must be included with the registration application. Portuguese is the ofÞcial language of Brazil. For imported products, the instructions, directions, cautions, labels, brochures, and any other pertinent information about the products must be translated into Portuguese.

Part III Australia

Therapeutic Goods Act 4 The of Australia The regulation of medical devices in the Commonwealth of Australia dates from 1966, when the Australian Parliament passed the Therapeutic Goods Act 1966. This act placed responsibility for control of therapeutic goods under the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) within the Australian Department of Health and Aging (DOHA).* On February 15, 1991, the Therapeutic Goods Act 1966 was superceded by the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989.** The Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 placed additional controls on medical devices (called therapeutic devices in the act) that are perceived to present a signiÞcant risk to the patient or user. Under the provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, therapeutic goods are goods that are in any way represented to be, or are likely to be used, for (Therapeutic Goods Act pp. 9–10): • the prevention, diagnosis, cure, or alleviation of a disease, ailment, defect, or injury in a person or animal; • inßuencing, inhibiting, or modifying a physiological process in a person or animal; • testing the susceptibility of a person or animal to a disease or ailment; • inßuencing, controlling, or preventing conception in a person; • testing for pregnancy in a person; or • the replacement or modiÞcation of parts of the anatomy in a person or animal. Goods that are used as ingredients or components in the manufacture of therapeutic goods are included within the deÞnition for purposes of the law. Goods used as a container, or as parts of a container, for therapeutic goods are also covered by the law. Therapeutic devices are therapeutic goods “consisting of an instrument, apparatus, appliance, material, or other article (whether used alone or in combination), together with any accessories or software required for its proper functioning, which does not achieve its principal intended action by pharmacological, chemical, immunological, or metabolic means though it may be assisted in its function by such means” (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 9). Devices may be excluded from regulation under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 by an order of the DOHA Secretary (Therapeutic Goods Act pp. 16–17). The Secretary may declare that particular devices or classes of devices are not therapeutic goods when they are (a) clearly not used as therapeutic goods, or (b) when labeled in a particular way are not therapeutic goods. The Secretary may, upon receipt of a written application, take action to exclude a particular device or classes of devices from regulation under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. On the other hand, the DOHA Secretary may decide that particular devices or classes of devices are therapeutic goods when used or labeled in a particular way (Therapeutic Goods Act pp. 8–9). In either case, the Secretary makes his or her decisions known by publishing a declaration in the * The responsibility for administering the act was assigned to the Australian Commonwealth Department of Community Services and Health. This department underwent several name changes and adjustments to its portfolio in the intervening years. In November 2001, the ofÞcial name of the department was changed to the Department of Health and Aging (DOHA). ** Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, as amended. Commonwealth of Australia (March 21, 2002).

25

26

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

Commonwealth of Australia Gazette specifying the conditions (i.e., the labeling requirements) under which particular devices are, or are not, to be considered therapeutic devices. A summary of the devices that are regulated as therapeutic devices, along with those that are exempted or are declared not to be therapeutic goods, is given in Appendix B. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW In the 1980s, serious faults in a range of therapeutic devices—including heart valves, intraocular lenses (IOLs), intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs), and powered drug-infusion systems—lead to an alarming number of deaths and serious injuries. These problems prompted the Australian Government to tighten controls over therapeutic devices. In 1987, the Australian government amended the Therapeutic Goods Act 1966 to have all therapeutic devices sold in Australia recorded on a National Register of Therapeutic Goods. Devices were classiÞed as either “registered” or “listed” products for purposes of being recorded on the National Register of Therapeutic Goods. Products already on the market were “grandfathered” onto the register. After the grandfathering process, all products classiÞed as registered products would undergo a premarket evaluation for quality, safety, and effectiveness. A form was to be completed on any new listed products for inclusion on the National Register of Therapeutic Goods. Included with the 1987 amendment was the enactment of Schedule 8 Part 5(h) of the Customs Act 1901,* which called for all therapeutic devices to receive import approval (i.e., an import certiÞcate) prior to their arrival in Australia. This regulation did not cover goods manufactured in Australia, although the Government asked for these companies to comply with the same requirements that imported devices had to meet. If a device was not listed on the National Register of Therapeutic Goods, it was held by Australian customs ofÞcials until the proper documentation was received. All therapeutic devices must have been listed on the National Register of Therapeutic Goods unless they were registered devices or devices exempted by either the regulations or a Therapeutic Goods Order (TGO). Exempted devices were mainly nonimplantable diagnostic devices that did not require sterilization, and nonpowered surgical instruments that were supplied in a nonsterile condition. With the passage of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, a second grandfathering of existing products was undertaken that effectively made import certiÞcates obsolete, and all products again had to be recorded on a register. The new name for this was the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). The process remained the same as the 1987 amendment, except that the sponsor was charged a fee to submit registered products for evaluation and incurred an annual fee to keep both “listed” and “registered” devices on the ARTG. The Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 is intended to provide for “the establishment and maintenance of a national system of controls relating to the quality, safety, efÞcacy, and timely availability of therapeutic goods” (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 12). The act applies to therapeutic devices that are used in Australia, regardless whether they are produced domestically or are imported. The provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 also apply to devices produced for export from Australia. THE THERAPEUTIC GOODS AMENDMENT OF 2002 In June 1998, Australia signed a Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) with the European Union (EU) covering medical devices. On March 21, 2002, the Australian Parliament passed the Therapeutic Goods Amendment (Medical Devices) Bill 2002. This bill provides for the introduction of an * Customs Act 1901, as amended. Commonwealth of Australia (August 1, 1994).

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia

27

internationally harmonized framework for the regulation of medical devices in Australia. The EUMRA came into force on October 5, 2002. In this process of preparing the necessary regulations, the TGA will complete their review of Australian and international standards and gazette the standards that demonstrate compliance with the essential principles set out in the 2002 amendment to the Therapeutic Goods Act. While the new regulations have not been issued at the time of this book’s publication, Chapter 6 provides a preview based on material already published by the TGA. SCOPE OF THE TGA REGULATIONS Section 6 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 speciÞes that the provisions of the Act apply to the activities of individuals or corporations in the course of, or in preparation for, trade or commerce among the states and territories and between Australia and other countries. The provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 are intended to supercede any law of a state or territory, other than laws identiÞed in the regulations (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 13). Section 58 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 reserves for the DOHA Secretary the power to issue export certiÞcates for devices intended for therapeutic use in humans. A state or territory is explicitly prohibited from issuing export certiÞcates for devices intended for therapeutic use in humans (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 116). THE REGULATIONS Section 63 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 speciÞes that the Governor-General of Australia may make regulations prescribing matters necessary or convenient for carrying out the provisions of the act (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 124). Particularly with regard to labeling of therapeutic devices, the regulations may: • prescribe requirements for informational material that is included with the therapeutic device and • prescribe the requirements for advertising therapeutic devices. The regulations are published in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. Once a Þnal regulation or TGO is published in the Gazette, it has the force of law. Labeling regulations for therapeutic devices promulgated by the Secretary of Health and Aging are found in Therapeutic Goods Order No. 37 (TGO 37). LABELS AND LABELING Section 3(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 deÞnes a label as a display of printed information, and includes: • Information displayed on or attached to the therapeutic device • Information displayed on or attached to a container or primary pack in which the therapeutic devices are supplied • Information sealed within the container or pack, but excluding any label that is intended to be returned by the consumer to the supplier or manufacturer as a record of purchase The primary pack is the complete package in which a device or devices and their container are supplied to the customer. The container means the vessel, bottle, tube, ampule, syringe, vial,

28

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

sachet, strip pack, blister pack, wrapper, cover, or other similar article that immediately covers a therapeutic good. The label constitutes an important element of the “presentation” of a therapeutic device. The presentation also includes the packaging and any advertising or other informational material associated with the device. LABELING AND ADVERTISING Advertising is deÞned in Section 3(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 to include “any statement, pictorial representation or design, however made, that is intended, whether directly or indirectly, to promote the use or supply” of a therapeutic device (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 1). Normally, the TGA does not review product information, including promotional material that is not supplied with the device. The sponsor is responsible for ensuring that this information is entirely consistent with the information supplied with the therapeutic device and that additional claims are not made (DR4 p. 58). The TGA may, by written notice, require the sponsor of a therapeutic device to provide information concerning the advertising material relating to the device. Failure to provide the requested information in a reasonable time period or providing material that is false or misleading will subject the guilty party to a Þne (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 18). ADULTERATION AND MISBRANDING The Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 does not use the terms “adulteration” or “misbranding.” However, these concepts do appear in the Australian law. Conveying by way of sale, exchange, gift, lease, loan, hire, hire-purchase, sample, or advertising (whether free of charge or otherwise) an adulterated or misbranded therapeutic device is an offense under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. A person who is found guilty of “supplying” an adulterated or misbranded therapeutic device in violation of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 is subject to a substantial Þne. In general, a therapeutic device can be considered adulterated if the sponsor of the device knowingly or recklessly breaches any of the conditions for registration or listing of the device (Therapeutic Goods Act pp. 33–36). These include: the device not being safe for the purposes for which it is to be used, failure to comply with appropriate standards, or the device not being manufactured under acceptable quality-control procedures. Section 3(5) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 makes it a crime to supply a therapeutic device that “is capable of being misleading or confusing as to the contents or proper use” (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 11). Section 3(5) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 deems a therapeutic device misbranded if: • the label states or suggests that the device contains ingredients, components, or characteristics that it does not possess; • The name applied to the device is the same as the name applied to another therapeutic device that is supplied in Australia and the device contains different therapeutically active ingredients; • the label of the device does not declare the presence of a therapeutically active ingredient; • the form of presentation of the therapeutic device may lead to unsafe use of the device, or suggests a purpose other than those for which the device has been approved in Australia; or • the requirements that are speciÞed in the regulations applicable to the device have not been met.

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia

29

FALSE OR MISLEADING LABELING The labeling of a therapeutic device must not be false or misleading, and labeling need not be untrue, forged, fraudulent, or deceptive to be so viewed. A word, statement, or illustration may be strictly true, yet be misleading to the customer. Misleading means labeling that leads “to unsafe use of the goods or suggests a purpose that is not in accordance with conditions applicable to the supply of the goods in Australia” (Therapeutic Goods Act pp. 11–12). A false impression may be created not only by false or deceptive statements, but also by ambiguity and misdirection. For example, labeling of a therapeutic device that states that “it is reported” that the particular device has the effect claimed may constitute misbranding when, in fact, those results were not obtained. Equivocation in the language is in itself misleading and ambiguous, even though it may not be technically false and is even, perhaps, literally true. Failure to inform the customer of material facts may render the device misbranded (see Chapter 5) just as much as a blatantly false or exaggerated claim. A label that is silent on important considerations may be just as deceptive as one that makes exaggerated claims. To illustrate this point, consider the increased risk of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) that results from the use of menstrual tampons. Failure of a manufacturer to inform the consumer about TSS would constitute the omission of material facts about the product. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION The advertising of therapeutic devices is regulated as part of the labeling of the device under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. Section 22 makes it a crime, punishable by a Þne, to make false and misleading statements about a therapeutic device or its status under the regulations. SpeciÞcally, the sponsor of a therapeutic device may not knowingly and recklessly advertise the device for an indication other than those accepted in the application for inclusion of the device on the ARTG. In relation to a therapeutic device, indication means the speciÞc therapeutic purpose for which it is to be used. The Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 takes a broad view by including advertising “by any means” (Therapeutic Goods Act pp. 34–35) under the control of the regulations. A person may not knowingly or recklessly represent that a therapeutic device is included in the ARTG when it is not. Likewise, a person may not represent a therapeutic device as exempt if it is not. Finally, a person may not represent a therapeutic device as being included in one part of the ARTG when it is included on another part. In Australia, all advertising and other generic information* about therapeutic goods that is provided directly to the public must comply with provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, the Therapeutic Goods (Medical Devices) Regulations 2002 (TGR 2002), and the Therapeutic Goods Advertising Code (TGAC). A new TGAC came into effect on April 19, 2000. The object of the TGAC is to ensure that the marketing and advertising of therapeutic goods to consumers is conducted in a manner that promotes the quality use of therapeutic goods, is socially responsible, and does not mislead or deceive the consumer (TGAC p. 1). The TGAC does not apply to advertising directed exclusively to (TGAC p. 9): • medical practitioners, psychologists, dentists, veterinary surgeons, pharmacists, physiotherapists, dietitians, scientists working in medical laboratories, nurses; • persons who are: * Generic information, in relation to therapeutic goods, includes any statement, pictorial representation, or design, however made, about the composition, properties, or other characteristics of therapeutic goods, but does not include (a) an advertisement about the goods; (b) generic information included in, or associated (directly or indirectly) with, an advertisement about therapeutic goods; or (c) bona Þde news.

30

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• engaged in the business of wholesaling therapeutic goods or • purchasing ofÞcers in hospitals; or • herbalists, homoeopathic practitioners, chiropractors, naturopaths, nutritionists, practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine or osteopaths registered under a law of a state or territory of Australia. Advertising for therapeutic goods directed exclusively to healthcare professionals are governed by industry codes of practice and are not subject to the TGAC. Advertising for therapeutic goods to the consumer must (TGAC p. 3): • comply with the statute and common law of the Commonwealth of Australia, its states and territories; and • contain correct and balanced statements only and claims that the sponsor has already veriÞed. Advertising for therapeutic goods to the consumer must not (TGAC pp. 3–4): • be likely to arouse unwarranted and unrealistic expectations of product effectiveness; • be likely to lead to consumers self-diagnosing or inappropriately treating potentially serious diseases; • mislead directly, by implication, or through emphasis, comparisons, contrasts, or omissions; • abuse the trust or exploit the lack of knowledge of consumers or contain language that could bring about fear or distress; • contain any matter that is likely to lead persons to believe: • that they are suffering from a serious ailment, or • that harmful consequences may result from the therapeutic good not being used (Sunscreen preparations are exempted from this requirement if the claims made in the advertising are consistent with current public health messages.); • encourage inappropriate or excessive consumption; • contain any claim, statement, or implication that the product is infallible, unfailing, magical, miraculous, or that it is a certain, guaranteed, or sure cure; • contain any claim, statement, or implication that the product is effective in all cases of a condition • contain any claim, statement or implication that the goods are safe, that their use cannot cause harm, or that they have no side-effects; or • be directed to minors, except in certain special cases such as condoms and personal lubricants, bandages and dressings, and devices for management of chronic conditions under medical supervision. Under Regulation 9 of the Therapeutic Goods Regulations 1990, sponsors of therapeutic goods are prohibited from making use of a restricted representation (including its use on the label of goods or in information included in the package in which the goods are contained). The diseases, conditions, ailments, and defects that are included in this restriction are listed in Table 4.1. A sponsor may apply to the DOHA Secretary for an exemption to this regulation. The sponsor must provide a justiÞcation for use of the restricted representation within their advertising material and meet the public interest criteria outline in Appendix 6 of the TGAC. If the Secretary is satisÞed that the representation is accurate, balanced, and is not misleading or likely to be misleading, an exemption will be granted. The DOHA Secretary may impose conditions on the exemption (TGA, Restricted p. 2).

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia

31

TABLE 4.1 Diseases, Conditions, Ailments, and Defects for Which Advertising of Serious Forms is Restricted Cardiovascular diseases Dental and periodontal diseases Diseases of joint, bone, and collagen, and rheumatic disease Diseases of the eye or ear likely to lead to blindness or deafness Diseases of the liver, biliary system, or pancreas Endocrine diseases and conditions including diabetes and prostatic disease Gastrointestinal diseases or disorders Hematological diseases Infectious diseases Immunological diseases Mental disturbances Metabolic disorders Musculo-skeletal diseases Nervous system diseases Poisoning, venomous bites, and stings Renal diseases Respiratory diseases Skin diseases Substance dependence Urogenital diseases aconditions Source: TGA, Restricted p. 1.

Advertising for therapeutic goods must contain the following (TGAC pp. 5–6): • The trade name of the therapeutic goods • A reference to the indication(s) that is approved for the use of the therapeutic goods • Where applicable, a list of ingredients or the following statement prominently displayed or communicated: ALWAYS READ THE LABEL

except in the case of direct marketing and Internet marketing, where the catalogue or Internet communication must contain a full list of active ingredients • Words to the following effect, prominently displayed or communicated: USE ONLY AS DIRECTED

• When the advertising contains claims relating to symptoms of diseases or conditions: IF SYMPTOMS PERSIST, SEE YOUR DOCTOR/HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONAL

• In the case of therapeutic goods that must be obtained directly from, or on the order of, a health professional, the following statements should be prominently displayed or communicated: YOUR [APPROPRIATE HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONAL] WILL ADVISE YOU WHETHER THIS PREPARATION [PRODUCT NAME] IS SUITABLE FOR YOU/YOUR CONDITION

32

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

BRINGING DEVICES TO MARKET IN AUSTRALIA Under the provisions of Section 17 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, the TGA is required to maintain the ARTG, for the purpose of compiling information on therapeutic goods used on humans. The ARTG is divided into two parts—registered goods and listed goods. All therapeutic goods, including all therapeutic devices, must be listed on the ARTG unless they are exempted in the regulations or by written notice from the DOHA Secretary. The goods that are exempted under this provision are listed in Table C.3 in Appendix B. Section 20 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 makes it a crime, punishable by a Þne, for a person to knowingly and recklessly supply a therapeutic device for human use in Australia which is not (a) on the ARTG or (b) exempt from regulation under Section 19 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. When a therapeutic device is added to the ARTG, the TGA assigns it a unique registration number. When a group of therapeutic goods is added to the ARTG, a listing number is assigned to the group of therapeutic goods. Section 20(2) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 makes it a crime, punishable by a Þne, for the sponsor of therapeutic goods recorded on the ARTG to supply them in Australia unless the registration number is properly displayed on the label. The Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 provides an exemption to this requirement for therapeutic devices that are listed on the ARTG. Under Section 20(2)(e) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, therapeutic devices that are listed on the ARTG are not required to have the listing number on the label. Registered devices are always required to bear the registration number on the label. A person may not place on the label of a therapeutic device, or on a container or package that contains a therapeutic device, a number that purports to be a registration number if that number is not the registration number assigned to that device and sponsor. To do so renders the device misbranded under Section 22(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. A person found guilty of placing a false registration or listing number on a therapeutic device is subject to a Þne. The DOHA Secretary may, by written notice, require the sponsor of a therapeutic device to provide the following information or documents on a registered or listed device or on a device that is being considered for registration or listing (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 61): • • • • • • •

The formulation of the device The composition of the device The design speciÞcations of the device The manufacturer who produced the device The presentation (labeling, packaging, advertising, etc.) of the device The safety and efÞcacy of the device for the purposes for which it is to be used The conformity of the device to the standards applicable to the device, or the conformity to the requirements for advertising applicable to the device • Any additional information prescribed in the regulations, such as the commercial history of the device (DR4 p. 55)

For registered therapeutic devices, the Secretary may also require the following information or documents: • The quality of the devices • The method and place of manufacture or preparation of the device and the procedures employed to ensure that proper standards are maintained in the manufacture and handling of the device • The regulatory history and status of the device in another country

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia

33

Once a therapeutic device is included on the ARTG, it remains until the registration or listing is cancelled. The registration or listing can be cancelled either by the sponsor applying in writing to the ARTG, or once a year when the annual fee renewal notice is sent to the sponsor. The Secretary of Human Services and Health may cancel the registration or listing by a written order if it appears that a failure to do so would create an imminent risk of death, serious illness, or injury. The Secretary may also cancel the registration or listing of a device if the device is found to be adulterated or misbranded. If the Secretary revokes the registration or listing of a device, the sponsor must, within a reasonable time, as is speciÞed in the order, inform the public or a speciÞed class of persons about the cancellation. The sponsor may be required to make the notiÞcation in a speciÞc way. The sponsor may also be required to take steps to recover any of the devices that have been distributed. A person who knowingly or recklessly refuses to comply with the order of the Secretary is guilty of an offense and is subject to a penalty. The ARTG is not open for public inspection. However, the sponsor of a device may request a copy of its entry in the ARTG. The DOHA Secretary may, following a request from the sponsor, alter the entry for a device if the entry contains information that is incomplete or incorrect. The DOHA Secretary must alter the entry on the ARTG when requested if the only effect of the change would be to reduce the class of persons for whom the device is suitable or to add a warning or precaution. The warning or precaution may not include any comparison of the device with any other therapeutic goods by reference to quality, safety, or efÞcacy. The Secretary may alter the entry on the ARTG if the TGA is satisÞed that the request does not indicate any reduction of the quality, safety, or efÞcacy of the device for the purpose for which it is intended to be used (Therapeutic Goods Act pp. 67–69). REGISTRATION

OF

THERAPEUTIC DEVICES

Under the Australian system, therapeutic devices that are perceived to present a signiÞcant risk of death or serious injury for a patient or user are required to be registered with the TGA. Registration means that these devices are subject to a premarket evaluation of their quality, safety, and effectiveness; they can be sold only after they are approved by the TGA. Once approved, these devices are recorded on the registered goods part of the ARTG. At the time of this book’s publication, the devices listed in Table 4.2 required registration. The person who wishes to manufacture, import, or export a device requiring registration must make a written application to the TGA and pay an appropriate fee. The TGA evaluates the application to determine (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 41): • Whether the quality, safety, and efÞcacy of the therapeutic device for the purposes for which the device is to be used have been established. • Whether the presentation of the device is acceptable. In this case, presentation means the way the therapeutic device is presented, including the name of the device, the labeling and packaging of the device, and any advertising or other informational material associated with the device.* SpeciÞcally, the submission should include (DR4 pp. 57–58): • draft or sample labels complying with TGO 37; • user manuals, programming manuals, programming instructions or equivalents; • physician manuals and implanting instructions; • technical manuals, or similar manuals, including speciÞcations; * Product information that is to be provided separately from the product, for whatever purpose, is not reviewed during the evaluation process. The sponsor is responsible for ensuring that this information is consistent with the information approved during the evaluation.

34

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

TABLE 4.2 Registrable Therapeutic Devices 1. • • • • • • • • •

Active implantable Medical Devices (AIMD), including (DR4 pp. 85–93): Implantable central nervous system pulse generators Diaphragmatic/phrenic nerve stimulators Carotid sinus stimulators Intracerebellar/subcortical and deep brain stimulators Cerebellar stimulators Vegal nerve stimulators Implantable drug infusion pumps Cardiac pacing systems Permanently implantable accessories such as leads and lead adaptors, extensions, caps and plugs, catheters and ports, for use with active implantable devices 2. Devices of animal origin or components of devices that are of animal origin, for use in the body or for application to broken skin, other than devices that (DR4, pp. 94–100): • Are manufactured using animal-derived waxes • Incorporate heparin, unless the heparin is being delivered as a drug • Are sutures conforming to a standards determined under Part 2 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 • Are made from sintered hydroxyapatite • Incorporate gelatin that conforms to generally accepted pharmacopoeia deÞnition 3. Implantable breast prostheses made of materials other than water or saline that could unintentionally migrate from the implant site (DR4 pp. 101–105) 4. Powered, nonimplantable drug infusion systems that regulate the ßow of liquids into the patient under positive pressure generated by a pump (DR4 pp. 106–112) 5. Extracorporeal-therapy systems that contain tissues, cell lines, or substances derived from human or animal sources, or are used as components within a system to separate, purify, or maintain a body ßuid or tissue ex vivo prior to infusion, transfusion, implantation, or transplantation (DR4 pp. 113–117) 6. Heart-valve prostheses (DR4 pp. 118–130) 7. Devices of human origin—Devices that are made from or contain human tissue are classiÞed into four separate categories based on the source of the material (DR4 pp. 131–138): • Commercial tissue—Commercially retrieved and processed human tissue must be registered on the ARTG. • Primary processed tissue—Human tissue that is procured by a tissue bank or hospital for implantation in or on the human body without any deliberate alteration to its biological or mechanical properties is exempt from registration in the ARTG. However, the supplying Tissue Bank must comply with the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice for Therapeutic Goods — Human Tissues. • Secondary processed tissue (tissue engineered)—Human tissue procured by a tissue bank or hospital for implantation in or on the human body, that is processed by steps that deliberately alter the biological or mechanical properties of the tissue, must be registered on the ARTG The tissue bank must comply with the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice for Therapeutic Goods — Human Tissues. • Direct donor-to-recipient transplantation (without storage)—Fresh viable human tissue (other than blood), human organs, parts of organs, human bone marrow for direct donor-to-matched-recipient transplant are not therapeutic goods under Section 7 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 and are exempt from registration on the ARTG. 8. Implantable IOLs (DR4 pp. 139–147) 9. Intraocular visco-elastic ßuids (DR4 pp. 148–151) 10. IUCDs unless the principal contraceptive action of the IUCD is achieved chemically through the release of a drug (in that case, the IUCD will be treated as a drug) (DR4 pp. 152–156) 11. Barrier contraceptive devices to which a Standard does not apply (e.g. female condom, cervical cap) (DR4 pp. 158–162) 12. Breast prostheses containing only saline that are manufactured using established materials and technology and are intended by the manufacturer to be left permanently in place (DR4 pp. 163–166) 13. Instrument-grade sterilants and hospital-grade or household/commercial-grade sterilants where speciÞc claims are made must be registered on the ARTG (Hospital-grade sterilants without speciÞc claims are listable in the ARTG.) (DR4, pp. 167–168) 14. Diagnostic kits for in vitro diagnosis of patients infected with the Human ImmunodeÞciency Virus (HIV) or with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are required to be registered on the ARTG (DR4 pp. 169–176) Source: DR4 pp. 85–175.

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia

• • •

• • •

35

• copies of any information provided separately to clinical staff, including training or instructional literature, videocassettes, movies, or visual-aid materials; • copies of any information provided separately to patients, including warnings and cautions; • copies of any promotional or advertising material concerning the device, components, and accessories; • forms and details of any systems used to track and trace the device; • copies of the information and instructions for use that are given to the practitioner, including copies of any training or instructional literature, models, video cassettes, movies, or visual-aid materials, where applicable; • when applicable, copies of information for healthcare professionals and instructions for use by the patient that should include detailed instructions, appropriate warnings, and cautions; • copies of any promotional or advertising material concerning the device, its components, and accessories; and • copies of service manuals covering the device, components, and accessories when service is to be performed by someone other than the manufacturer. Whether the device conforms to any applicable standards. Whether any requirements in the regulations relating to advertising the device have been satisÞed. For devices manufactured outside Australia, whether the manufacturing and quality-control procedures used in the manufacturing procedures acceptable. For those goods manufactured outside of Australia, the TGA may require evidence from a relevant overseas authority to establish that the manufacture of the goods conforms to an acceptable standard. For devices manufactured in Australia, whether the devices are manufactured in accordance with the manufacturing practices in Part 4 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. Whether the device contains substances that are prohibited under the Customs Act 1901. Whether any other matters considered relevant by the DOHA Secretary have been satisÞed.

After the therapeutic device has been evaluated, the TGA must issue a written notiÞcation to the applicant. If the decision is not to register the device, the TGA must provide the reasons for the decision. If the TGA decides to register the device, the applicant’s completed registration form, submitted with the initial application, is processed. As soon as practical, the TGA issues a certiÞcate of registration that lists the unique registration number assigned to that therapeutic device and sponsor. In connection with an application for registration of a therapeutic device, a person must not knowingly or recklessly make a statement that is false or misleading in a material particular. To knowingly or recklessly make a false or misleading statement in an application for registration is a violation of Section 22A of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 and makes the guilty party subject to a substantial Þne. CLAIMING EQUIVALENCE

TO A

REGISTERED DEVICE

Therapeutic goods are registered subject to the condition that no changes are to be made to the data on which the decision to register the device was made (DR4 p. 21). The manufacturer of a therapeutic device is responsible for identifying those changes to features of a registered device or its components, or the differences between a new model and a registered device that may have an effect on safety and effectiveness (DR4 p. 63). There are two types of modiÞcations that are considered as product changes (DR4 p. 21):

36

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

1. Variations to product information for registered or listed therapeutic devices that do not result in a new registration 2. Additions of products to grouped registrations Depending on the type of modiÞcation, the sponsor must (DR4, Annex 3 p. 1): • Obtain approval from the TGA prior to the change being made. (A sponsor who believes that the registrable device is equivalent to a predicate device that has been approved for supply in Australia may be able to lodge an abridged submission to support the application.) • Notify the TGA as soon as practicable and not later than three months after implementation of the changes. • Submit a notiÞcation directly to the ARTG as soon as practicable and not later than three months after implementing the change. No fee is required for change in the sponsor address or the contact person. For these changes or differences, the manufacturer or sponsor must be able to provide data that demonstrate that the quality, safety, and effectiveness of the device will be equivalent to that of the currently registered device. Annex 3 to the Australian Medical Devcie Requirements (DR4) provides a summary of the requirements for the sponsor to notify or seek approval for changes to registered (or listed) therapeutic devices or groups of devices. Some changes to the labeling of a therapeutic device are viewed as signiÞcant in making a determination of equivalence with the currently registered device. These include the following (DR4, Annex 3 pp. 3-6): • A change in labeling content (e.g., sponsor details, directions, warnings) with particular attention to: • a change to the intended use/clinical purpose with safety ramiÞcations, including new or extended indications for use • a change in claims for the device • a deletion from the contraindications/warnings • an extension of the recommended shelf life • a change in the product information or clinical manuals that relates to the original requirements for registration/listing • a change in the performance speciÞcations that affect the intended use or the technological characteristics of the device • the addition of a new product within a grouped registration/listing • A change in the manufacturing location • A change in the sterilization technique A second group of changes requires the sponsor to notify the TGA as soon as practicable and not later than three months after implementing the change. These include (DR4, Annex 3 pp. 3-6): • a change to the intended use/clinical purpose with no safety ramiÞcations, including strengthening instructions intended to enhance its safe use; • a change to the contraindications/warnings, not concerning a deletion; • a change in the recommended storage conditions, including new conditions; • a change to the product name;

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia

37

• a change of device storage conditions; and • a change of the manufacturer’s name. (A change of manufacturing site requires prior TGA approval and may be sufÞcient to require a new registration for the device.) A third group of changes requires the sponsor to submit a notiÞcation directly to the ARTG as soon as practicable and not later than three months after implementing the change. These include (DR4, Annex 3 pp. 3-6): • • • • •

a change in the a change in the a change in the a change in the discontinuing a

sponsor name (same sponsor), sponsor address, contact person, sponsor, and registered product.

Some changes to the labeling or the information supplied with the device are considered nonsigniÞcant provided that they are validated against the manufacturer’s speciÞcations and the manufacturer can demonstrate that they will not have a detrimental effect on the safety and efÞcacy of the device. These include (DR4, Annex 3 pp. 3-6): • • • • • •

a a a a a a

change of unit pack or pack size, change in the color of the label, change in the print size (having a height of 1.00 mm or more), change in the layout of the labels or labeling, reduction of the recommended shelf life, and change in the service manuals.

Because certain types of sterilants and disinfectants are registered products in Australia, changes to such a product’s use/description, claims, or indications may require TGA approval prior to the change being made. Other changes require the sponsor to submit a notiÞcation directly to the ARTG as soon as practicable and not later than three months after implementing of the change. These include (DR4, Annex 3 pp. 7-9): • • • • • • •

a a a a a a a

LISTING

change change change change change change change OF

in the sponsor name (same sponsor) in the sponsor address in the contact person in the sponsor in the label color in the print size or typeface of manufacturer’s address information (if different from the sponsor).

THERAPEUTIC DEVICES

The person who wishes to manufacture, import, or export a device requiring listing must make a written application to the TGA. The TGA will not refuse to list the device in relation to the person making the application unless there is evidence that (Therapeutic Goods Act pp. 45–46): • The device is not eligible for listing (e.g., the device is required to be registered). • The device is not safe for the purposes for which it is to be used.

38

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• The presentation of the device is not acceptable. • The device does not conform to the applicable standards. • One or more requirements in the regulations relating to advertising of the device have not been satisÞed. • For a device manufactured outside Australia, the manufacturing and quality control procedures used in the manufacturing process are not acceptable. For those goods manufactured outside Australia, the TGA requires evidence from a relevant overseas authority to establish that the manufacturing practice conforms to an acceptable standard. • For a device manufactured in Australia, the device is not produced in accordance with the manufacturing practices in Part 4 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 (licensing of therapeutic goods manufacturers). • The therapeutic device has been manufactured in Australia solely for export, and the device has been refused registration or listing for supply in Australia. • Any other matters considered relevant by the DOHA Secretary have not been satisÞed. After considering the application, the TGA must issue a written notiÞcation to the applicant. If the decision is not to list the device, the TGA must provide the reasons for the decision. If the TGA decides to list the device, the TGA issues a certiÞed copy of a CertiÞcate of Listing that details the listing number assigned to that therapeutic device and sponsor. CLAIMING EQUIVALENCE

TO A

LISTED DEVICE

As with registered therapeutic goods, goods are listed subject to the condition that no changes are to be made to the data on which the decision to list the device was made (DR4 p. 21). The manufacturer of a therapeutic device is responsible for identifying those changes to features of a listed device or its components, or the differences between a new model and a listed device, that may either require notiÞcation or prior approval by the TGA (DR4, Annex 3 p. 1). For listable devices, most changes to the labeling or the information supplied with the device are considered nonsigniÞcant provided that they are validated against the manufacturer’s speciÞcations and the manufacturer can demonstrate that they will not have a detrimental effect on the safety and efÞcacy of the device. A few changes require the sponsor to submit a notiÞcation directly to the ARTG as soon as practicable and not later than three months after implementing of the change. These include (DR4, Annex 3 pp. 3-6): • • • • •

a change in the a change in the a change in the a change in the discontinuing a

sponsor name (same sponsor), sponsor address, contact person, sponsor, and listed product.

A few more changes require the sponsor to notify the TGA as soon as practicable and not later than three months after implementing the change. These include (DR4, Annex 3 pp. 3-6): • a change of the manufacturer’s name, • the addition to the Pharmaceutical BeneÞts List for those devices that are to be supplied under the Australian Pharmaceutical BeneÞts Scheme (PBS) for in vitro diagnosis, and • a change to the product name.

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia

39

In addition, a few changes to the labeling of a listed therapeutic device are viewed as signiÞcant and require approval by the TGA before the change is made. These include (DR4, Annex 3 pp. 3-6): • a change in the manufacturing location and • a change in the sterilization technique used on the product. LICENSING

OF

THERAPEUTIC GOODS MANUFACTURERS

The Australian manufacturer of a registered or listed therapeutic device must be appropriately licensed to carry out the manufacture of the goods or class of goods within which the device is included. This provision of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 includes any subcontractor or testing facility in Australia that is contracted to, or otherwise engaged to, carry out all or part of the manufacture of the registered or listed device (DR4 p. 35). Section 35 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 makes it a crime for a person to knowingly or recklessly carry out a step in the manufacture of a therapeutic device requiring a license without a proper license. Violation of this provision subjects the perpetrator to a substantial Þne. The holder of a license who knowingly or recklessly breaches a condition of the license is also subject to a Þne. The licensing provision of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 applies unless the device, or person performing the manufacturing operation, is exempted by the regulations. A list of the devices exempted from the licensing provision of the act can be found in Table B.6 in Appendix B. A list of the persons exempted from this requirement is given in Table B.7 in Appendix B. Section 36(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 enables the DOHA Secretary to establish written principles to be observed in the manufacture of therapeutic devices for human use. These include quality assurance (QA) and quality-control procedures and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) to be employed in the manufacture of therapeutic devices. These principles extend to proper control of labeling and packaging operations to prevent labeling mix-ups between similar products or labels. The extent of production-area controls will be determined by the likelihood that a labeling mix-up can occur. A foreign manufacturer of therapeutic devices is required to comply with the same level of GMP that is expected of the manufacturer of similar products in Australia. A sponsor seeking registration or listing of a new therapeutic device must provide evidence of GMP compliance at the overseas manufacturing site(s). If more than one manufacturer is involved in the manufacture of a therapeutic device (e.g., assembly at one location and sterilization at another), then GMP evidence must be provided for each site (DR4 p. 36). When the TGA considers it necessary, the sponsor of a therapeutic device must agree to pay the cost of an audit of the foreign manufacturing site(s). The TGA, however, considers that some countries have GMP audits at least equivalent to that of Australia. This list includes Japan and the United States. Australia has entered into an MRA with the European Union (EU) that enables the TGA to accept certiÞcates issued by designated NotiÞed Bodies under the European medical device directives.* CertiÞcation by the regulatory authorities in these countries that the manufacturer operates to a satisfactory standard will be accepted as evidence of GMP compliance (Overseas GMP p. 7). For manufacturers of devices that are registrable if supplied in Australia, or active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), compliance with ISO 9001/EN 46001 or ISO 13485 is required. For manufacturers of other devices, compliance with ISO 9002/EN 46002 or ISO 13488 is required as a minimum as speciÞed in Schedule 3 of the TGR 2002. A manufacturers may elect to adopt ISO 9001/EN 46001 or ISO 13485 instead of ISO 9002/EN 46002 or ISO 13488 (DR4 p. 35). * An EC Type-Examination CertiÞcate (Annex III(3)) or Design Examination CertiÞcate (Annex II(2) Section 4) is not acceptable as evidence of an acceptable quality system.

40

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

COMMENCING

THE

SUPPLY

OF A

REGISTERED

OR

LISTED DEVICE

The sponsor of a registered or listed therapeutic device must provide a copy of the label(s) of the device to the TGA at the time of application. Where practical, actual labels should be provided. These labels are to be attached to the application form. Actual-size photocopies are acceptable where the label information is printed or embossed directly onto the container. EXPORT OF THERAPEUTIC DEVICES Unless they are exempt, therapeutic devices intended solely for export from Australia must be listed on the ARTG. Some countries that import therapeutic devices from Australia require a certiÞcate from the TGA showing the regulatory status of the product in Australia. The required details include copies of the labeling. CertiÞcation may be issued only for products registered or listed in the ARTG (DR4 p. 10). A registrable device that is solely for export becomes a listable device on the ARTG. No formal evaluation is undertaken because the device will never be supplied in Australia (DR4 p. 256). Except in unusual circumstances and with the written approval of the DOHA Secretary, therapeutic devices may not be exported from Australia if the devices do not conform to the applicable standards. This provision of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, however, does not apply to standards that specify the labeling required on devices that are to be supplied in Australia (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 23). IMPORT OF THERAPEUTIC DEVICES Therapeutic devices imported into Australia must meet all of the same requirements as devices produced in Australia. Unless they are exempted by the regulations, they must be registered or listed on the ARTG. In the case of imported devices, the registration number must be added to the labeling before the devices are supplied in Australia. The sponsor of the imported device must ensure that the labeling complies with the requirements of other applicable Commonwealth legislation, such as the Commerce (Trade Descriptions) Act, which requires the name of the country in which the device was made or produced to be included (TGO 37 p. 9). Sponsors may import therapeutic goods that are not registered or listed on the ARTG (unauthorized goods) and display them at conferences, trade fairs, and other events provided certain conditions are met. The sponsor must display unauthorized devices in a way that makes it clear that (DR4 p. 25): • • • •

The devices are currently unauthorized in Australia. They are not available for supply. They have not been entered on the ARTG. Their safety, quality, and efÞcacy have not been established by the TGA.

Any promotional material about these products distributed at the meeting should also indicate the conditions listed above. Until they are entered onto the ARTG, these devices must be held under the direct control of the sponsor. The sponsor may hold such unapproved devices for up to twelve months. However, the sponsor must maintain records of the source and supply of the devices. The TGA may request these records at any time. The products must be destroyed or returned to the consignor of the devices within one month of the end of that period (DR4, p. 25).

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia

41

TABLE 4.3 List of Materials Designated Biological Materials by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) Products that contain material components sourced from microorganisms Cell lines and hybridomas Serum Antiserum Enzymes Hormones Antibodies Toxins Toxoids Tissues or tissue extracts Secretions or exudates Blood and blood components Cell or microbiological culture media Microbial fermentation products Microbial extracts Microbial components Source: DR4 p. 9.

The approval of the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) is required before the importation of most therapeutic goods that contain human, animal, or plant material. The AQIS deÞnes biological material as any products of animal and/or microbiological origin. A list of biological materials subject to quarantine and inspection are listed in Table 4.3. The importation of these materials generally requires a “Permit to Import Quarantine Material” issued by the AQIS. However, for AQIS purposes, tissues (including organs) or ßuids (including blood, serum, plasma, semen, and urine) of solely human origin (excluding feces and cell lines) that are clearly labeled or certiÞed as such, do not require a permit. The use of this human origin material is controlled by the TGA (DR4 p 9). STANDARDS FOR THERAPEUTIC DEVICES The DOHA Secretary may, by publishing an order in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, establish standards for therapeutic devices (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 20). Standards under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 may include monographs in the British Pharmacopoeia, monographs in other publications approved by the DOHA, or publications of the Standards Association of Australia. Such a standard may require that a therapeutic device, or a class of therapeutic devices, be labeled or packaged in a speciÞc way or be kept in containers that comply with the standard. The order establishing a standard may direct that additional particulars appear on the label of a therapeutic device or class of devices. The order may also specify the particular manner in which the information is to be displayed. Except with the written consent of the DOHA Secretary, a person must not import or supply a therapeutic device for use in Australia that does not comply with the standards applicable to the device. To import or supply such a device is a violation of Section 14(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, which subjects the perpetrator to a very substantial Þne.

42

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

EXEMPTIONS FOR SPECIAL AND EXPERIMENTAL USES The DOHA Secretary may, by written notice, grant an exemption that allows an unapproved device to be used for special purposes. This exemption allows a person to import, export, or supply a device in Australia that is not exempt, not listed, and not a registered therapeutic device recorded on the ARTG. The special purposes recognized by Section 19(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 are: • use by a person who is registered, in a state or internal territory, as a medical practitioner in the treatment of another person (i.e., a “custom device”); • use solely for experimental purposes in humans (i.e., an “investigational device”); and • regulatory purposes. Both custom and investigational devices are exempted from the general requirements, including the labeling requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. However, they may be subject to conditions speciÞed in the notice of approval. Because they are exempt, they do not have to comply with the requirements of TGO 37, which are described in Chapter 5 (TGO 37 p. 1). INVESTIGATIONAL USE The intent of the exemption for “investigational use” is to obtain reliable data on the clinical safety and effectiveness of a device when these data do not already exist (DR4 p. 43). The approval of the TGA is not required for clinical trials of devices that are currently on the ARTG. There are two forms of application, the Clinical Trial NotiÞcation (CTN) and the Clinical Trial Exemption (CTE). Both schemes require Institutional Ethics Committee approval, and the Institutional Ethics Committee determines which scheme is appropriate (DR4 p. 43). Both CTNs and CTEs incur a fee. However, a CTE is more expensive because of the evaluation conducted by the TGA. In general, neither the CTN nor CTE cover the situation where a medical practitioner or related healthcare professional, in treating a particular patient, uses or modiÞes a registered or listed device outside the approved uses reßected in the labeling of the device. In doing so, the practitioner must consider the requirements of the appropriate Institutional Ethics Committee, informed patient consent, and his or her own legal obligations. It is a serious offense for a sponsor to knowingly supply a therapeutic device in Australia for human use unless the device is registered, listed, or exempt. Clinical Trial Notification (CTN) Scheme

The use of devices that fall under the CTN scheme does not require the approval of the DOHA Secretary, although certain conditions must be met to qualify for the exemption (DR4, pp. 47–48). The Institutional Ethics Committee is required to review each Clinical Investigation Plan and related Informed Consent Form in conjunction with data provided by the sponsor to support the proposal. The TGA encourages discussion with other Institutional Ethics Committees currently reviewing the trial. The Institution Ethics Committee may authorize the trial or decline to accept the proposed trial under the CTN scheme and inform the sponsor that the trial should be conducted under the provisions of the CTE. If the trial is accepted under the CTN scheme, the Institutional Ethics Committee informs the investigator and certiÞes this on the CTN. The CTN is forwarded to the TGA. The sponsor must ensure that the trial does not commence until approval has been obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee, and the TGA has provided formal acknowledgment of the notiÞcation. The TGA recommends that the Institutional Ethics Committee use the deÞnitions and methodology prescribed in European Standard EN 540:1993, and consult the departmental publications

The Therapeutic Goods Act of Australia

43

Guidelines for Good Clinical Research Practice 1991 and Statement on Human Experimentation and Supplementary Notes 1992. The sponsor must notify the TGA in writing of severe adverse events and all adverse device effects occurring in multicenter clinical investigations within 15 days; deaths or serious injuries are to be notiÞed within 72 hours. The sponsor must cease supplying devices for the investigation if requested by the TGA. The device must be clearly labeled “investigational use only” or with equivalent wording. In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices used to diagnose infection with Human ImmunodeÞciency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) may also require research trials before they can be registered on the ARTG. Such devices must be labeled “for research use only” or with equivalent wording. Clinical Trial Exemption (CTE) Scheme

Although the CTN scheme is the more commonly used clinical trial process, the CTE scheme may be better suited in the instance where the experimental device introduces new technology or materials that have not previously been evaluated. Goods subject to the CTE scheme are identiÞed as exempt goods and require approval by the DOHA Secretary prior to their use under Section 19 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. A CTE application must be accompanied by the information required by the TGA (DR4 p. 45). After considering the application, the TGA must provide the applicant with a written response. If the decision is not to authorize the experimental use of the device, the TGA must include the reasons for the decision in the notiÞcation. Consistent with the intent of the TGA to harmonize requirements for clinical trials with those of the EU, the TGA requires that data submitted for the CTE scheme must comply with European standard EN 540:1993, with reference to the TGA documents, Guidelines for Good Clinical Research Practice 1991 and Statement on Human Experimentation and Supplementary Notes 1992 (DR4 p. 43). The sponsor must notify the TGA in writing of severe adverse events and all adverse device effects occurring in multicenter clinical investigations within 15 days; deaths or serious injuries are to be reported within 72 hours. The sponsor must cease supplying devices for the investigation if requested by the TGA. The device must be clearly labeled “investigational use only” or with equivalent wording. CUSTOM DEVICES Australia offers two schemes that enable practitioners to gain access to therapeutic devices that would otherwise not be available. They are the Individual Patient Use (IPU) scheme and the Authorized User Approval (AUA) program. The IPU scheme enables a registered practitioner to access and use unregistered or unlisted therapeutic devices for an individual patient on a speciÞc occasion. Approval is granted when the individual patient has a demonstrated clinical need, is likely to beneÞt, and there is no approved device currently marketed in Australia that is sufÞcient. Approval for use of a device is arranged by direct contact between that practitioner and the TGA (DR4 pp. 48–49). The AUA program is an extension of the IPU scheme that allows authorized practitioners to access and use unregistered and unlisted devices under limited conditions without requiring a separate approval for each use. To be authorized, a practitioner has to meet the conditions established in the regulations and apply to the TGA for approval under the AUA program (DR4 pp. 50–51). There is no requirement for speciÞc labeling such as “custom-made device” under either the IPU or AUA programs.

44

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

GOODS EXEMPTED

FOR

REGULATORY PURPOSES

Part 7 of the TGR 2002 exempts certain goods from registration or listing on the ARTG. Item 1.3 of Schedule 4 speciÞcally exempts samples of therapeutic goods imported, exported, manufactured, or supplied for (TGR 2002 p. 118): • • • •

submission to a regulatory authority; developmental or quality-control procedures; examination, demonstration, or display; or analysis or laboratory testing

However, these devices may not be for supply for therapeutic use in humans. THINGS TO REMEMBER Medical devices in the Commonwealth of Australia are regulated under the provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. This act of Parliament is intended to establish and maintain a national system of controls relating to the quality, safety, efÞcacy, and timely availability of therapeutic goods. Under its provisions, the Governor-General of Australia may make regulations prescribing matters necessary or convenient for carrying out the terms of the act. Particularly with regard to the labeling of therapeutic devices, the regulations may both prescribe requirements for informational material that is included with the therapeutic device and set out requirements for advertising of therapeutic devices. Although the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 does not use the terms “adulteration” or “misbranding,” these concepts do appear in the Australian law. Supplying an adulterated or misbranded therapeutic device is an offense that subjects the guilty party to a substantial Þne. A therapeutic device may be considered misbranded if its labeling or advertising is false or misleading, leads to unsafe use of the device, suggests a purpose other than those for which the device has been approved in Australia, or fails to meet the requirements speciÞed in any regulations or standards applicable to the device. Advertising is deÞned in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 to include statements, pictorial representations, or designs that are intended, directly or indirectly, to promote the use or supply of a therapeutic device. The TGA maintains a register, known as the ARTG, for the purpose of compiling information on therapeutic goods used on humans. The ARTG is divided into two parts—registered goods and listed goods. Under the Australian system, therapeutic devices that are perceived to present a signiÞcant risk of death or serious injury for a patient or user are required to be registered on the ARTG. Registration means that these devices are subject to premarket evaluation of their quality, safety, and effectiveness. This includes an evaluation of the labeling to be provided with the device. These devices can be sold only after being approved by the TGA and after being recorded on the registered devices section of the ARTG. All other therapeutic devices, unless a TGO exempts them, are required to be listed on the ARTG. The person who wishes to manufacture, import, or export a device requiring listing can do so only after it has been included on the ARTG. The DOHA Secretary may grant an exemption that allows an unapproved device to be used for special purposes. This exemption allows a person to import, export, or supply a device in Australia that is neither exempt nor a therapeutic good listed on the ARTG. The intent of the exemption for “investigational use” is to obtain reliable data on the clinical safety and effectiveness of a device when these data do not already exist. The approval of the TGA is not required for clinical trials of devices that are currently on the ARTG.

Therapeutic Device Labeling 5 General in Australia Therapeutic devices, unless they are exempted in the regulations or by written notice from the Secretary of the Australian Department of Health and Aging (DOHA), are regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. The act applies to therapeutic devices regardless of whether they are produced domestically or are imported. The provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 also apply to devices produced for export from Australia. Failure to label a device in accordance with requirements in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 or the regulations promulgated to carry out the provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 renders the device misbranded. Misbranding is a violation of the letter of the law and exposes the sponsor of the device to substantial penalties. This chapter discusses the regulations that deal with misbranding of therapeutic devices. MISBRANDING Section 3(5) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 states that the presentation of therapeutic goods is unacceptable if it (a) is misleading or confusing as to the proper use of the device, (b) may lead to the unsafe use of the device, (c) suggests a purpose for which the device has not been approved, or (d) fails to comply with the applicable regulations. For therapeutic devices, the Þrst three points are covered in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 under the heading of “directions for use.” The general labeling requirements established by the TGA for therapeutic devices are contained in Therapeutic Goods Order (TGO) No. 37, which is discussed in detail later in this chapter. Failure to provide adequate directions for use or to follow or satisfy the requirements in TGO No. 37 will lead to the device being deemed misbranded. Selling or advertising for sale a misbranded device subjects the manufacturer or sponsor to a substantial Þne. ADEQUATE DIRECTIONS FOR USE The term “directions for use” in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 refers to the directions under which a therapeutic device can be used safely and for the purposes for which it is intended. “Adequate directions for use” means directions sufÞcient for the ultimate consumer (layperson or healthcare provider) to use the device safely and for the intended purpose. This includes: • statements of all conditions, purposes, or uses for which the device is prescribed, recommended, or suggested in its oral, written, printed, or graphic advertising; • ‘Indications,” or “Indications for Use,” which identiÞes the target population in which there is sufÞcient valid scientiÞc evidence to demonstrate that the device as labeled will provide clinically signiÞcant results without presenting an unreasonable risk of illness or injury; • the dosage for each use and the usual dosage for persons of differing ages and physical conditions; • the frequency and duration of treatment for each indication; and • the contraindications and appropriate warnings, precautions, and adverse reactions reasonably associated with the use of the device 45

46

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABELS FOR THERAPEUTIC DEVICES The Therapeuitc Goods Administration (TGA) has developed a set of labeling requirements that is applicable to most therapeutic devices. These requirements are considered to be the minimum information that should appear on the label of a therapeutic device in order to ensure the safe use of the device and to allow it to be traced to the sponsor and to a particular cycle in the manufacturing process. These requirements are contained in TGO 37. The TGA recognizes that there may be many other requirements related to the safe use of a particular class of devices that should appear on the label or be included in the package insert. TGO 37 does not attempt to address all of these requirements. TGO 37 applies to therapeutic devices supplied in any form that is normally available to the consumer. The consumer is deÞned as the person, authority, or institution to which a device is supplied for use as a therapeutic device (TGO 37 p. 2). Some devices, hovever, are exempt from the requirements of TGO 37. These include (TGO 37 p. 1): • A custom therapeutic device that, unlike any other therapeutic device, is manufactured and supplied for use by a speciÞc individual. Unregistered and unlisted devices can be made available to a registered practitioner as custom devices (see Chapter 4). While these devices are exempt from the requirements of TGO 37, the manufacturer is responsible for labeling the device to ensure its safe use. • A therapeutic device for dental use that is constructed externally to the mouth, and is Þtted or Þxed into the mouth on a temporary or permanent basis to correct irregularity or deÞciency. (Devices of human or animal origin and devices implanted directly into bone or soft tissue are not exempt from this regulation.) • A therapeutic device intended for veterinary use. • A device intended for use as an in vitro diagnostic (IVD). • A therapeutic device intended solely for export from Australia. • A therapeutic device intended solely for the purpose of conducting clinical trials (see Chapter 4). TGO 37 speciÞes requirements in the following areas: • Presentation requirements for numbers, letters, and symbols required or permitted on labels • General labeling requirements for all covered devices • Labeling for sterile devices and nonsterile implantable therapeutic devices The requirements in TGO 37 detail the minimum information set that must be included in the labeling for a therapeutic device. The following sections discuss each of these requirements in detail. The section number (e.g., §5) of the corresponding section in TGO 37 is listed with each topic for reference. PRESENTATION REQUIREMENTS (§4(2)(C)) To satisfy the requirements of TGO 37, each number, letter, or symbol required or permitted by this order to be included on a label must appear as follows: • Each required item must be clearly visible on the label. • Each item must be printed in durable form. The information required by the TGO cannot be hand written.

General Therapeutic Device Labeling in Australia

47

• Each character must be legible and must be printed in a type style having a letter height of not less than 1.0 millimeters. • Each item must be presented in the English language. • Units of measure must be expressed in the International System of Units (SI). Units generally accepted in clinical practice may also be used. For example, units of mmHg may be used when measuring blood pressure (DR4 p. 59). GENERAL LABELING REQUIREMENTS Part 2 of TGO No. 37 details a set of general labeling requirements that apply to all covered therapeutic devices that are not supplied sterile, or are not nonsterile implantable therapeutic devices. Every therapeutic device to which this part of the regulation applies must have a label or labels that meet the requirements of this part. NAME

OF THE

THERAPEUTIC DEVICE (§7(A))

The device label must contain the name of the therapeutic device. In this context, name means a name that is sufÞciently descriptive to indicate the true nature of the therapeutic device to which it is applied (TGO 37 p. 2). Examples of therapeutic-device names include, for example, insulin syringe, absorbable sutures, implantable breast prostheses, and implantable cardiac pacemaker. NAME

AND

PLACE

OF

BUSINESS (§ 7(B))

The device label must contain the name and address of the manufacturer or sponsor of the therapeutic device. If the manufacturer or sponsor has a registered name, that name must appear on the label along with the city, town, or locality in which the registered ofÞce or registered place of business is situated (TGO 37 p. 2). A registered name means the name of a partnership, Þrm, business, company, or corporation registered or incorporated in accordance with the appropriate laws of any state or territory (TGO 37 p. 3). For a manufacturer or sponsor that does not have a registered name, the label must include the name under which the manufacturer or sponsor conducts business and the address of the principal place of business of that manufacturer or sponsor. The address must include, as applicable, the street number or numbers, the street name, the city or town, and the state or territory in Australia. For manufacturers or sponsor whose place of business is outside Australia, the address must also include the name of the country. The label must not include a post-ofÞce, cable, telegraphic, or code address (TGO 37 p. 3). The address must be sufÞciently detailed to allow an inspector from the Compliance Branch of the TGA to visit the sponsor’s place of business. For purposes of the regulations, the sponsor of a therapeutic device is the person who (TGO 37 p. 4): • In Australia, manufacturers the devices, or arranges for another person to manufacture the devices, for supply (whether in Australia or elsewhere) • Imports, or arranges the importation of, the devices into Australia • Exports, or arranges the exportation of, the devices from Australia A person is not considered the sponsor of a device if they perform any of these functions on behalf of another person who at the time is a resident of or is carrying on business in Australia. For example, a person who imports a device for sale by an Australian distributor would not be the sponsor of the device. The Australian distributor would be considered the sponsor.

48

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

In this context, “manufacture” is deÞned in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 as the production of the device, or engaging in any part of the process of producing the device, or bringing the device to its Þnal state. Manufacturing includes engaging in the processing, assembling, packaging, labeling, storage, sterilizing, testing, or releasing for sale of the therapeutic device. Manufacturing also includes performing any of these processes on any of the components or ingredients of the device (Therapeutic Goods Act p. 6). In Australia, a sponsor may contract with another person to manufacture the device. The contract manufacturer is not considered a sponsor of the device and does not have to be named on the label. A person who imports or exports a therapeutic device on behalf of another person who is a resident of or is doing business in Australia is also not considered the sponsor of the device. BATCH

OR

SERIAL NUMBER (§7(C))

The label must include a batch or serial number, which is a characteristic marking given by the manufacturer to a particular device or to all devices in a batch for the purpose of uniquely identifying the device or batch (TGO 37 p. 1). A batch means a quantity of therapeutic devices that are uniform in composition, method of manufacture, and probability of chemical or microbial contamination. They must be made in one designated cycle of manufacture, and, in the case of sterilizing or freeze-drying, they must be sterilized or freeze-dried in one cycle. The batch or serial number must enable the device or batch to be traced through any or all of the critical stages of its manufacture and supply. The batch number or serial number may be immediately preceded, as appropriate, by the words “Batch,” “Batch Number,” “Batch No.,” “Lot,” “Lot Number,” “Lot No.,” or “Lot Code,” “Serial Number,” “Serial No.,” or by words having a similar meaning. The symbols “B,” “(B),” or “” “SN,” “S/N,” or “FABR” may be used as an alternative to the word designations (TGO 37 pp 1-2). While the regulations permit a variety of designations for devices produced in batches, the preferred identiÞcation is “Batch Number,” “B,” “(B),” or “” The date of manufacture of the therapeutic device may be used as the batch or serial number if it is clearly recognizable as a date (TGO 37 p. 2). MULTIPLE DEVICES

IN A

PACKAGE (§7(D))

If two or more therapeutic devices are contained within the same package, the label must give the names and quantities of each of the goods. This provision applies if the package contains identical or different devices or consists in part of a substance that is a solid, semisolid, liquid, or gaseous element, compound, or mixture (TGO 37 p. 4). In relation to therapeutic goods, quantity means either the number of discrete units in the package or, where the goods are a substance, their nominal weight or volume (TGO 37 p. 3). LABELING

OF

STERILE DEVICES

AND

NONSTERILE IMPLANTABLE THERAPEUTIC DEVICES

Part 3 of TGO 37 details a set of labeling requirements that apply to therapeutic devices that are supplied sterile or are non-sterile implantable therapeutic devices. Every therapeutic device to which this part of the regulation applies must have one or more labels on, or attached to, the unit packaging. If the device has an outer package, then the outer package must also have one or more labels attached that meet the requirements of Part 3. Under TGO 37, a therapeutic device is considered implantable if it is designed to be implanted into the soft tissue or a body cavity, other than the teeth, of a person and remain there for 30 days or more (TGO 37 p. 2).

General Therapeutic Device Labeling in Australia

49

UNIT PACKAGES (§10) For a sterile device or nonsterile implantable device, the unit package is the outermost level of packaging that maintains the sterility of the device or devices. In other cases, the unit package is the packaging closest to the therapeutic device or devices that wholly envelops all of the goods in the package (TGO 37 p. 5). The label(s) on or attached to the unit package of a therapeutic device must contain all of the applicable information listed in this section, and the information must be visible to the consumer. The consumer is deÞned as the person, authority, or institution to which a device is supplied for use as a therapeutic device. The term consumer does not include a person, such as a distributor, to whom the device is supplied for the principal purpose of trade in therapeutic devices (TGO 37 p. 2). The following information is required on the unit package: • The name of the therapeutic device must appear on the label. The requirements for the name of the device were discussed in the earlier section, “Name of the Therapeutic Device.” • The names and quantities of all devices within the unit package must appear on the label if the package contains two or more identical or different devices, or consists in part of a substance. The requirements for “Multiple Devices in a Package” are discussed in the prior section under that title. • If the therapeutic device is manufactured in more than one size or design, the label must include the model designation—the characteristic markings or color characteristics given by the manufacturer to all devices that have identical designs (TGO 37 p. 2). If there is no model designation, the label must give the size of the device. The size is a descriptive term given by the manufacturer or sponsor to describe the size or shape of the device. It may include the physical measurements of the device or a descriptive expression such as “small,” “medium,” or “large” (TGO 3, p. 3). • If the therapeutic device is intended by the manufacturer or sponsor to be used only once, the words “Single-use” or “Use only once,” or words having a similar meaning may appear on the label. However, the word “disposable” must not be used to indicate the intentions of the manufacturer or sponsor. • The label must contain the batch number or serial number. The requirements for batch numbers and serial numbers were discussed in the earlier section, “Batch or Serial Number.” • The label must include the name of the manufacturer or sponsor of the therapeutic device. A registered trademark may be substituted for the name of the manufacturer or sponsor if the trademark is registered under the Trade Marks Act 1955, and the manufacturer or sponsor is the proprietor or registered user (TGO 37 p. 3). • If the therapeutic device is supplied in a sterile condition, the word “Sterile” must appear on the label. • For a therapeutic device where the sterility may be qualiÞed or limited to areas, components, or total presentation, the label must bear an additional statement to this effect. For example, this might include a caution statement advising the user that only the ßuid path of a dialyzer is sterile: CAUTION: ONLY

THE FLUID PATH OF THE SET IS STERILE AND NONPYROGENIC.

STERILE OR ASEPTIC AREA WITHOUT PROPER PRECAUTIONS.

DO

NOT USE IN A

50

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

OUTER PACKAGES (§13) The outer package is the outermost level of packaging in which one or more therapeutic devices could normally become available to the consumer (TGO 37 p. 3). Subject to the requirements in the subsequent sections titled “Individually Wrapped Goods” and “Transparent Packages,” a label on the outer package must include most of the information required on the unit package. SpeciÞcally, the label on the outer package must include all of the following: • The name and address of the manufacturer or sponsor • The name of the therapeutic device • The names and quantities of all devices within the unit package, if the package contains two or more identical or different devices, or consists in part of a substance • If the therapeutic device is manufactured in more than one size or design, the model designation must be included on the outer package label. If there is no model designation, then the label must give the size of the device. • If the therapeutic device is intended by the manufacturer or sponsor to be used only once, the words “Single-use” or “Use only once,” or words having a similar meaning must appear. However, the word “disposable” must not be used to indicate the intentions of the manufacturers or sponsors. • The batch number or serial number of the device • If the therapeutic device is a nonsterile implantable device, a label on the outer package must also bear the words “Nonsterile” or “Sterilize before use,” or words having a similar meaning. SMALL PACKAGES (§11) The unit package for a therapeutic device may be so small that it is not practical to set out on the label attached to the unit package all of the information required by the regulations. If a therapeutic device is enclosed within both a unit package and an outer package, then it is sufÞcient that the label on the unit package contain the following information: • The name of the therapeutic device • The name of the manufacturer or sponsor of the therapeutic device, or the registered trademark of the manufacturer or sponsor • If the therapeutic device is represented to be supplied in a sterile condition, the word “Sterile” INDIVIDUALLY WRAPPED GOODS (§12) The individual wrapping of a single-use therapeutic device such as Þrst-aid strips, contact-lens solutions, swabs, or similar devices is considered to be the unit package for the device. If the unit package is enclosed in an outer package that is labeled as speciÞed in the earlier section on “Outer Packaging,” then it is sufÞcient that the label on the individual wrapper contains the following information: • The name of the therapeutic device (e.g., Þrst-aid strips) • The name of the manufacturer or sponsor of the therapeutic device, or the registered trademark of the manufacturer or sponsor • If the therapeutic device is represented to be supplied in a sterile condition, the word “Sterile”

General Therapeutic Device Labeling in Australia

TRANSPARENT PACKAGES (§§14

AND

51

15)

If the unit package containing one or more therapeutic devices is made of transparent material such that a person could clearly recognize the nature of the devices within the package, and could count the number of devices within the package, the label on the unit package need not contain: • the name of the therapeutic devices, • the name of the goods within the unit package, or • the quantity of each of the goods within the unit package. The label on the device may contain some or all of the information required on the unit or outer package. If the label on the device can be read through the packaging, then the label on the unit package or outer package need not duplicate those particulars that are clearly visible on the device label. The user must be able to read the information without the need to manipulate the device within the package. However, for sterile therapeutic devices, the word “Sterile” must still appear on the label attached to the unit package. For a therapeutic device where the sterility may be qualiÞed in respect to components or total presentation, the label on the unit package must bear an additional statement to this effect. IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC (IVD) GOODS In Australia, certain therapeutic goods, which would be devices according to the deÞnition in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, have been declared to be drugs under the act. This approach is adopted for devices where safety considerations require that the device be evaluated in a manner similar to drugs. The expertise necessary for this type of evaluation resides within the Drug Safety and Evaluation Branch of the TGA (DR4 p. 2). Examples include blood and blood products, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) containing hormones, and chemical oxygen generators. A list of devices declared to be drugs is found in Table B.2 in Appendix B. Diagnostic goods for in vitro use are included in the list of devices declared to be drugs. There are, however, four groups of IVD goods that are required to be listed on the Australina Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG) prior to supply in Australia. The groups are (DR4 p. 222): • IVD goods for home use, • IVD goods supplied as a Commonwealth Pharmaceutical BeneÞt under the Pharmaceutical BeneÞt Scheme (PBS), • IVD goods that incorporate material of human origin, • IVD goods that are used for the diagnosis of infection with Human ImmunodeÞciency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), All other IVD goods are exempt from registration or listing on the ARTG (see Table B.3 in Appendix B). Some of these goods may be subject to the Quarantine Act 1901. The sponsor is responsible for obtaining quarantine permits for importation of covered devices from the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) of the Department of Primary Industry and Energy (DPIE). In addition, goods that contain drug metabolites listed in the fourth schedule of the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations must obtain the necessary permits to import these goods.

52

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

DEVICES SUPPLIED

FOR

HOME USE

AND AS A

COMMONWEALTH PHARMACEUTICAL BENEFIT

These IVD goods must be labeled in accordance with TGO No. 37. Information for the patient must be in plain English and must clearly describe the nature, use, and limitations of the test. All measurement must be expressed in SI units (DR4 p. 223). For these goods, copies of the label and patient information must be submitted with the application for listing on the ARTG. DEVICES INCORPORATING MATERIAL

OF

HUMAN ORIGIN

IVD goods that incorporate material of human origin must comply with the requirements in TGO 34—Standards for Diagnostic Goods of Human Origin. The sponsor must ensure that these goods comply with TGO 34 and that the evidence to substantiate this claim can be made available to the TGA upon request (DR4 p. 223). DEVICES USED FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV)

OF INFECTION WITH

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

Applications for registration of IVD goods for diagnosis of HIV or HCV are forwarded to the TGA’s Conformity Assessment Branch (CAB). The CAB will coordinate the evaluation. The TGA will evaluate the kit integrity while the National Serological Reference Laboratory (NRL) evaluates quality and efÞcacy aspects. HIV test kits are speciÞed as being suitable for routine screening or supplemental purposes. The conditions relating to the registration will specify the appropriate category. HCV test kits are categorized as being suitable either for routine screening or for supplemental purposes only, and the condition of entry on the ARTG will specify the category of supply. Once registered, there is no restriction to the supply of HCV test kits approved for screening. However, it is Commonwealth policy that all HCV test kits approved for use as supplemental assays and those using newer technology (e.g., polymerase chain reaction and branched DNA ampliÞcation) be supplied only to laboratories approved by state/territory health authorities (DR4 pp. 169-170). APPLICATION OF THE REGISTRATION NUMBER Section 20(2) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 requires that the registration number of a therapeutic device must be set out on the label in a prescribed manner. For imported devices, the registration number must be afÞxed to the device before it is supplied in Australia. The registration number is to be set out (a) on the label on the device or (b) on the label on the outermost level of the packaging in which the device is to be supplied to its user. The registration number must be written so that it is clearly visible to the user. When more than one device is packaged together for supply, the registration number must appear on the outermost label of the outermost package. The registration number must appear on the main label or on a securely afÞxed sticker adjacent to the main label. The registration number is preceded by “AUST R” for registrable devices or “AUST L” for listable devices. Each character must be legible and must be printed in a type style having a letter height of not less than 1.0 millimeter. LABELING OF COMPONENTS AND KITS For device kits, the provisions of TGO 37 apply to the kit as an entity, but the listing numbers are not required. If the kit is the unit pack of a registered device, the registration number preceded by “AUST R” or “AUST L” as appropriate is required on the kit.

General Therapeutic Device Labeling in Australia

53

If the device components of a kit are subject to other TGOs (e.g., sutures), the labeling requirements of the speciÞc TGO apply to that component. Exemptions from the labeling requirements of the speciÞc TGO may be sought from the TGA where these requirements cause particular difÞculties. INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED FOR SPECIFIC REGISTRABLE DEVICES Certain therapeutic devices must be registered with the TGA before they can be sold in Australia. Registration means that these devices are subject to premarket evaluation of their quality, safety, and effectiveness. These devices include: • active implantable medical devices (e.g., cardiac-pacing systems, implantable-drug infusion pumps, implantable central-nervous system pulse generators); • devices of animal origin; • breast prostheses not Þlled with water or saline; • powered drug-infusion systems; • extracorporeal-therapy systems; • heart-valve prostheses; • devices of human origin; • intraocular lenses (IOLs); • intraocular visco-elastic ßuids; • IUCDs; • barrier contraceptive devices; • breast prostheses Þlled with saline; • disinfectants and sterilants; and • HIV/HCV IVD kits. The TGA has established speciÞc requirements for information that must be submitted with the registration application. These requirements are outlined in Block 2 of the Australian Medical Device Requirements Version 4 under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 (DR4). In some cases, these requirements deÞne speciÞc information that must be included in the labeling of the devices, either directly or by reference to standards. HEART-VALVE PROSTHESES A heart-valve prosthesis can be either a mechanical heart valve or a biological heart valve. The labeling requirements for these devices are contained in ISO 5840:1996, Cardiovascular implants—Cardiac Valve Prostheses. In addition, if resterilization is recommended, the instructions supplied to the practitioner must include details of approved methods (DR4 p. 126). As a condition of registration, the heart-valve prosthesis manufacturer may be required to maintain a register containing the names (or identiÞers) of all heart-valve recipients and treating physicians. The minimum data set for the register includes the manufacturer and sponsor identiÞer(s), device model and catalogue numbers, type and size of the valve, device serial and batch number, patient identiÞer, hospital identiÞer, physician identiÞer, and procedure date. The manufacturer will need to provide a registration form to collect the required information. ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES (AIMDS) An AIMD is any medical device that (DR4 p. 85):

54

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• Relies on any source of energy other than that directly generated by the human body or gravity for its operation and performance; • Is designed for implantation, in full or in part, by surgical or medical operation into the human body, or by medical intervention into a natural oriÞce; and • Is intended to remain in place after the procedure. The labeling for these devices must conform to the requirements in TGO No. 37. Detailed labeling requirements for these devices are contained in EN 45502-1, Active Implantable Medical Devices – Part 1: General Requirements for Safety, Marking and Information to be Provided by the Manufacturer. EN 45502-1 is the technical equivalent of ISO 14708-1. DRUG-INFUSION SYSTEM (POWERED,

NONIMPLANTABLE)

These are nonimplantable devices that are intended to regulate the ßow of liquids into the patient under positive pressure generated by the pump. Labeling requirements for these devices are described in IEC 60601-1 and its applicable collateral standards, including IEC 60601-1-2 on electromagnetic compatibility and IEC 60601-1-4 on safety of programmable electronic medical systems. Particular requirements are found in IEC 60601-2-24, Particular Requirements for Infusion Pumps and Controllers. Labeling on pump administration sets must clearly state the device with which the set is recommended to work and the recommended change period of the set (DR4 p. 109). BREAST PROSTHESES (NOT SALINE

OR

WATER)

These are implantable breast prostheses that are constructed of an outer polymeric shell and contain an inner Þlling material that is not water or saline (e.g., silicone gel or soya bean lipid ). The instructions for use must describe how to identify the make, model, and batch number of the implant using some imaging modality. As a condition of registration, the nonsaline breastprosthesis manufacturer may be required to maintain a register containing the names (or identiÞers) of all recipients and the device identiÞcation. The manufacturer will need to provide a registration form to collect the required information. The manufacturer should provide an implant-identiÞcation card for the patient and at least two self-adhesive labels with the implant details necessary for product identiÞcation. Advice should be given that the labels are to be attached to the hospital’s and surgeon’s records of the patient. THERAPEUTIC DEVICES

OF

ANIMAL ORIGIN

The labeling for these devices must conform to the requirements in TGO No. 37. The outer package label should include a statement indicating the device contains material of animal origin (e.g., bovine, ovine). The product literature should include the following statement, or one of similar intent, in information provided to the patient (DR4 p. 95): THIS

DEVICE IS DERIVED FROM ANIMAL TISSUE AND, ALTHOUGH CARE HAS BEEN EXERCISED IN ITS

MANUFACTURE TO MINIMIZE PATHOGEN CONTENT, A POTENTIAL RISK IS PRESENT, AND ABSOLUTE FREEDOM FROM INFECTIVE AGENTS CANNOT BE GUARANTEED.

THERAPEUTIC DEVICES

OF

HUMAN ORIGIN

The labeling for these devices must conform to the requirements in TGO 37. The outer package label should include a statement indicating the device contains material of human origin. The product

General Therapeutic Device Labeling in Australia

55

literature should include the following statement, or one of similar intent, in information provided to the patient (DR4 p. 133): THIS

DEVICE IS DERIVED FROM HUMAN TISSUE AND, ALTHOUGH CARE HAS BEEN EXERCISED IN ITS

MANUFACTURE TO MINIMIZE HUMAN PATHOGEN CONTENT, A POTENTIAL RISK IS PRESENT, AND ABSOLUTE FREEDOM FROM INFECTIVE AGENTS CANNOT BE GUARANTEED.

The Þrst application to supply dura mater/ophthalmic products must include a copy of all product literature for review. The package insert must include the following information for the practitioner (DR4 p. 136): • Information from the US Center for Disease Control suggests that evidence of CreutzfeldtJakob disease is found in 1/10,000 autopsies. • The inactivation procedures performed during the manufacturing process cannot be relied on to completely inactivate the agent of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. • The Department of Health and Aging (DOHA) recommends that the use of dura grafts be restricted to indications where there is no satisfactory alternative. • A list of any other virus not tested for and not destroyed by the decontamination process must be included in the package insert. INTRAOCULAR LENSES (IOLS) The labeling for these devices must conform to the requirements in TGO 37. Where the IOL requires speciÞc cleaning and/or disinfection solutions or accessories, a description of containers, composition of solutions, any equipment needed, and their speciÞcations must be included in the instructions for use. INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES (IUCDS) The prescribing information and instructions for use of an IUCD should include information on (DR4 p. 153): • • • • • • • • •

contraindications for use; recommended time and technique for insertion; use of accessory inserting device; trimming of withdrawal tail (if any); complications during insertion; recommended maximum in utero residence time; techniques for location in situ; techniques for removal; and details of shelf-life and storage conditions

All product information, promotional literature, and pre- and postinsertion leaßets for the patient must include (DR4 p. 154): • the name and a descriptive diagram of the IUCD, • the recommended removal time, • details on possible side effects and complications along with recommended action to be taken; and • instructions for checking the position of the IUCD.

56

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

BARRIER CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES Barrier contraceptive devices include products such as the female condom, cervical cap, an so on. In addition to the requirements in TGO 37, the label must include (DR4 p. 159): • the date of manufacture, • the shelf life or expiration date, and • storage conditions. Consumer information must be written in plain English, and must fully describe the use, effectiveness, contraindications, warnings, and method of disposal. SALINE BREAST PROSTHESES Breast prostheses containing only saline that are manufactured using established materials and technology and are intended by the manufacturer to be left permanently in place are registrable devices in Australia. The instructions for use must describe how to identify the make, model, and batch number of the implant using some imaging modality. As a condition of registration, the saline breast-prosthesis manufacturer may be required to maintain a register containing the names (or identiÞers) of all recipients and the device identiÞcation. The manufacturer will need to provide a registration form to collect the required information. HIV/HVC IVD KITS These are test kits intended for the diagnosis of patients infected with HIV or with HCV. The labeling for these test kits must include (DR4 p. 173): • • • • • • •

the test kit name, the name of all reagents, the sponsor’s or manufacturer’s name and address, the expiration date, warnings, the lot/batch number, and the AUST R number.

THINGS TO REMEMBER The Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 established a national system of controls relating to the quality, safety, efÞcacy, and timely availability of therapeutic devices in Australia. The Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 applies to therapeutic goods that are used in Australia regardless of whether they are produced domestically or are imported. The provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 also apply to devices produced for export from Australia. Failure to label a device in accordance with requirements in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 or the regulations promulgated to carry out the provisions of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 renders the device misbranded. Misbranding is a violation of the letter of the law, and exposes the sponsor of the device to substantial penalties. The TGA has developed a minimum set of labeling requirements that are applicable to most therapeutic devices. The requirements are considered to be the minimum information that should

General Therapeutic Device Labeling in Australia

57

appear on the label of a therapeutic device in order to ensure the safe use of the device and to allow the device to be traced to the sponsor and to a particular cycle in the manufacturing process. These requirements are contained in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 and in TGO 37. In Australia, certain therapeutic goods, which would be devices according to the deÞnition in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, have been declared not to be therapeutic devices under the Act. Diagnostic goods for in vitro use are included in the list of devices declared to be drugs. There are, however, four groups of IVD goods that are required to be listed on the ARTG prior to supply in Australia. All other IVDs are exempt.

Therapeutic Goods Amendment 6 The of 2002 In June 1998, Australia signed a Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) with the European Union (EU). The EU MRA applies to medical devices manufactured in the EU, Australia, and New Zealand that are subject to third-party conformity assessment. Devices incorporating animal-derived tissues, radioactive materials, in vitro diagnostics (IVDs), and devices bearing the CE marking that are manufactured in other countries are excluded (DR4 p. 33). The MRA authorizes the Department of Health and Aging (DOHA) to recognize that EU conformityassessment bodies as competent to assess whether or not medical devices conform to the Australian requirements for entry on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). Conversely, the EU recognizes the competence of conformity-assessment bodies designated by the DOHA to undertake assessment of medical devices for compliance with the requirements for certiÞcation (CE marking) for entry into the EU market. At the time of publication of this book, the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the only designated conformity-assessment body in Australia under the terms of the MRA. This agreement opened the door for Australia to harmonize its regulatory system for medical devices by adopting the essential principles of quality, safety, performance, and vigilance requirements, and the use of international standards as recommended by the Global Harmonization Task Force (GHTF). The new system incorporates elements of the European regulatory requirements, but not the European “notiÞed body” evaluation system. On March 21, 2002, the Australian Parliament passed the Therapeutic Goods Amendment (Medical Devices) Bill 2002. As the name of the legislation indicates, this regulatory reform is being introduced as an amendment to the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. The intent of the amendment is to (TGA, New Legislation p. 1): • align Australia’s system for regulating medical devices with internationally accepted best practice based on GHTF guidelines and the EU requirements; • make no change to the Australian regulatory regime for medicines; • retain Australia’s sovereignty by providing a choice to accept or reject future changes, particularly through the recognition of new standards; • continue to regulate the quality and safety of therapeutic goods not covered by the EU system, including tampons and disinfectants; and • provide for a transition to the new scheme. The Therapeutic Goods Amendment (Medical Devices) Bill 2002 received Royal Assent on April 4, 2002. The provisions of this amendment come into force six months after the Act receives Royal Assent. Consequently, the new harmonization system came into force on October 5, 2002. After that time all new medical devices were required to comply with the new harmonization requirements, except for a small group of products, such as currently exempt products, which will have until October 4, 2004 to meet the new requirements. All medical devices currently approved for use in Australia will have until October 4, 2007 (Þve years) to comply with the new requirements (TGA, General Information p. 2).

59

60

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

SCOPE OF THE NEW REGULATION Because the new scheme is very different from the previous regime for regulating therapeutic goods, a new, separate section in the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 has been developed. This approach extends rather than modiÞes the existing regulatory regime for devices. The Therapeutic Goods Act retains the old regime for regulating “therapeutic devices” (the term used in the 1989 act) while adding the new scheme for the regulation of “medical devices” (the new term as used in the EU system). For the purposes of the new regulation, a “medical device” is any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material, or other article (whether used alone or in combination, and including the software necessary for its proper application) intended, by the person under whose name it is or is to be supplied, to be used for human beings for the purpose of: • diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment or alleviation of disease; • diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, alleviation of, or compensation for an injury or handicap; • investigation, replacement, or modiÞcation of the anatomy or of a physiological process; and/or • control of conception and that does not achieve its principal intended action in or on the human body by pharmacological, immunological, or metabolic means, but may be assisted in its function by such means. An accessory to such an instrument, apparatus, appliance, material, or other article is also considered a medical device (TGA, General Information p. 1). Under this deÞnition, medical devices include a wide range of products such as medical gloves, bandages, syringes, condoms, contact lenses, X-ray equipment, heart-rate monitors, surgical lasers, pacemakers, dialysis equipment, baby incubators, and heart valves. THE APPROACH The new section of the act provides a complete and integrated system for regulating medical devices. The new section sets out the “essential principles” applicable to all medical devices, and then provides the TGA with broad powers to implement the provisions of the Therapeutic Good Act. Therefore, the regulation of devices will be a two-part scheme—one part regulating therapeutic devices and the other part regulating medical devices. However, only one set of Australian regulations will apply to any one product at any one time. This approach allows Australia to continue regulating the quality and safety of therapeutic goods not covered by the EU system. The current legislation, which deals with both medicines and therapeutic devices, will continue to function with minimal change and disruption. DEVICE CLASSIFICATION Under the Therapeutic Goods Amendment (Medical Devices) Bill 2002, medical devices are classiÞed based on their “intended purpose.” Intended purpose is deÞned as the purpose for which the manufacturer of the device intends it to be used. The manufacturer establishes the intended purpose through statements in: • the information provided with the device, • the instructions for use of the device, or • any advertising material applying to the device.

The Therapeutic Goods Amendment of 2002

61

Most medical devices are classiÞed into one of Þve classes (I, IIa, IIb, III and active implantable medical devices [AIMDs]). The rules for classifying devices are contained in Schedule 2 of the medical device regulations. All classes will comply with a minimum requirement for safety and performance and will be included on the ARTG. Many medical devices that are currently listable, such as thermometers, gauze dressings, and stethoscopes, are Class I devices and are subject to the lowest level of regulatory oversight. Many exempt medical devices, such as nonpowered hospital furniture and simple nonsterile, nonpowered surgical and dental instruments will also become Class I. Other listable medical devices, such as hearing aids, dental Þlling materials and oxygen meters, will become Class IIa devices. Higher-risk listable and registrable medical devices will become Class IIb and III devices. AIMDs are assigned their own classiÞcation group. An AIMD is any active medical device that is intended by the manufacturer: • either to be, by surgical or medical intervention, introduced wholly or partially into the body of a human being; or to be, by medical intervention, introduced into a natural oriÞce in the body of a human being; and • to remain in place after the procedure. All classes of medical devices will be required to demonstrate their conformity with quality, safety, and performance requirements. Manufacturers of Class IIa, IIb, and III devices and AIMDs are required to have a quality system. Class III devices and AIMDs are subject to the most extensive premarket assessment in Australia’s new regulatory system. At the time of publication, the TGA was continuing to consult on the inclusion of IVD medical devices in the new regulatory system. ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES The Therapeutic Goods Amendment (Medical Devices) Bill 2002 establishes a set of essential principles for safety and performance with which all medical devices must comply. The essential principles, including requirements for labels and accompanying documents, are listed in Schedule 1 in the regulations. Compliance with these requirements is mandatory and failure to conform can result in a range of administrative and legal penalties. STANDARDS Under the new system, the TGA will continue to list standards that are deemed to demonstrate a level of quality, safety, and performance consistent with the essential principles in the Therapeutic Goods Act in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. However, compliance with these standards will not be mandatory. Compliance with the relevant standards will lead the DOHA Secretary to presume that the medical device meets the essential principles of safety and performance. AUSTRALIAN REGISTER

OF

THERAPEUTIC GOODS (ARTG)

Medical devices offered for sale in Australia will continue to be included on the ARTG. Most of the administrative requirements in Part 3 of the Therapeutic Goods Act will continue to be used for the new system. While medical devices will no longer be “registered” or “listed,” the sponsor will still have to apply to the TGA for entry onto the ARTG. The cancellation of entries, recalls, and other administrative actions will be much as it is under the old system (TGA, New Legislation p. 2).

62

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

EXPORT

OF

MEDICAL DEVICES

Medical devices intended by their manufacturer for export only are still required to be included on the ARTG. However, under a special classiÞcation rule, these devices are all classiÞed as Class I. IMPORT

OF

MEDICAL DEVICES

Imported medical devices must have an in-country sponsor who takes responsibility for the device in Australia. The device itself must meet the same standards of quality, safety and performance as devices produced in Australia. The foreign manufacturer is required to comply with the same level of good manufacturing practice (GMP) as is expected of the manufacturer of similar products in Australia. A sponsor seeking registration or listing of a new therapeutic device must provide evidence of GMP compliance at the overseas manufacturing site(s). When the TGA considers it necessary, the sponsor of a therapeutic device must agree to pay the cost of an audit of the foreign manufacturing site(s). The TGA, however, considers that some countries have GMP audits at least equivalent to those of Australia. This list includes the EU, Switzerland, Japan, Singapore, and the United States. CertiÞcation that the manufacturer operates to a satisfactory standard by the regulatory authorities in these countries will be accepted as evidence of GMP compliance. The sponsor who imports a medical device must ensure that the sponsor’s name and address, or some other information identifying the sponsor, is provided with the device. POSTMARKET REQUIREMENTS The new regulatory scheme will place greater emphasis on postmarket activities such as vigilance. Under the new scheme, the TGA is proposing that sponsors must advise the admimistration of: • serious public-health threats or concerns within 48 hours, • incidents involving serious injury or death within 10 days, and • nonserious incidents within 30 days. Manufacturers must establish systems that facilitate systematic review of experience gained during the postmarketing phase and to implement any necessary corrective action. The manufacturer may be required to take action when information demonstrating a deÞciency in the labeling, instructions for use, or advertising of a device becomes known (Therapeutic Goods Regulations §6.5(c)). Manufacturers of most Class IIa, IIb, and III devices and AIMDs are required to have a certiÞed quality system. Periodic inspection by the TGA of the manufacturer’s quality system will be required. The requirement for periodic inspection of the manufacturer’s quality system under the new regulatory system will be essentially the same as the current system for licensing therapeuticgoods manufacturers. ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES FOR LABELING Schedule 1 of the Therapeutic Goods Amendment (Medical Devices) Bill 2002 sets out the essential principles that apply to all medical devices on the ARTG. Section 13 in Schedule 1 establishes the requirements for the information that must be provided with a medical device. These requirements include general requirements, requirements for the labels, and requirements for the instructions for use.

The Therapeutic Goods Amendment of 2002

63

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Taking into account of the training and knowledge of the potential users of the device, the following information must be provided with every medical device: • Information identifying the device • Information identifying the manufacturer of the device • Information explaining how to use the device safely In particular, the information required by Essential Principles 13.3 must be provided with a medical device. If practical, the required information must be provided on the device itself. If it is not practicable to place all of the required information on the device itself, the information must be provided on the packaging used for the device. In the case of devices that are packaged together because individual packaging of the devices is not practicable, the required information must be placed on the outer packaging used for the devices. If it is not practicable to place the required information on the device itself or its package labels, the information must be provided on a leaßet or other document supplied with the device (e.g., a packaging insert). If instructions for use of the device are required, the information required by Essential Principle 13.5 must be provided in the instructions for use. Instructions for the use of a medical device need not be provided with the device, or may be abbreviated, if: • the device is a Class I medical device or a Class IIa medical device, and • the device can be used safely for its intended purpose without instructions. LANGUAGE REQUIREMENT The required information must be provided in English. However, it may also be provided in any other language. LABELING FORMAT The format, content, and location of the required information must be appropriate for the device and its intended purpose. Any number, letter, symbol, or letter or number that forms part of a symbol used in the required information must be legible and at least one millimeter high. If a symbol that is not included in a recognized medical-device standard is used in the information provided with the device, or in the instructions for use of the device, the meaning of the symbol must be explained in the information provided with the device or the instructions for use of the device. LABEL REQUIREMENTS Where practical, the following information must be provided on the medical device itself or on its package labels: • The manufacturer’s name, or trade name, and address • The intended purpose of the device, the intended user of the device, and the kind of patient for whom the device is intended

64

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• SufÞcient information to enable a user to identify the device or, if relevant, the contents of packaging • Any particular handling or storage requirements applying to the device • Any warnings or precautions that should be taken in relation to use of the device • Any special operating instructions for the use of the device • If applicable, an indication that the device is intended for a single use only • If applicable, an indication that the device has been custom-made for a particular individual and is intended for use only by that individual (e.g., “Custom-Made Device”) • If applicable, an indication that the device is intended to be used only for clinical or performance investigations before being supplied (e.g., “Exclusively for Clinical Investigation”) • For a sterile device, the word “STERILE” and information about the method that was used to sterilize the device • If applicable, a statement of the date (expressed as a month and year) up to when the device can be safely used (e.g., expiration date) • If an expiration date is not required, then a statement of the date of manufacture of the device (This may be included in the batch code, lot number, or serial number of the device.) • If applicable, the words “For Export Only” In addition to the information required above, other provisions of these regulations may also require certain information to be provided with a medical device. For example, information identifying the sponsor of particular medical devices imported into Australia must be provided with the device. Also, the conformity assessment procedures may require a mark of conformity to be afÞxed to medical devices to which the procedures have been applied. INSTRUCTIONS-FOR-USE REQUIREMENTS If instructions for the use of a medical device must be provided with the device, the instructions must include the following information, as appropriate: 1. The manufacturer’s name, or trade name, and address 2. The intended purpose of the device, the intended user of the device, and the kind of patient for whom the device is intended 3. Information about any risk arising because of other equipment likely to be present when the device is being used for its intended purpose (e.g., electrical interference from electrosurgical devices, or magnetic Þeld interference from magnetic resonance images) 4. Information about the intended performance of the device and any undesirable side effects caused by use of the device 5. Any contraindications, warnings, or precautions that may apply in relation to use of the device 6. SufÞcient information to enable a user to identify the device or, if relevant, the contents of packaging 7. Any particular handling or storage requirements applying to the device 8. If applicable, an indication that the device is intended for a single use only 9. If applicable, an indication that the device has been custom-made for a particular individual and is intended for use only by that individual (e.g., “Custom-Made Device”) 10. If applicable, an indication that the device is intended to be used only for clinical or performance investigations before being supplied (e.g., “Exclusively for Clinical Investigation”)

The Therapeutic Goods Amendment of 2002

11. For a sterile device, the word “STERILE” and information about the method that was used to sterilize the device 12. For a device that is intended by the manufacturer to be supplied in a sterile state, • an indication that the device is sterile; • information about what to do if sterile packaging is damaged; and • if appropriate, instructions for resterilization of the device 13. For a medical device that is intended by the manufacturer to be sterilized before use — instructions for cleaning and sterilizing the device that, if followed, will ensure that the device continues to comply with the relevant essential principles 14. Any special operating instructions for the use of the device 15. Information to enable the user to verify whether the device is properly installed and whether it can be operated safely and correctly, including details of calibration (if any) needed to ensure that the device operates properly and safely during its intended life 16. Information about the nature and frequency of regular and preventative maintenance of the device, including information about the replacement of consumable components of the device 17. Information about any treatment or handling needed before the device can be used 18. For a device that is intended by the manufacturer to be installed with, or connected to, another medical device or other equipment so that the device can operate as required for its intended purpose, sufÞcient information about the device to enable the user to identify the appropriate other medical devices or equipment that will ensure a safe combination 19. For an implantable device, information about any risks associated with its implantation 20. For a reusable device, • information about the appropriate processes to allow reuse of the device (including information about cleaning, disinfection, packaging, and, if appropriate, resterilization of the device); and • an indication of the number of times the device may be reused safely 21. For a medical device that is intended by the manufacturer to emit radiation for medical purposes, details on the nature, type, intensity, and distribution of the radiation emitted 22. Information about precautions that should be taken by a patient and the user if the performance of the device changes 23. Information about precautions that should be taken by a patient and the user if it is reasonably foreseeable that use of the device will result in the patient or user being exposed to adverse environmental conditions 24. Adequate information about any medicinal product that the device is designed to administer, including any limitations on the substances that may be administered using the device 25. Information about any medicine that is incorporated into the device as an integral part of the device 26. Information about precautions that should be taken by a patient and the user if there are special or unusual risks associated with the disposal of the device 27. Information about the degree of accuracy claimed if the device has a measuring function 28. Information about any particular facilities required for use of the device or any particular training or qualiÞcations required by the user of the device

65

66

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

MEDICAL DEVICES USED

FOR A

SPECIAL PURPOSE

The new Australian medical device regulations recognize two types of devices used for a special purpose—custom-made medical devices and medical devices intended for clinical investigations or experimental purposes. Part 7 of the medical device regulations provides special conformity assessment procedures for these devices. The manufacturer must retain the documentation relating to these devices for at least 5 years after the manufacture of the last medical devices for which the documentation applies (TGR 2002 §7.6(2)). CUSTOM-MADE MEDICAL DEVICES Custom-made medical devices are those manufactured to the speciÞcations of a healthcare professional for the use of a particular individual. The manufacturer must prepare a written statement that includes the following (TGR 2002 §7.2(2)): • • • •

the name and address of the manufacturer the name of the individual patient for whom the device is intended a description of the effect the device is intended to have on the named patient sufÞcient information to enable the user to identify the device or, if relevant, the contents of the packaging • the name and business address of the healthcare professional who provided the speciÞcation for the device • the particular design characteristics of the device • a statement that the device complies with the applicable essential principles in Schedule 1, or a list of any of the applicable essential principles with which the device does not comply and the reasons for noncompliance

The statement must be signed and dated by an individual authorized by the manufacturer. DEVICES INTENDED

FOR

CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS

OR

EXPERIMENTAL PURPOSES

These are devices intended to investigation or experimental purposes in human subjects. The purpose of the clinical investigation is to demonstrate that, in addition to any other conformity procedures required by the regulations, the device complies with the following essential principles (TGR 2002 §3.11(1)): • The device does not compromise the clinical condition or safety of a patient, or the safety and health of the user or any other person, when the device is used on a patient under the conditions and for the purposes for which the device was intended (Schedule 1, Section 1). • The device is designed, produced, and packaged in a way that ensures that it is suitable for one or more of the purposes of a medical device (Schedule 1, Section 3). • The beneÞts from using the medical device as intended by the manufacturer outweigh any undesirable side effects arising from its use (Schedule 1, Section 6). The device should comply with all the applicable essential principles, including those labeling provisions in Section 13 in Schedule 1, except for the aspects under study.

The Therapeutic Goods Amendment of 2002

SYSTEM

OR

67

PROCEDURE PACK

A system or procedure pack contains therapeutic goods, at least one of which is a medical device, that are used as a unit, either in combination as a system or in a medical or surgical procedure. The manufacturer of a system or procedure pack must prepare a declaration of conformity in relation to the system or procedure pack that includes (TGR 2002 §7.5(2)): • the name and business address of the manufacturer of the system or procedure pack • sufÞcient information for the user to identify the system or procedure pack or, if relevant, the contents of packaging • a description of each item that is included in the package • a statement that the manufacturer has evidence: • that each medical device has undergone the relevant conformity assessment procedures, and • that each medical device in the package complies with the applicable essential principles • the registration or listing number for each medicine or other therapeutic goods in the package • a statement that each medical device in the package is intended to be used for its original intended purpose, and that each medicine or other therapeutic goods in the package is intended to be used within the approved indications for use speciÞed by their original manufacturers • a statement that for each medical device, medicine, or other therapeutic goods in the package: • the mutual compatibility of all components has been veriÞed in accordance with any instructions for use provided by the original manufacturer of each item or the approved indications for use of each item, and • the system or procedure pack has been manufactured in accordance with those instructions (if any) or indications • a statement that the instructions for use of the system or procedure pack include the instructions for use provided by the original manufacturer of each item in the package • a statement that the system or procedure pack has been manufactured, veriÞed, and packaged under a documented system of internal control and inspection that ensures the safety, quality, performance, and effectiveness of each item in the package • a statement that, if the system or procedure pack is supplied in a sterile state, production quality assurance procedures have been applied to the system or procedure pack in accordance with the original manufacturer’s instructions for use, or the approved indications for use, of each item in the package The declaration of conformity must be signed and dated by an individual authorized by the manufacturer of the system or procedure pack. THINGS TO REMEMBER On March 21, 2002, the Australian Parliament passed the Therapeutic Goods Amendment (Medical Devices) Bill 2002. The intent of this amendment to the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 is to align Australia’s system for regulating medical devices with internationally accepted best practice while retaining Australia’s sovereignty over the regulation of medical devices. No change to the Australian regulatory regime for medicines is planned. Australia will continue to regulate the quality and safety of therapeutic goods not covered by the EU system, including tampons and disinfectants.

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The Therapeutic Goods Act retains the old regime for regulating “therapeutic devices” (the term used in the 1989 act) while adding the new scheme for the regulation of “medical devices” (the new term as used in the EU system). This enables Australia to regulate under the previous system the quality and safety of therapeutic goods not covered by the EU system, including tampons and disinfectants. However, only one set of Australian regulations will apply to any one product at any one time. Under the new regime, medical devices are classiÞed based on their “intended purpose.” Most medical devices will be classiÞed into one of Þve classes (I, IIa, IIb, III and AIMDs). All classes will comply with a minimum requirement for safety and performance and be included on the ARTG. The Therapeutic Goods Amendment (Medical Devices) Bill 2002 establishes a set of essential principles for safety and performance with which all medical devices must comply. The essential principles, including requirements for labels and accompanying documents, are listed in Schedule 1 in the regulations. Compliance with these requirements is mandatory, and failure to conform can result in a range of administrative and legal penalties.

Part IV Canada and Mexico

7 The Food and Drugs Act of Canada Canadian society places a high priority on ensuring that all of its citizens have equitable access to high-quality healthcare services. Because medical devices play an important role in the delivery of these services, ensuring that these therapeutic and diagnostic devices—most of which are imported into Canada—are safe and effective is given high priority by the Canadian government. The Canadian government, through a federal department (Health Canada), carries substantial responsibility for the Canadian healthcare-delivery system. Established in 1944, Health Canada derives its authority from acts of Parliament passed in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In partnership with provincial and territorial governments, Health Canada provides national leadership to develop health policy, enforce health regulations, promote disease prevention, and enhance healthy living for all Canadians. The Minister of Health is responsible to Parliament for administering some 20 health-related laws and associated regulations that govern the overall programs and policies of the department. Within the Canadian system, each of the 10 provincial governments is responsible for the administration of the healthcare-delivery system within its territory, with funding partially provided by the federal government. The federal government, however, controls the sale of drugs and medical devices under the Food and Drugs Act (F&DA) of Canada. Under the provisions of the F&DA, a medical device is any article, instrument, apparatus, or contrivance (including any component, part, or accessory) manufactured, sold, or represented for use in (F&DA §2.): • the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation, or prevention of a disease, disorder, or abnormal physical state, or its symptoms in human beings or animals; • restoring, correcting, or modifying a body function or the body structure of human beings or animals; • the diagnosis of pregnancy in human beings or animals; or • the care of human beings or animals during pregnancy and after the birth of the offspring, including care of the offspring This deÞnition includes contraceptive devices that do not rely on drugs to achieve their intended purpose. The Health Canada medical device notiÞcation database contains information on almost 490,000 medical devices. Another 25,000 new devices appear on the Canadian market each year. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW The movement to regulate medical devices in Canada began in 1973. On March 27, 1973, the Bureau of Biologics and Medical Devices was formed within the Health Protection Branch (HPB) of the then Department of National Health and Welfare. It took the Bureau of Medical Devices a little over two years to produce the draft of an initial set of medical device regulations directed primarily to the regulation of cardiac pacemakers. The Þrst medical device regulations were passed by the Canadian Cabinet on August 27, 1975, and were published in the Canada Gazette on September 24, 1975. These initial regulations established the basic structure of the regulatory system that exists in Canada today. 71

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Initially, the premarket evaluation clause in the regulations was written to cover only cardiac pacemakers. This part of the regulation came into force on November 1, 1977. In addition to cardiac pacemakers, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) were placed on the list of devices requiring premarket evaluation because of the widespread injuries caused by certain IUCDs. In 1981, the Director of the Bureau of Medical Devices proposed extending the breadth of premarket evaluation to cover all devices intended to be implanted for 30 days or more. In addition, menstrual tampons and prolongedwear contact lenses were included in the list of devices requiring premarket evaluation. The expanded scope for the medical device regulations was adopted by the Canadian Cabinet on October 7, 1982, and came into force on April 1, 1983. Since then, test kits for the detection of serological markers indicative of infection with retroviruses associated with acquired immune deÞciency syndrome (AIDS) were added to the list of devices requiring premarket evaluation. On January 13, 1994, prolonged-wear contact lenses were removed from the list of devices requiring premarket evaluation. In 1985, the Bureau of Medical Devices was amalgamated with the Radiation Protection Bureau to create the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices. Under this combined bureau, the emphasis on premarket evaluation of certain devices with an established history, such as cardiac pacemakers, was reduced. However, as a result of the well-publicized problem with silicone breast implants, concern about the ability of the Canadian system to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices was called into question. A Royal Commission was formed to review medical device regulation in Canada. The Medical Devices Review Committee (MDRC) was established in February 1991 to formulate recommendations to the Minister of Health concerning regulation of medical devices and associated activities. Named after its chairman, the Hearn Committee delivered its report to the Minister in May 1992. The Hearn Committee concluded, among other things, that a need existed to strengthen the organizational structure of the medical device regulatory program. As a result, a new, separate Medical Devices Bureau (MDB) was formed in 1993. The Hearn Committee recommended greater harmonization and closer collaboration with the United States (US) medical device program. They recommended that Canada adopt certain aspects of the US program, including the deÞnition of medical devices, premarket notiÞcation, a risk-based classiÞcation system, and the concept of substantial equivalence. The committee suggested that for certain high-risk devices, Canada and the United States should agree on uniform acceptability criteria, submission protocols, and a minimum test-data package (MDRC p. 5). Under the direction of the Minister of Health, Health Canada’s Health Protection Branch (HPB) initiated a comprehensive re-engineering of the Canadian medical device regulatory system. This reengineering effort culminated in two signiÞcant changes in the Canadian system: • the adoption of new risk-based medical devices regulations featuring a four-tiered deviceclassiÞcation system similar to that of the European Union (EU), and • centralized regulation of therapeutic, preventative and diagnostic products in a single organization—the Therapeutic Products Programme (TPP) within the Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) of Health Canada. On April 1, 2001, the TPP was split into three distinct organizations: • the Therapeutic Products Directorate (TPD) responsible for drugs and medical devices; • the Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate (BGTD), responsible for blood, tissues, organs, biologics (including blood products, vaccines, and drugs produced by biotechnology), and radiopharmaceuticals; and • the Bureau of Compliance and Enforcement (BCE) responsible for inspections and investigations as well as most establishment licensing and related laboratory analysis functions

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Within the TPD, the MDB handles the major work on medical devices. SCOPE OF THE THERAPEUTIC PRODUCT DIRECTORATE REGULATIONS Regulations and regulatory technical standards for medical devices in Canada are established by Health Canada under the authority of the F&DA. Section 30 of the F&DA authorizes the Minister of Health Canada to promulgate regulations necessary for the orderly implementation of the F&DA. The intent is to initiate and implement programs to ensure that only safe and efÞcacious medical devices are sold in Canada. The major concerns include potential hazards, deÞciencies in performance, and unsubstantiated claims made by manufacturers. With respect to labeling and packaging, the regulations are intended to prevent the purchaser or consumer from being deceived or misled about the design, construction, performance, intended use, quality, character, value, composition, merit, or safety of the medical device. In addition, the F&DA gives the Minister the responsibility for assessing the effect that the release of a device into the environment may have on the environment or on human life or health. The Minister has the power to limit the importation or sale of any devices whose release is judged to have an adverse effect on the environment or on human life or health. The authority of the Minister to implement the provision of the F&DA is delegated to the TPD. THE REGULATIONS The regulations relating to medical devices are published in the Canada Gazette, Part II—Statutory Orders and Regulations. The Canadian “Medical Devices Regulations” (CMDR) are divided into Þve basic sections covering the following areas: Part 1 General requirements applicable to all medical devices that are not subject to Part 2 or 3, including requirements for labeling of devices Part 2 Custom-made devices and medical devices to be imported or sold for special access Part 3 Medical devices for investigational testing involving human subjects Part 4 Export certiÞcates Part 5 Transitional provisions, repeal, and coming into force In general, products that are subject to regulation under the authority of the F&DA are exempted from regulation under other laws intended to protect health and safety. LABELS AND LABELING The ofÞcial deÞnition contained in Section 2 of the F&DA deÞnes a label as “any legend, word or mark attached to, included in, belonging to or accompanying any food, drug, cosmetic, device or package” (F&DA §2). The package includes anything in which a device is wholly or partly contained, placed, or packed. Canadian regulations refer to an inner label and an outer label for regulated products. The inner label is the label on or afÞxed to the device or its innermost container. The outer label is the one afÞxed to the container in which the product is displayed or visible under normal conditions of sale (CC&CR §1). If there is only one container, then that container is considered the inner container. The labeling for a device encompasses the labels on or afÞxed to the device and its packaging. It also includes package inserts and other material that provide the instructions for use (IFU) needed by the clinician and, when appropriate, the patient.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

LABELING AND ADVERTISING Advertising is deÞned in the F&DA to include “any representation by any means whatever for the purpose of promoting directly or indirectly the sale or disposal of any food, drug, cosmetic, or device” (F&DA §2). As part of the labeling of the device, the advertising and promotional material is subject to the provisions of the CMDR. Advertising and promotional material is not normally reviewed by the TPD. However, in unusual cases, the TPD may request copies of all promotional literature relating to the device. ADULTERATION AND MISBRANDING Section 20 of the F&DA makes it a crime to “label, package, treat, process, sell or advertise any device in a manner that is false, misleading, or deceptive” (i.e., misbranded) (F&DA §20(1)). Section 20 goes on to deÞne a misbranded device as one: • That creates an erroneous impression regarding its design, construction, performance, intended use, quantity, character, value, composition, merit, or safety; • Is not labeled or packaged in accordance with applicable regulations; or • Is not labeled or packaged in accordance with a standard prescribed for the device In general, a medical device can be considered adulterated if the manufacturer knowingly or recklessly fails to provide a device that is Þt for use under the conditions for which its use is recommended in the labeling. This can include providing a device that is contaminated (e.g., an in vitro diagnostic (IVD) reagent containing dirt or Þlth) or one that is unsafe or ineffective for the purpose for which the device is recommended. For Class II, III, or IV medical devices, the device could be considered adulterated if the manufacturer fails to meet any of the conditions under which the license was issued. These conditions include the device not being safe for the purposes for which it is to be used, the failure of the device to comply with appropriate standards, or the device not being manufactured under acceptable quality-control procedures. A person designated by the Minister of Health Canada as an inspector for the purpose of the enforcement of the F&DA may seize and detain a medical device where reasonable grounds exist to believe the device is adulterated or misbranded (F&DA §23(1)(d)). A person who contravenes the provisions of the F&DA may be subject to a Þne and/or imprisonment (F&DA §31). Where a person has been convicted of a contravention of the F&DA, the court may order that the article involved is forfeited to Her Majesty and may be disposed of as the Minister of Health Canada may direct (F&DA §27(2)). FALSE OR MISLEADING LABELING The labeling of a medical device must not be false, misleading, or deceptive in a material particular (F&DA §20(1)). Labeling need not be untrue, forged, or fraudulent to be considered false, misleading, or deceptive. A word, statement, or illustration may be strictly true but yet be misleading to the customer. Section 20 of the F&DA deÞnes misleading labeling as labeling that “is likely to create an erroneous impression” (F&DA §20(1)). A household air puriÞer, for example, may be misbranded if its labeling were to claim relief from the breathing discomfort associated with respiratory conditions such as allergies, asthma, coughs, sinus colds, and hay fever. The labeling may be considered deceptive because the layperson could be induced by these claims to buy the device in order to secure relief from the effects of these illnesses.

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A false impression may be created not only by false or deceptive statements, but also by ambiguity and misdirection. Failure to inform the customer of material facts may render the device misbranded just as much as a blatantly false or exaggerated claim. A label that is silent on important considerations may be just as deceptive as one that makes exaggerated claims. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION The advertising of medical devices is regulated as part of the labeling of the device under the F&DA. The F&DA allows for a broad interpretation by including as advertising “any representation by any means whatever for the purpose of promoting directly or indirectly” the sale of a medical device (F&DA §2). The F&DA prohibits the advertising of a device in a manner that is false, misleading, or deceptive. In relation to a medical device, the advertising is misleading or deceptive if it is likely to create an erroneous impression regarding the design, construction, performance, intended use, quantity, character, value, composition, merit, or safety of the device. Such advertising may render the device misbranded and the perpetrator subject to legal action. In addition, no person may advertise to the general public any food, drug, cosmetic, or device as a treatment, preventative, or cure for any of the diseases or conditions listed in Table 7.1 (F&DA §3(1)). Further, the F&DA makes it a crime for any person to sell to the general public any food, drug, or device that has been advertised as a treatment, preventative, or cure for any of the diseases listed in Table 7.1 (F&DA §3(2)). No person shall advertise a Class II, III, or IV medical device for the purpose of sale unless the manufacturer of the device holds a license for that device or the advertisement is placed only in a catalogue that includes a clear and visible warning that the devices advertised in the catalogue may not have been licensed in accordance with Canadian law (CMDR §27). If a licensed Class II, III or IV device had been modiÞed to the extent that the license must be amended, advertising of the TABLE 7.1 Diseases, Disorders, or Abnormal Physical States Alcoholism Alopecia (except hereditary androgenetic alopecia) Anxiety state Appendicitis Arteriosclerosis Arthritis Asthma Bladder disease Cancer Convulsions Depression Diabetes Disease of the prostate Disorder of menstrual ßow Dysentery Edematous state Epilepsy Gall bladder disease Gangrene Glaucoma Source: F&DA, Schedule A

Gout Heart disease Hernia Hypertension Hypotension Impetigo Kidney disease Leukemia Liver disease (except hepatitis) Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy Obesity Pleurisy Rheumatic fever Septicemia Sexual impotence Thrombotic and embolic disorders Thyroid disease Tumor Ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract Venereal disease

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

device must cease until the amended license is issued by the TPD. The conditions that require the manufacturer to seek an amended medical device license are described later in this chapter. BRINGING DEVICES TO MARKET IN CANADA The current Canadian Medical Device Regulations (CMDR) came into force on July 1, 1998. The 1998 regulations replaced the regulatory system that had been on the books since 1975. The 1998 regulations are based on two principles: (1) the level of scrutiny afforded a device should be dependent upon the risk that the device presents; and (2) the safety and effectiveness of medical devices can best be assessed through a balance of quality-systems requirements, premarket scrutiny, and postmarket surveillance. The CMDR sets out a system for classifying medical devices based on the perceived risk to the patient associated with the device. There are four classes, with Class I containing the lowest-risk devices and Class IV containing the highest-risk devices. The level of scrutiny a device receives will depend upon its classiÞcation. DEVICE CLASSIFICATION A medical device is classiÞed into one of four classes (I to IV) using the classiÞcation rules set out in Schedule 1 of the CMDR. Schedule 1 is divided into two parts. Part 1 applies to all medical devices other that IVD devices. This part sets out 16 rules that the manufacturer must use to determine the classiÞcation for a particular device. The classiÞcation rules group devices into three broad categories: invasive, noninvasive, or active. An invasive device is one that is intended to come into contact with the surface of the eye or to penetrate the body, either through a body oriÞce or through the body surface. A noninvasive device is one intended to remain entirely outside the body although it may contact injured skin or may be used for channeling or storing gases, liquids, tissues, or body ßuids for the purpose of introduction into the body by means of infusion or other means of administration. The third broad category includes active devices. An active device is one that depends for its operation on a source of energy other than energy generated by the human body or gravity. Within each category is a set of rules that determines the ultimate classiÞcation based upon the intended use of the device. If a medical device can be classiÞed into more than one class, the class representing the higher risk applies. In Rule 16, the regulation enables the TPD to classify devices based on other issues or concerns not covered in the other classiÞcation rules. These devices and their classiÞcation are set out in a table in Rule 16. This table may be amended from time to time through the normal rulemaking process in Canada. The devices covered by this rule as of August 2002 are shown in Table 7.2. The classiÞcation rules for IVD devices are covered in Part 2 of Schedule 1. This part sets out nine rules for classiÞcation of IVD devices. The classiÞcation rules group IVDs into three broad categories based on their association with transmissible agents, their proximity to the patient, and other special conditions. TABLE 7.2 Medical Devices Other Than IVDs Classified According to Rule 16 of Schedule 1, Part 1 Item 1. 2.

Medical device Breast implants Tissue expanders for breast reconstruction and augmentation

Source: CMDR, Schedule 1, Part 1, Rule 16

Class IV IV

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TABLE 7.3 IVDs Classified According to Rule 9 of Schedule 1, Part 2 Item 1. 2. 3. 4.

IVD Device Near-patient IVD device for the detection of pregnancy or for fertility testing Near-patient IVD device for determining cholesterol level Microbiological media used to identify or infer the identity of a microorganism IVD device used to identify or infer the identity of a cultured microorganism

Class II II I I

Source: CMDR, Schedule 1, Part 2, Rule 9

As with medical devices, the regulations enable the TPD to classify IVD devices based on issues or concerns not covered in the other classiÞcation rules. These devices and their classiÞcation are set out in a table in Part 2, Rule 9. This table may be amended from time to time through the normal rulemaking process in Canada. The devices covered by this rule as of August 2002 are shown in Table 7.3. ESTABLISHMENT LICENSE In Canada, a person or entity who imports or sells a medical device must hold an establishment license issued by the TPD. Certain persons or entities are exempted from this requirement. They are (CMDR §44(2)): • • • •

a retailer; a healthcare facility; the manufacturer of a Class II, III or IV medical device; or the manufacturer of a Class I device, if the manufacturer imports or distributes solely through a person who holds an establishment license.

A person requiring an establishment license in order to conduct business in Canada must apply to the TPD, providing the information set out in CMDR Section 45. The application must contain a statement as to whether the activity of the establishment is importation or distribution, or both. A senior ofÞcial of the establishment must attest that the establishment has documented procedures in place for handling distribution records, complaints, mandatory problem reporting, and recalls. If the establishment imports or distributes Class II, III, or IV devices, a senior ofÞcial of the establishment must attest that the establishment has documented procedures in place, where applicable, for handling, storage, delivery, installation, corrective action, and servicing of these devices. As part of its cost-recovery program, the TPD will assess the applicant a fee for processing the establishment license. The fee is due and payable at the time of application. If there are any changes to the information submitted by the holder of the establishment license, the new information must be submitted to the TPD within 15 days of the change (CMDR §46(1)). All establishment licenses expire on December 31 of each year (CMDR §46(2)). The TPD will assess a fee for processing the renewal application. The TPD must refuse to issue an establishment license if there are reasonable grounds to believe that issuing such a license would constitute a risk to the health or safety of patients, users or other persons (CMDR §47(2)). The TPD may suspend an establishment license if there are reasonable grounds to believe that (CMDR §49):

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• the licensee has made a false or misleading statement in the application; • the licensee has contravened the regulations or any provision of the F&DA relating to medical devices including those responsibilities outlined in the following sections; or • the failure by the TPD to suspend the establishment license would constitute a risk to the health or safety of patients, users, or other persons. Normally, the TPD will send the licensee a written notice that sets out the reason for the proposed suspension, any corrective action required to be taken, and the time within which it must be taken. However, the TPD may suspend an establishment license without giving the licensee an opportunity to be heard by giving the licensee a notice in writing that states the reason for the suspension if doing so will prevent injury to the health or safety of patients, users, or other persons, (CMDR §§49-50). DISTRIBUTION RECORDS The manufacturer, importer, and distributor of a medical device shall each maintain a distribution record with respect to each device sold in Canada. It is important to note that if more than one entity is involved in the distribution of a device in Canada, then each is responsible for maintaining the appropriate distribution records. This provision does not apply to a retailer or a healthcare facility for a medical device that is distributed for use within that facility (CMDR §52). The purpose of the distribution record is to permit complete and rapid withdrawal of a medical device from the market. Consequently, the record must contain sufÞcient information to locate devices in case of a recall, and the record must be maintained in a way that allows their timely retrieval when necessary. The manufacturer, importer, and distributor must retain the distribution record for a medical device for either the projected useful life of the device or two years after the date the device is shipped, whichever is longer (CMDR §55). In addition to the information described above, the distribution record maintained by the manufacturer of an implanted device shall contain a record of the information received on the implantregistration card forwarded to the manufacturer from a healthcare facility (CMDR §54(1)). The implant manufacturer must update this information with any information received from the healthcare facility or the patient. The required contents of the implant-registration card are described in the next chapter. COMPLAINT HANDLING The manufacturer, importer and distributor of a medical device shall each maintain records of any reported problems relating to the performance characteristics or safety of the device, including any consumer complaints received by the manufacturer, importer, or distributor after the device was Þrst sold in Canada. The complaint record shall detail all actions taken by the manufacturer, importer, or distributor in response to the problems reported (CMDR §57(1)). The manufacturer, importer, and distributor of a medical device must each establish, document, and implement procedures that will enable the manufacturer, importer, or distributor to conduct an effective and timely investigation of reported problems and, when justiÞed, conduct an effective and timely recall of the device (CMDR, § 58). This provision does not apply to a retailer or a healthcare facility for a medical device that is distributed for use within that facility (CMDR §57(2)). MANDATORY PROBLEM REPORTING Both the manufacturer and the importer of a medical device shall make a preliminary and a Þnal report to the TPD concerning any incident that comes to their attention involving a device that is sold in Canada that (CMDR §59):

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• is related to a failure of the device, a deterioration in its effectiveness, or any inadequacy in its labeling or in its directions for use; and • has led to the death or a serious deterioration in the state of health of a patient, user, or other person, or could do so were it to recur. A manufacturer is not required to report an incident that occurs outside Canada unless the manufacturer has indicated to the regulatory agency of the country where the incident occurred that corrective action is planned (CMDR §59(2)). The manufacturer is required to report any incident that occurs outside Canada if the responsible regulatory agency requires the manufacturer to take corrective action. If a reportable incident occurs in Canada, a preliminary report shall be submitted to the TPD (CMDR §60): • within 10 days after the manufacturer or importer becomes aware of an incident that has led to the death or a serious deterioration in the state of health of a patient, user, or other person; or • within 30 days after the manufacturer or importer becomes aware of an incident that could lead to the death or a serious deterioration in the state of health of a patient, user, or other person if it were to recur. With regard to an incident that occurs outside Canada, the manufacturer must report the incident to the TPD as soon as possible after notifying the regulatory agency of the country where the incident occurred of their intention to take corrective action, or after the regulatory agency has required the manufacturer to take corrective action. IMPLANT REGISTRATION The manufacturer of an implant shall provide, with the implant, two implant-registration cards. The minimum required information is described in the following chapter. These implant-registration cards must be printed in both ofÞcial languages; however, the manufacturer may choose to provide four cards, two in English and two in French (CMDR §66). A member of the staff of the healthcare facility where an implant procedure takes place is required, as soon as possible after the completion of the procedure, to enter the required information on each implant-registration card. One card is given to the implant patient and the other is forwarded to the manufacturer of the implant or to the person designated by the manufacturer for the collection of implant-registration information (CMDR §67(1)). The patient’s name and address must not be entered on the implant-registration card forwarded to the manufacturer or person designated by the manufacturer except with the patient’s written consent. The healthcare facility, the manufacturer, or the person designated by the manufacturer may not disclose the patient’s name or address, or any information that might identify the patient, unless the disclosure is required by law (CMDR §§67(2-3)). The manufacturer of an implant may apply to the TPD for authorization to use another implantregistration method. The TPD can authorize the use of an alternative implant-registration method if the TPD determines that the method will enable the manufacturer to achieve the intended purpose as effectively as the use of implant-registration cards (CMDR §68). SAFETY

AND

EFFECTIVENESS REQUIREMENTS

All medical devices, regardless of their classiÞcation, shall be designed and manufactured to be safe. To this end, the manufacturer shall, in particular, take reasonable measures to (CMDR §10):

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• identify the risks inherent in the device; • eliminate these risks, if possible; • if the risks cannot be eliminated, • reduce the risks to the extent possible, • provide for protection appropriate to those risks, including the provision of alarms, and • provide, with the device, information relative to the risks that remain; and • minimize the hazard from potential failures during the projected useful life of the device. A medical device shall not, when used for the medical conditions, purposes, or uses for which it is manufactured, sold, or represented, adversely affect the health or safety of a patient, user, or other person, except to the extent that a possible adverse effect of the device constitutes an acceptable risk when weighed against the beneÞts to the patient and the risk is compatible with a high level of protection of health and safety (CMDR §11). A medical device must perform as intended by the manufacturer and must be effective for the medical conditions, purposes, and uses for which it is manufactured, sold or represented (CMDR §12). During its projected useful life, the characteristics and performance of the medical device must not deteriorate under normal use to such a degree that the health or safety of a patient, user, or other person is adversely affected (CMDR §13). The characteristics and performance of a medical device must not be adversely affected by the transport or storage conditions speciÞed by the manufacturer (CMDR §14). Reasonable measures shall be taken to ensure that every material used in the manufacture of a medical device shall be compatible with every other material with which it interacts and with material that it may come into contact with in normal use, and shall not pose any undue risk to a patient, user or other person (CMDR §15). The design, manufacture, and packaging of a medical device shall minimize any risk to a patient, user or other person from reasonably foreseeable hazards, including (CMDR §16): • • • • •

ßammability or explosion; the presence of a contaminant or chemical or microbial residue; radiation; electrical, mechanical, or thermal hazards; and ßuid leaking from or entering into the device.

A medical device that is to be sold in a sterile condition shall be manufactured and sterilized under appropriately controlled conditions, and the sterilization method used shall be validated (CMDR §17). A medical device that is part of a system shall be compatible with every other component or part of the system with which it interacts and shall not adversely affect the performance of that system (CMDR §18). A medical device that performs a measuring function shall be designed to perform that function within tolerance limits that are appropriate for the medical conditions, purposes, and uses for which the device is manufactured, sold, or represented (CMDR §19). If a medical device consists of or contains software, the software shall be designed to perform as intended by the manufacturer, and the performance of the software shall be validated (CMDR §20). The medical device labeling must provide the information speciÞed in CMDR Section 21. These requirements are described in detail in the following chapter.

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CLASS I MEDICAL DEVICES A person holding a valid establishment license may manufacture or import for sale a Class I medical device that meets the safety and effectiveness requirements described in the previous section without prior approval of the TPD. The manufacturer must maintain objective evidence to establish that the medical device meets those requirements (CMDR§9(2)). If after reviewing a report or other information brought to their attention, the TPD has reasonable grounds for believing that a Class I medical device may not meet the safety and effectiveness requirements, it may request that the manufacturer submit, on or before a speciÞed day, information to enable the TPD to determine whether the device meets those requirements. The TPD may direct the manufacturer to stop the sale of a Class I medical device if the manufacturer does not provide the requested information by the date speciÞed. The TPD may also stop the sale if the information provided indicates that the device does not meet the safety and effectiveness requirements, including the labeling requirements speciÞed in the CMDR as well as any standards with which compliance is claimed. The TPD may lift the direction to stop the sale if the manufacturer provides the information requested and: • corrective action has been taken to ensure that the medical device satisÞes the safety and effectiveness requirements or • the TPD’s determination was unfounded. CLASS II, III

AND

IV MEDICAL DEVICES

Unlike Class I medical devices, Class II, III, and IV devices cannot be manufactured or imported for sale without the prior approval of the TPD, even if the devices meet the safety and effectiveness requirements described in the previous section. Device License

No person shall import or sell a Class II, III, or IV medical device unless the manufacturer of the device holds a valid license for the device (CMDR §27). If a system is licensed, all of its components or parts that are manufactured by the manufacturer of the system are also licensed. For IVD devices, if a test kit is licensed, all of its reagents or articles that are manufactured by the manufacturer of the test kit are also licensed. General Requirements for a Medical Device License Application

To obtain a license for a medical device, the manufacturer must submit an application to the TPD in a format established by the TPD. The application must contain the following information (CMDR §32(1)): • The name of the device • The class of the device • The identiÞer of the device, including the identiÞer of any medical device that is part of a system, test kit, medical device group, medical device family, or medical device group family • The name and address of the manufacturer as it appears on the device label • The name and address of the establishment where the device is being manufactured, if different from the name and address of the manufacturer that appears on the device label

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For the purposed of the regulation, a device identiÞer is a unique series of letters or numbers, or any combination of these, or a bar code the manufacturer assigns to a medical device, that identiÞes it and distinguishes it from similar devices. If the information and documents submitted with an application are insufÞcient to enable the TPD to determine whether a medical device meets the safety and effectiveness requirements, the TPD may request the manufacturer to submit, on or before a speciÞed day, additional information necessary for making the determination. In the course of examining the application, the TPD may require the applicant to provide samples of the medical device (CMDR §35). The TPD will assess a fee for examining the license application. The fee is based on the classiÞcation of the device and the anticipated/actual gross revenue from the sale of the device in Canada. The fee structure is set out in Schedule 1102 of the Financial Administration Act entitled “Fee in Respect of Medical Devices Regulations.” Class II Medical Device License Application

In addition to the general information required in the preceding section, an application for a Class II medical device license must contain the following (CMDR §32(2)): • A description of the medical conditions, purposes, and uses for which the device is manufactured, sold, or represented. • A list of the standards with which the manufacture of the device claims compliance in order to satisfy the safety and effectiveness requirements. • Attestations by senior ofÞcials of the manufacturer that: • The manufacturer has objective evidence to establish that the device meets the safety and effectiveness requirements. • The device label meets the applicable labeling requirements of the CMDR. • In the case of a near-patient IVD device, that investigational testing has been conducted on the device using human subjects representative of the intended users and under conditions similar to the conditions of use. • Based on an audit by an organization that performs quality-system audits, the quality system under which the device is manufactured satisÞes CAN/CSA-ISO 13488-98, Quality Systems – Medical Devices – Particular Requirements for the Application of ISO 9002, as amended from time to time. The quality-system requirement was scheduled to come into force on July 1, 2001. However, the TPD decided to postpone the in-force date until January 1, 2003. An 18-month voluntary implementation phase commenced on July 1, 2001. Quality-system certiÞcates could have been provided on a voluntary basis with all new device license applications and license renewals in 2001 and 2002. Class III Medical Device License Application

In addition to the general information, an application for a Class III medical device license must contain the following (CMDR §32(3)): • A description of the device and of the materials used in its manufacture and packaging • A description of the features of the device that permit it to be used for the medical conditions, purposes and uses for which it is manufactured, sold, or represented • A list of the countries other than Canada where the device has been sold, the total number of units sold in those countries, and a summary of any reported problems with the device and any recalls of the device in those countries

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• A list of the standards with which the manufacturer of the device claims compliance in order to satisfy the safety and effectiveness requirements • A summary of all studies on which the manufacturer relies to ensure that the device meets the safety and effectiveness requirements, and the conclusions drawn from those studies by the manufacturer • In the case of a device to be sold in a sterile condition, a description of the sterilization method used • A copy of the device labels • In the case of a near-patient IVD device, a summary of the investigational testing conducted on the device using human subjects representative of the intended users and under conditions similar to the conditions of use • A bibliography of all published reports dealing with the use, safety, and effectiveness of the device • After January 1, 2003, an attestation by a senior ofÞcial of the manufacturer, based on an audit by an organization that performs quality-system audits, that the quality system under which the device is designed and manufactured satisÞes CAN/CSA-ISO 13485-98, Quality Systems – Medical Devices – Particular Requirements for the Application of ISO 9001, as amended from time to time Class IV Medical Device License Application

In addition to the general information, an application for a Class IV medical device license must contain the following (CMDR §32(4)): 1. A description of the device and of the materials used in its manufacture and packaging 2. A description of the features of the device that permit it to be used for the medical conditions, purposes and uses for which it is manufactured, sold, or represented 3. A list of the countries other than Canada where the device has been sold, the total number of units sold in those countries, and a summary of any reported problems with the device and any recalls of the device in those countries 4. A risk assessment comprising an analysis and evaluation of the risks, and the risk-reduction measures adopted to satisfy the safety and effectiveness requirements; 5. A quality plan setting out the speciÞc quality practices, resources, and sequence of activities relevant to the device 6. The speciÞcations of the materials used in the manufacture and packaging of the device 7. The manufacturing process of the device 8. A list of the standards that the manufacture of the device claims compliance with in order to satisfy the safety and effectiveness requirements 9. Detailed information on all studies that the manufacturer uses to ensure that the device meets the safety and effectiveness requirements, including • Preclinical and clinical studies, • Process-validation studies, • If appropriate, software-validation studies, and • Literature studies 10. In the case of a medical device other than an IVD device manufactured from or incorporating animal or human tissue or their derivative, objective evidence of the biological safety of the device

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11. In the case of a near-patient IVD device, detailed information on investigational testing conducted on the device using human subjects representative of the intended users and under conditions similar to the conditions of use 12. A summary of the studies referred to in item 8 above and the conclusions drawn from those studies by the manufacturer 13. A summary of the investigational testing referred to in item 10 above and the conclusions drawn from that testing by the manufacturer 14. A bibliography of all published reports dealing with the use, safety, and effectiveness of the device 15. A copy of the device labels 16. After January 1, 2003, an attestation by a senior ofÞcial of the manufacturer, based on an audit by an organization that performs quality-system audits, that the quality system under which the device is designed and manufactured satisÞes CAN/CSA-ISO 13485-98, Quality Systems – Medical Devices – Particular Requirements for the Application of ISO 9001, as amended from time to time Amended Medical Device License Application

If the manufacturer proposes to make one or more of the changes described below, the manufacturer must submit to the TPD, in a format established by the TPD, an application for a medical device license amendment. The application must include the information and documents set out in the previous sections that are relevant to the change. The changes that require an amended license are (CMDR §34): • • • •

a change that would affect the class of the device; a change in the name of the manufacturer; a change in the name of the device; or a change in the identiÞer of the device, including the identiÞer of any medical device that is part of a system, test kit, medical device group, medical device family, or medical device group family.

In the case of a Class II medical device, an amendment is required if there is a change in the medical conditions, purposes, or uses for which the device is manufactured, sold, or represented. In the case of a Class III or IV medical device, an amendment is required if there is any signiÞcant change in the device. A signiÞcant change means any change that could reasonably be expected to affect the safety or effectiveness of a medical device. It includes a change to any of the following (CMDR §1): • The manufacturing process, facility, or equipment • The manufacturing quality-control procedures, including the methods, tests, or procedures used to control the quality, purity, and sterility of the device or of the materials used in its manufacture • The design of the device, including its performance characteristics, principles of operation and speciÞcations of materials, energy source, software, or accessories • The intended use of the device, including any new or extended use, any addition or deletion of a contraindication for the device and any change to the period used to establish its expiration date

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Issuance of License

If the TPD is satisÞed that all the conditions speciÞed in the regulations have been met and the safety and effectiveness requirements are met, the TPD will issue a new medical device license or amend an existing license. Annually before November 1, every manufacturer of a licensed medical device must furnish the TPD with a statement signed by the manufacturer or by a person authorized to sign on the manufacturer’s behalf conÞrming that all the information and documents supplied by the manufacturer with respect to the device are still correct or describing any change to the information and documents supplied by the manufacturer with respect to the device, other than those to be submitted pursuant to a medical device license amendment (CMDR §43(1)). If the manufacturer fails to comply with this requirement, the TPD may cancel the medical device license (CMDR §43(2)). If the holder of a medical device license discontinues the sale of the medical device in Canada, the licensee shall inform the TPD within 30 days after the discontinuance, and the license shall be cancelled at the time that the TPD is informed (CMDR §43(3)). Foreign Manufacturers

A manufacturer located outside Canada may be exempted from submitting the information usually required for a Class II, III, or IV medical device license application if (CMDR §33(1)): • the applicant is governed, in that country, by a regulatory authority that is recognized by the TPD; and • the application is accompanied by a certiÞcate of compliance and a supporting summary report, issued by a conformity-assessment body of that country that is recognized by the Minister of Health, which certify that the medical device meets the Canadian safety and effectiveness requirements. The TPD will, on request, make available to any interested persons the list of recognized regulatory authorities and conformity-assessment bodies of countries other than Canada. STANDARDS FOR MEDICAL DEVICES Under the provisions of the F&DA, the TPD may establish performance and safety standards for medical devices. When a standard has been established for a device, it is a violation of the F&DA to label, package, sell, or advertise any article in a manner that is likely to be mistaken for that device, unless the article complies with the established standard (F&DA §21). While the law allows the TPD to establish mandatory device standards, the current regulatory approach is to use standards in a manner similar to that implemented in the European medical device directives and the US Food and Drug Admnistration (FDA) standards recognition program. Under CMDR Sections 32(2)(b), 32(3)(d), and 32(4)(h), a manufacturer must provide a list of the standards complied with in the design and manufacture of the device to demonstrate that minimum safety and effectiveness requirements have been met. This applies to applications for new and amended medical device licenses, applications for investigational-testing authorizations, and applications for custommade devices and devices to be imported or sold for special-access authorizations (TPD Standards Policy §2). Sections 10 through 20 of the CMDR specify safety and effectiveness requirements while Section 21 speciÞes general labeling requirements that all medical devices must meet. Because these require-

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ments are stated in general terms, both manufacturers and the TPD will frequently need clearly deÞned criteria for determining whether a device meets the requirements. One way to provide such criteria is to make use of medical device standards issued by national or international standardswriting organizations. In the past, the TPD has informally used medical device standards, in whole or in part, in its premarket and postmarket evaluations. The TPD has published a policy statement that establishes a procedure for the use of recognized standards for demonstrating that a medical device meets minimum safety and effectiveness requirements. The policy was published on April 12, 2002, and is available through the TPD Web site. The following discussion is based on that policy. RECOGNITION

OF

STANDARDS

The TPD has no plans to recognize standards for every kind of medical device. However, where the need arises, a standard may be recognized for any type of device in any of the four classes deÞned in the regulations. Recognized standards may be vertical (applying to devices of a particular kind, such as latex condoms) or horizontal (applying to characteristics common to a broad range of device types, such as biocompatibility or electrical safety). When determining if a standard should be recognized, the TPD will consider if the proposed standard fulÞlls some or all of the following needs (TPP Draft Standards Policy §4.1.1): • The standard sets adequate requirements for certain of the safety and effectiveness characteristics of the device below which an unacceptable hazard would exist, and the device would therefore be in violation of the regulations. • The standard sets labeling requirements that meet the labeling requirements of the regulations. • The standard speciÞes an acceptable test method for measuring the characteristics of the device and the adoption of this method would simplify the process of assessing the compliance of the device with requirements. Any standard developed through a consensus process and that is not in conßict with any legislation, regulations, or policies under which the TPD operates, can be a candidate for recognition. Only published standards are eligible for recognition. The TPD may reference all or part of a standard. Lists of standards being considered for recognition will be posted on the TPD Web site. The standards accepted for recognition will be published in policy documents. Revisions to standards will not automatically be recognized until the new version has been assessed by the TPD for suitability. However, the TPD will actively monitor draft revisions to a recognized standard so that this decision can be made quickly once the new edition is Þnal. If the TPD decides to recognize the new edition of the standard, the old edition will no longer appear on the list of TPD-recognized standards. After the effective date of the new list, compliance with the old edition of the standard will no longer be acceptable in a new license application. If a recognized standard contains a normative reference (i.e., requires conformance with all or part of another standard), the normative reference will be recognized to the extent that it is used in the TPD-recognized standard. The TPD may withdraw recognition of a standard once it is judged by the TPD to no longer be appropriate for meeting the safety and effectiveness requirements. The TPD will identify eligible standards and review their suitability for recognition. Manufacturers, trade associations, or members of the public may also suggest standards for recognition by

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presenting a rationale to show that recognition would fulÞll the purposes described above. The TPD will give prior notice of its intention to add a standard to its recognized list. USE

OF

RECOGNIZED STANDARDS

The TPD will consider the requirements in a recognized standard to be a reasonable interpretation of the minimum safety and effectiveness requirements for the medical devices to which that standard applies. If a medical device complies with the standard, the TPD will consider it to have met those aspects of CMDR Sections 10 through 21 that are addressed by the standard. In cases where the standard does not address all relevant aspects of safety and effectiveness, the TPD will specify other requirements in policy documents or standard operating procedures. Conformance with recognized standards is voluntary for manufacturers (TPD Standards Policy §4.1.1). A manufacturer may either demonstrate conformance to a recognized standard or may choose to use another method to address safety and effectiveness. For a license to be issued for a device for which a standard(s) has been recognized, a manufacturer must: 1. meet the standard, 2. meet an equivalent or better standard, or 3. provide alternate evidence of safety or efÞcacy. In the case of options 2 and 3, detailed information must be submitted with the device license application. A list of recognized standards is annexed to the TPD Standards Policy. A manufacturer should expect this list to be updated from time to time as new standards are recognized, or new amendments/editions of previously recognized standards are published. A manufacturer who elects to demonstrate conformance with the safety and effectiveness requirements or the labeling requirements by using one or more recognized standards must submit a Declaration of Conformity. The form of the Declaration of Conformity is set out in Appendix 1 of the TPD Standards Policy. A manufacturer may use the Declaration of Conformity to demonstrate conformance to a recognized standard in partial fulÞllment of the necessary safety and effectiveness evidence in order to obtain: • a medical device license for a Class II, III, or IV device (CMDR §32) and, if applicable, a medical device license amendment; • an authorization for special access (CMDR §69); • an authorization to sell or import a Class III or IV custom-made device (CMDR §70); or • an authorization for investigational testing of a Class II, III, or IV device (CMDR §80). The manufacturer must maintain all records and test data relating to a manufacturer’s compliance and/or Declaration of Conformity with standards for a period of two years after approval of the device or for the expected design life of the device, whichever is longer (TPD Standards Policy §4.1.2). If the TPD ceases to recognize a standard, conformance with that standard will no longer be acceptable for obtaining a new device license or an authorization. This includes standards that have been removed from the list of recognized standards because a new edition has been published. However, licenses and authorizations issued under conformance with the old standard will continue to be valid (TPD Standards Policy §4.1.2).

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To obtain a device license or authorization, the manufacturer may submit a Declaration of Conformity with a recognized standard. The manufacturer has the option of proposing any alternate means of establishing safety and effectiveness, such as compliance with a standard not recognized by the TPD, or other objective evidence of safety and effectiveness. However, the manufacturer would have to show that the alternate standard or method is equivalent to or better than the recognized standard. Compliance with a consensus standard may still require submission of data with the license application. For example, compliance with a testing standard may require submission of the test results. Details of data requirements for speciÞc standards will be itemized in further guidance documents. The TPD may also request further information related to the use of the standard during the review of a license application. In the Declaration of Conformity, the manufacturer must, for each standard with which the device complies (TPD Standards Policy §4.1.2.1): • identify the recognized standard(s) that was met; • attest that all the requirements for each standard have been met, except for requirements that do not apply or deviations, in which case the manufacturer must: • identify any sections or requirements of the standard that are not applicable to the device; • identify any ways in which the standard has been adapted for application to the device in question (e.g., by choosing one of several acceptable test methods speciÞed in the standard); and/or • specify any deviations from the standard, such as deviations from an international standard necessary to meet national or provincial regulations; • specify any differences between the device tested for conformance with the standard and the device to be marketed, and justify the use of the test results in case of differences; and • provide the name and address of any third-part laboratory or certiÞcation body that was employed in determining conformance with the standard. When a recognized standard describes a test method, but does not specify a performance limit, the TPD requires that the test results be submitted. The manufacturer must be aware that the TPD review of a speciÞc device may raise issues not addressed by recognized standards. For example, in reviewing a Class III or IV medical device, the TPD may require data from animal testing or clinical testing not addressed in recognized standards. Manufacturers must include all the information necessary to support a determination of safety and effectiveness including safety and effectiveness evidence in the application (TPD Standards Policy §4.1.3). INVESTIGATIONAL DEVICE EXEMPTION (IDE) The manufacturer of a medical device may be required to submit evidence of the effectiveness of the device as part of the registration application submitted to the TPD. That information can include the results of clinical trials. Under Canadian law, it is illegal to import or sell a medical device for investigational testing on human subjects except in the following instances (CMDR §80): • For a Class I medical device, a manufacturer or importer may sell the device to a qualiÞed investigator for the purpose of conducting investigational testing if the manufacturer or

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importer possesses records that contain all the information and documents required by Section 81 of the CMDR. • For a Class II, III, or IV medical device, a manufacturer or importer may sell the device to a qualiÞed investigator for the purpose of conducting investigational testing if the manufacturer or importer holds an authorization issued by the TPD and possesses records that contain all the information and documents required by Section 81 of the CMDR. An investigator is a person who is a member in good standing of a professional association of persons entitled under the laws of a Canadian province to provide healthcare in the province. To be qualiÞed, the investigator must be designated as the person to conduct the testing by the ethics committee of the healthcare facility at which investigational testing is to be conducted. Once these criteria have been met, the manufacturer or importer may sell the device to any qualiÞed investigator designated by the manufacturer for the purpose of obtaining the required clinical data (CMDR §83). Special requirements for labeling of investigational devices are described in the following chapter. No person may advertise a medical device that is the subject of investigational testing unless that person holds an authorization issued by the TPD to sell or import the device and the advertisement clearly indicates that the device is the subject of investigational testing and states the purpose of the investigational testing. SALE OF CUSTOM-MADE DEVICES AND MEDICAL DEVICES FOR SPECIAL ACCESS The Canadian regulations allow two special types of devices to be imported or sold in Canada. They are custom-made devices and devices for special access. A custom-made device is a medical device that differs from medical devices generally available for sale and is manufactured in accordance with a healthcare professional’s written direction giving its design characteristics. A custom-made device is sold for the sole use of a particular patient of that professional, or for use by that professional to meet special needs arising in the course of his or her practice. A special access device is intended for emergency use or for use where conventional therapies have failed, are unavailable, or are unsuitable. For Class I and II medical devices, the practitioner may apply directly to the manufacturer or importer for the needed devices. For Class III and IV medical devices, the professional must apply to the TPD for an authorization that would permit the manufacturer or importer of the device to sell, or to import and sell, the device to that professional. No person may import or sell a Class III or IV custom-made device or a medical device for special access unless the TPD has issued an authorization for its sale or importation (CMDR §70). The required contents of the application are set forth in Section 71 of the CMDR. For Class III and IV medical devices, the TPD must understand (1) the reasons the device was chosen for the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention; (2) the risks and beneÞts that are associated with its use; and (3) the reasons the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention could not be accomplished using a licensed device that is available for sale in Canada. If the application submitted by the practitioner is persuasive, the TPD will issue a letter of permission authorizing the manufacturer or importer to sell the device. The letter of permission will specify (CMDR §72(2)): • the number of units of the device authorized to be imported; • the number of units of the device authorized to be sold; and • the name of the healthcare professional to whom the manufacturer or importer may sell the device.

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Special requirements for labeling of custom-made devices or devices for special access are described in the following chapter. EXPORT OF MEDICAL DEVICES The F&DA does not apply to any packaged device not manufactured for consumption in Canada and not sold for consumption in Canada. Such devices are exempt from the requirements of the CMDR provided a certiÞcate has been issued by the manufacturer that the package and its contents do not contravene any known requirement of the law of the country to which it is or is about to be consigned. The form and contents of the export certiÞcate are prescribed in Schedule 3 of the CMDR. It is an offense under Canadian law for a person to sign an export certiÞcate that is false or misleading, or that contains omissions that may affect its accuracy and completeness (CMDR §90). The exporter of a device must maintain, at its principal place of business in Canada, records that contain the completed export certiÞcates. The exporter can be required to submit the export certificates for examination by an authorized inspector. The exporter must retain the export certiÞcate for a period of not less than Þve years after the date of export (CMDR §92). The package must be marked in distinct overprinting with the word “Export” or “Exportation.” THINGS TO REMEMBER Regulations and regulatory technical standards for medical devices in Canada are established by the federal government under the authority of the F&DA. The F&DA authorizes the Minister of Health Canada to promulgate regulations necessary for the orderly implementation of the F&DA. The intent is to initiate and implement programs to ensure that only safe and efÞcacious medical devices are sold in Canada. The TPP is assigned responsibility for establishing performance and safety standards for medical devices. Within the TPP, the TPD is assigned responsible for review and approval of both drugs and medical devices. When a standard has been established for a device, it is a violation of the F&DA to label, package, sell, or advertise any article in a manner that is likely to be mistaken for that device unless the article complies with the established standard. Section 20 of the F&DA makes it a crime to label, package, treat, process, sell, or advertise any device that is adulterated or misbranded. In general, a medical device can be considered adulterated if the manufacturer knowingly or recklessly fails to provide a device that is Þt for use under the conditions for which its use is recommended in the labeling. If a person has been convicted of a contravention of the F&DA, the court may order that the article involved be forfeited. The CMDR sets out a system for classifying medical devices based on the perceived risk to the patient associated with the device. There are four classes, with Class I containing the lowest-risk devices and Class IV containing the highest-risk devices. The level of scrutiny a device receives will depend upon its classiÞcation. In Canada, a person who imports or sells a medical device must hold an establishment license issued by the TPD. In the application for an establishment license, a senior ofÞcial of the establishment must attest that the establishment has documented procedures in place for the handling of distribution records, complaints, mandatory problem reporting, and recalls. If the establishment imports or distributes Class II, III, or IV devices, a senior ofÞcial of the establishment must attest that the establishment has documented procedures in place, where applicable, for handling, storage, delivery, installation, corrective action, and servicing in respect of these devices. A person holding a valid establishment license may manufacture or import for sale a Class I medical device that meets the safety and effectiveness requirements described in this chapter without

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prior approval of the TPD. No person shall import or sell a Class II, III, or IV medical device unless the manufacturer of the device holds a valid license for the device. The manufacturer or importer of a medical device may conduct investigational testing on human subjects if additional evidence of the effectiveness of the device is required. For a Class I medical device, a manufacturer or importer may sell the device to a qualiÞed investigator for the purpose of conducting investigational testing if the manufacturer or importer possesses records required by the CMDR. For a Class II, III, or IV medical device, a manufacturer or importer may sell the device to a qualiÞed investigator for the purpose of conducting investigational testing if the manufacturer or importer holds an authorization issued by the TPD. A practitioner who wishes to obtain a device that could not otherwise be sold in Canada may apply to the TPD in writing for permission to obtain the needed device. The TPD, if convinced that the use of the device is based on compassionate grounds and that the beneÞts to the patient outweigh the risks associated with the use of the device, will issue a letter of permission authorizing the manufacturer or importer to sell the device.

Medical Device Labeling 8 General in Canada The Canadian government derives its authority to regulate medical devices from the Food and Drugs Act (F&DA). The requirements for labeling of the medical devices sold in Canada are contained in the Canadian “Medical Devices Regulations” (CMDR). These regulations are published in the Canada Gazette, Part II – Statutory Orders and Regulations as SOR/98-282. These general requirements may be supplemented by particular requirements in guidance documents issued by the Therapeutic Products Directorate (TPD), in performance and safety standards for medical devices established by the TPD, or in standards recognized by the TPD as demonstrating that a medical device meets minimum safety and effectiveness requirements. A medical device that is not labeled as required by, or is labeled contrary to, the requirements in the CMDR is deemed to be misbranded under Section 20(1) of the F&DA. Misbranding is a violation of the law and subjects the perpetrator to signiÞcant penalties including seizure and forfeiture of the misbranded goods. This chapter explores the parts of the regulations that deal with misbranding of medical devices. MISBRANDING The TPD, which is a part of the Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) of Health Canada, has developed a minimum set of labeling requirements that are applicable to all medical devices. These requirements are contained in Sections 21 through 23 of the CMDR, and include: • • • •

general device requirements, prominence of required information, requirements for medical devices intended to be sold to the general public, and language requirements.

Failure to follow or satisfy these requirements will lead to the device being deemed as labeled in a false, misleading, or deceptive manner (i.e., misbranded). The following sections discuss each of these requirements in detail. GENERAL LABELING REQUIREMENTS The F&DA deÞnes a label as any legend, word, or mark attached to, included in, belonging to, or accompanying any device or package (F&DA §2). Canadian law or regulations do not draw a distinction between labels that appear on the device or its packaging and material that accompanies the device such as package inserts, brochures, and leaßets. In this chapter, the term label will be used to describe both labels afÞxed to the device or its packaging and material accompanying the device. Section 21 of the CMDR details 10 general labeling requirements. These requirements can be grouped into four basic categories:

93

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• • • •

device identiÞcation, instructions for use (IFU) sterile devices and devices with a limited life, and Class III or IV devices.

The speciÞc requirements relating to each of these categories is described in more detail in the following sections. DEVICE IDENTIFICATION The label of a medical device must uniquely identify the device and distinguish if from similar devices. In this context, a device includes a system, medical device group, medical device family, or medical device group family. For purposes of the CMDR, the following deÞnitions apply (CMDR §2): • A system is a medical device comprising a number of components or parts that are intended to be used together to fulÞll some or all of the device’s intended functions and are sold under a single name. • A medical device group is a medical device comprising a collection of medical devices, such as a procedure pack or tray, that is sold under a single name. • A medical device family is a group of medical devices that are made by the same manufacturer, have the same design and manufacturing process, and have the same intended use, and they differ only in shape, color, ßavor, or size. • A medical device group family is a collection of medical device groups that are made by the same manufacturer and have the same generic name specifying their intended use, and they differ only in the number and combination of products that comprise each group. The device identiÞcation section of a label includes the following elements: 1. The label must include the name of the device. The name of the device must include all the information necessary for the user to identify the device and to distinguish it from similar devices. The name on the label may describe one device, an administrative grouping of devices sold for convenience under a single name, or a grouping of devices that carry the same generic name specifying the intended use of the devices. 2. The label must include the name and address of the manufacturer. For the purpose of the regulation, the manufacturer is a person who sells a medical device under his or her own name, or under a trademark, design, trade name, or other name or mark owned or controlled by that person, and who is responsible for designing, manufacturing, assembling, processing, labeling, packaging, refurbishing, or modifying the device, or for assigning to it a purpose, whether those tasks are performed by that person or on his or her behalf. The name and address should provide sufÞcient detail to serve as a postal address. The regulation does not preclude placing the name and address of other persons, such as an importer or distributor, on the label. However, if multiple names appear on the label, the relationship of each name to the device must be made clear. There may be private labeling agreements between a fabricator and a distributor or importer where the distributor or importer’s name and product name appear on the label. Such agreements not withstanding, the sole name and address on the label is, by deÞnition, that of the manufacturer. If a device license is required, it is issued to the manufacturer named on the label. Further, the named manufacturer is required to

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satisfy the safety and effectiveness requirements for the device. The TPD does not accept qualifying the solely named manufacturer on the label with words such as “imported by” or “distributed by” (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 5). 3. In addition, the label must include the identiÞer of the device, including the identiÞer of any medical device that is part of a system, test kit, medical device group, medical device family, or medical device group family. The identiÞer is a unique series of letters, numbers, or a combination of letters and numbers, or a bar code, which is assigned to a medical device by its manufacturer. The identiÞer must be sufÞciently unique that when taken with the device name, the resulting combination distinguishes it from all other devices. It may be a catalog number, model number, or a bar code. If the contents are not readily apparent, the label must include an indication of what the package contains, expressed in terms appropriate to the device, such as the size, net weight, length, volume, or number of units. The intent is to provide sufÞcient information about the package contents to enable the user to make an informed choice when comparing similar devices. The information will also allow the user to pick a size suitable for his or her purposes. Units should be expressed in metric or SI (International System of Units) units. In the case of devices containing natural-rubber latex, this material should be identiÞed (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 6). INSTRUCTIONS

FOR

USE (IFU)

The label must include those instructions necessary for the safe and effective application of the device. The IFU include the indications for use of the device. Indications for use is a general description of the disease(s) or condition(s) the device will diagnose, treat, prevent, or mitigate. The indications for use should include, when applicable, a description of the patient population for which the device is intended. The indications for use are generally labeled as such, but may also be inferred from other parts of the labeling, including the directions for use, precautions, and warnings. SpeciÞcally, the IFU must include: 1. Unless it is self-evident to the intended user, the IFU must succinctly identify the medical conditions, purposes, and uses for which the device is manufactured, sold, or represented. This description must include the performance speciÞcations of the device if those speciÞcations are necessary for proper use. There are some devices for which the intended user commonly understands the indications for use. For these devices, labeling the intended use may not be necessary. For example, the uses of certain surgical instruments are obvious to the intended user, such as a stainlesssteel scalpels, non-medicated adhesive bandages, or tongue depressors (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 7). The detail and level of the language used in the labeling should be appropriate to the educational level or expertise of the intended user. The IFU must contain the device’s directions for use, unless directions are obvious to the intended user and are, therefore, not required for the device to be used safely and effectively. The directions for use comprise all the necessary information about the procedures recommended for achieving the optimum performance of the device. This includes any cautions, warnings, contraindications, and possible adverse effects from application of the device. Cautions, warnings, contraindications, and possible adverse effects are important elements of the directions for use because they alert the user to important safety-related aspects of

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the device. They are frequently grouped together and placed near the beginning of the label (e.g., at the front of the package insert or users manual) in order to make them noticeable and easily found by the intended user. Advice on presenting cautions, warnings, and so on is located in Chapter 27. For the purposes of the CMDR, the following deÞnitions apply: • CAUTIONS: Sometimes referred to as “precautions,” this section of the directions for use alerts the user to the need for exercising special care in order to achieve safe and effective use of the device. Cautions should be written to attract the user’s attention, to inform about the seriousness of the hazard, and to recommend steps to avoid the hazard. • WARNINGS: Warnings describe serious adverse and potential safety hazards that can occur in the proper use, or misuse, of a device, along with ways to limit the consequences in use and mitigating steps to take if they occur. The TPD suggests that when a condition or circumstance may result in death or serious injury, a succinctly worded warning enclosed within a distinctive visual box contained within the labeling should be provided (TPD Labelling Guidance, p. 8). • CONTRAINDICATIONS: These are conditions, especially any conditions of disease, that render some particular line of treatment improper or undesirable. This section should describe situations where devices should not be used because the risk outweighs any potential therapeutic beneÞt. Examples could include: “Contraindicated for use in pregnancy,” or “Not to be used in a patient who has an implanted Cardiac Pacemaker/DeÞbrillator” (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 8). • ADVERSE EFFECTS: This section should list the adverse effects that have been reported in association with the use of the device. A description and the frequency of the most serious adverse effects should also be provided. Although not speciÞcally mentioned in the regulation, the TPD recommends that the labeling material include, when appropriate, a brief summary of clinical studies used to establish the safety and effectiveness of the device. This summary would describe the design of the studies, how they were conducted, and the results in support of the labeling claims. Providing this type of labeling information is most appropriate for Class III and, in particular, Class IV devices (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 8). The directions for use should be written at a level appropriate to the training and experience of the user. 2. The label must describe any special storage conditions applicable to the device. Some devices may need to be stored and handled under certain environmental conditions in order to prevent deterioration due to temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, light, and so on. The user must be provided with this information in order to decide if such storage conditions are accessible or within their means. The TPD recommends that storage temperatures should be labeled in degrees Celsius (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 9). STERILE DEVICES

OR

DEVICES

WITH A

LIMITED LIFE

For devices sterilized by the manufacturer and sold in a sterile condition, the words “Sterile” and “Stérile” must appear on the label. The absence of the words “Sterile” and “Stérile” indicates that the device is not intended to be sold to the user in a sterile condition. When applicable, the label must contain the expiration date of the device. The expiration date is determined by the manufacturer on the basis of the component that has the shortest projected useful life. Frequently, for sterile devices, the expiration date is based on the demonstrated integrity of the sterile packing barrier. For other devices, there are other factors that determine the expiration

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date. For example, the expiration date for an active implantable medical device is frequently determined by the shelf life of the battery. The manufacturer must have objective evidence that demonstrates that the device will perform as intended and will meet its speciÞcations until that date. The date should be expressed in the internationally accepted format:* year (in four digits), month (in two digits), and, when necessary, day (in two digits). The separator for the portions of the date should be a hyphen (-) (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 6). CLASS III

OR

IV DEVICES

For a Class III or IV device, the label must display the manufacturer’s control number. The control number is a unique series of letters, numbers, or symbols, or any combination of these, that is assigned to a medical device by its manufacturer. The control number provides traceability so that a history of the manufacture, packaging, labeling, and distribution of a unit, lot, or batch of the device can be determined. The control number encompasses both lot and serial numbers. This is a requirement for Class III and IV devices only. Although not mandatory for Class I and II devices, a control number enhances postmarket traceability (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 5). PROMINENCE OF REQUIRED INFORMATION The information required by the CMDR must appear in a legible, permanent, and prominent manner on the label. It must be expressed in terms that are easily understood by the intended user (CMDR §21(2)). REQUIREMENTS FOR MEDICAL DEVICES INTENDED TO BE SOLD TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC AT A SELF-SERVICE DISPLAY Self-service implies the absence of an “informed intermediary” such as a physician or other healthcare professional that can assist the user in the safe and effective use of the device. Self-service also implies a variety of ways of delivering the device to the customer. These include over-the-counter (OTC) displays, by catalog mail order, and via the Internet. If a medical device is to be sold to the general public without an informed intermediary, the general labeling requirements described above must be (CMDR §22(1)): • set out on the outside of the package that contains the device, and • be visible under normal conditions of sale. When a package that contains a medical device is too small to display all the information on the outside of the package in a manner visible under normal conditions of sale, the IFU shall accompany the device. However, they need not be set out on the outside of the package or be visible under normal conditions of sale (CMDR §22(2)). LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS The directions for use for medical devices that are sold at a self-service display in Canada must be labeled in both English and French. Other medical devices must be labeled in either English or French. If the directions for use are supplied in only one of the ofÞcial languages at the time of sale, the purchaser may request the directions for use in the other ofÞcial language. The manufacturer must be prepared to satisfy this request as soon as possible (CMDR §23). * This date format is deÞned in ISO 8601:1988, Data elements and interchange ormats–Information exchange–Representation of dates and times.

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IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC (IVD) DEVICES In Canada, an in vitro diagnostic (IVD) device is considered a medical device and is regulated under the CMDR. Therefore, the labeling for an IVD device must comply with the requirements in Sections 21 through 23 of the CMDR. These requirements are described earlier in this chapter. However, the labeling of an IVD device must convey particular information that is essential for its proper use. For example, the directions for use intended to be used by a layperson should be clearly written in a step-by-step format and include illustrations and drawings where appropriate. Both the professional and lay-user should understand what action must be taken in the case of a particular result and what is the possibility of a false positive or false negative result. An IVD device must have a label that provides the information speciÞed in Section 21(1) of the CMDR. This label includes, but is not limited to, the package insert, the immediate device-container label, and the reagent/component label. These labels must satisfy the same requirements for the prominence of information and language as the labeling of all other medical devices. IVD devices that are sold through self-service outlets must meet the requirements described in the previous section for medical devices intended to be sold to the general public at a self-service display. To assist IVD device manufacturers, the TPD has prepared a draft guidance document entitled Guidance for the Labelling of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices. The material in this section was extracted from that guidance document. PACKAGE INSERT A package insert is essential for most IVD devices. The requirements for a package insert described in this section apply to the majority of test kits for all classes of IVD devices. The extent of the information required in the package insert may depend upon the complexity and safety considerations of the test performed using the kit (TPD IVD Guidance pp. 5–11). Device Identification

The IVD device must be uniquely identiÞed so that the user may distinguish it from similar device. To meet this requirement, the package insert must include: • • • •

The name of the IVD device. The name and mailing address of the manufacturer. The identiÞer or catalog number. A list of kit contents, including quantities, descriptions, volumes, number of tests, and so on. If more than a single test may be performed using the product, any statement of the number of tests must be consistent with the IFU and the amount of material provided.

Instructions for Use (IFU)

As with other medical devices, the IFU section of an IVD device’s package insert must include those instructions necessary for the safe and effective application of the IVD device. This includes: 1. The package insert must clearly indicate intended use(s) and indications for use of the IVD device. The following information should be detailed in this section (TPD IVD Guidance p. 5): a. The intended use (e.g. screening, monitoring, diagnostic). For a Class IV IVD device not intended for donor screening, the package insert and the device container label must indicate “Not for donor screening.”

General Medical Device Labeling in Canada

b. The technology employed in the IVD device (e.g. ELISA, chromatographic). c. Whether the test is qualitative or quantitative. d. The speciÞc disorder, condition, or risk factor of interest for which the test is intended (i.e., the analyte to be measured). e. A description of the patient population for which the IVD device is intended. f. An indication of where the IVD device is to be used (e.g., in clinical laboratories, alternative-care sites, or home use). The limitations section of the package insert should include any speciÞc training required for test performance or use. g. The type of specimen(s) required (e.g. serum, plasma). h. Indication if the IVD device must be used in combination with, installed with, or connected to other medical devices or equipment. i. SpeciÞc contraindications for use (e.g. “Use of this device is contraindicated in recent inßuenza vaccine recipients...” when considerable cross-reactivity can be expected in recent inßuenza vaccine recipients). The package insert should include a section on the performance characteristics of the IVD device and provide a summary of data from the clinical trials upon which the performance of the test is based. Performance characteristics would include such things as sensitivity, speciÞcity, predictive values, reproducibility, repeatability, stability, limits of detection and measurement range, earliest clinical detection in comparison with tests of reference, and so on. When appropriate, the conÞdence intervals (i.e., 95%) associated with each of the performance characteristics should be provided (TPD IVD Guidance p. 10). 2. The package insert should contain the directions for use unless directions are not required for the device to be used safely and effectively. Most IVD devices will require directions for use. The TPD guidance document on labeling of IVD devices includes the following information under the general heading of directions for use (TPD IVD Guidance pp. 6–10): a. Components (reagents, supplies, etc.). The description of a component must include the name of the component and a description of the contents in terms of quantity (e.g., number of vials, if applicable), mass and/or volume, or concentration. For reagents, indicate the quantity, proportion, concentration, or activity of each reactive ingredient. For biologics, indicate the source and measure of activity. The description should include a statement indicating the presence of catalytic or nonreactive ingredients, such as buffers, preservatives, or stabilizers, where this information is needed for the safe and effective use of the test. The maximum number of tests that can be performed with the stated contents must be speciÞed. The component description must contain complete directions for preparation (reconstitution, mixing, or dilution) when necessary. Storage instructions for both opened and unopened reagents are to be provided. Information regarding possible deterioration of the reagent (i.e. indicators of reagent, calibrator or quality-control material deterioration, where applicable) must also be provided. b. Essential components and/or special equipment or instruments not provided. The directions for use must indicate any essential components and/or special equipment or instruments that are not provided with the kit. This should include details such as sizes, numbers, types, quality, and so on. Examples include: incubators, precision pipettes, calibrated thermometers, appropriate disinfectants and disinfection procedures, appropriate reaction vessels (specify glass, polystyrene, polypropylene). For instruments such as

99

100

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

microplate readers, indicate the required speciÞcations such as wavelength, bandwidth, absorbance, precision, Þlters, and so on. If any dedicated instruments, equipment, or software is required, the directions for use must include the name of the instrument, its model number(s)/version number(s), and a brief description of use or function, performance characteristics/speciÞcations, warnings and precautions, limitations, and so on. c. Warnings and precautionary statements. The directions for use must indicate appropriate warnings and precautionary statements for the safe and effective use of the IVD device. The use of international symbols and signal words such as “warning” and “caution” are effective in alerting the user to a hazard. For all classes of IVD devices, the following statement should appear in the directions for use indicate the statement (TPD IVD Guidance p. 7): FOR IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC USE.

For IVD devices containing material of human or animal origin, TPD requires a disclosure statement such as (TPD IVD Guidance p. 5): CAUTION: THIS DEVICE CONTAINS MATERIAL OF HUMAN OR ANIMAL ORIGIN AND SHOULD BE HANDLED AS A POTENTIAL CARRIER AND TRANSMITTER OF DISEASE.

For IVD devices containing potentially infectious agents, the directions for use should indicate whether any antigens and/or control sera have been inactivated. It must provide a complete description of the tests that have been performed for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Heapatitis B Virsu (HBV), Human T-lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), and Human ImumunodeÞcient Virus (HIV), and the results obtained. If the testing revealed the presence of an infectious agent, the TPD requires a hazard statement to the effect: HAZARD: THIS DEVICE MAY TRANSMIT [INFECTIOUS AGENT] AND SHOULD BE HANDLED WITH EXTREME CAUTION. NO KNOWN TEST METHOD CAN OFFER COMPLETE ASSURANCE THAT PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM HUMAN BLOOD WILL NOT TRANSMIT INFECTIOUS AGENTS.

d. Specimen collection and handling. The directions for use must describe the specimen to be collected and indicate the necessary patient preparation, precautions, and procedure for collecting the specimen (e.g., removal of particulate matter by centrifugation). Criteria for accepting or rejecting the specimen must be described. Additives and preservatives that are added to preserve the integrity of the specimen must be described. Any special storage and handling requirements to preserve the specimen must be described. Any known interferences must be detailed. e. Test procedure. The directions for use must provide the user with a description of the test procedure to be followed. This information should include a description of the required amounts of reagents, samples, and controls; incubation schedules; temperature; wavelengths used for measurement; and other relevant environmental conditions under which the device is to be used. Sample selection and handling procedures must to be provided along with performance and turnaround-time speciÞcations. Calibration information, including reference samples, blanks, preparation of a standard curve, indication of the maximum and minimum levels of detection, and so on, should be provided. The quality-control procedures and materials required must be described. The IFU should indicate whether positive and negative controls are required, and what are considered to

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be satisfactory limits of performance. Finally, the stability of the Þnal reaction product should be explained. For the individual reagents, the directions for use must contain complete instructions for preparing use-dilutions or mixing of individual reagents. Test volumes and instructions for using the reagent should be included. This information could be provided in the general directions for use or in an alternate section of the package insert dealing with reagents. f. Results. A step-by-step procedure for calculating the value of the test sample, including appropriate formulas and a sample calculation, must be provided. g. Interpretation of results. It is important that the directions for use indicate the criteria for accepting or rejecting the test results, and indicate to the user whether further testing is required if a particular result is obtained. For example, this might include requiring duplicate tests if the initial test is reactive. When appropriate, a positive or negative result must be clearly deÞned with cutoff levels. If the test is designed to provide qualitative results, include an explanation of expected results. If the test requires the interpretation of “visual” results (e.g. colorimetric reactions) include a high-quality photograph or reproduction of results. Indicate to the user the signiÞcance of the results obtained. This would include information as to what degree a negative test does or does not exclude the possibility of exposure to, or infection by, the organism, and so on. h. Limitations of the test. This section must indicate the limitations of the test. This may include an indication that results should only be used in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory data. Any patient and clinical factors that may affect marker levels and factors that should be considered when interpreting test results should be discussed. The necessary qualiÞcations for personnel performing the test or interpreting the test results should be detailed. All known contraindications to using the test, with appropriate references, should be included here unless they are described in a separate section of the package insert. i. Expected values. The directions for use should indicate the range of expected values based on studies of test results from various populations. Describe how the expected range was established and clearly identify the population(s) that was studied. Appropriate literature references should be provided. j. Disposal. The directions for use should describe the appropriate decontamination and disposal procedures for used or expired kits or reagents. Disposal of all specimens and kit components must comply with all applicable waste disposal requirements. Decontamination and disposal information may also be provided in the “Warnings and Precautions” section of the package insert. 3. The package insert should indicate the storage conditions necessary to ensure the stability of the IVD device in the unopened state. This includes both the device and the individual reagents. Recommended storage-temperature intervals and other conditions for storage such as light, humidity, and so on, should be stated. Storage conditions also need to be provided for opened or reconstituted/mixed reagents (TPD IVD Guidance pp. 10–11). Sterile Devices or Devices with a Limited Life

The CMDR requires devices sterilized by the manufacturer and sold in a sterile condition to be labeled with the words “Sterile” and “Stérile.” This would apply to the IVD device as a whole or

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

to components provided in the kit. When applicable, the label must contain the expiration date of the device. Again, this could apply to the device as a whole or to components such as reagents. This information could be provided in the package insert. However, it seems most reasonable to provide this information on the immediate container label where it is readily available to the user. The package insert could contain appropriate warnings, such as: DO DO

NOT USE IF THE STERILE PACKAGE HAS BEEN OPENED OR DAMAGED.

NOT USE THE KIT OR ANY KIT COMPONENT PAST THE INDICATED EXPIRATION DATE.

Class III or IV Devices

For Class III or IV IVD devices, the label must display the manufacturer’s control number. Once again, this information could be provided in the package insert. However, it seems most reasonable for the manufacturer to provide this information on the immediate container label because package inserts would not be custom-printed for each kit. If the control number is a complex structure encoding information such as manufacturing date, lot numbers, and so on, it may be appropriate to provide the user with an explanation of this coding system in the package insert. Other Material

The TPD recommends that the date of issue of the directions for use or of any revision should be indicated in the package insert. The TPD also recommends that the package insert include a bibliography of pertinent up-to-date references for the information cited in the text and any other references related to the subject matter (TPD IVD Guidance p. 11). IMMEDIATE CONTAINER LABEL The immediate container label should contain much of the same information as the package insert but in an abbreviated form. Device Identification

The device identiÞcation section of the immediate container label should include (TPD IVD Guidance pp. 11–12): • • • •

The name of the IVD device. The name and mailing address of the manufacturer. The identiÞer or catalog number. A list of kit contents, including quantities, descriptions, volumes, number of tests, and so on. If more than a single determination may be performed using the product, any statement of the number of tests must be consistent with IFU and the amount of material provided.

Instructions for Use (IFU)

The IFU section of the immediate container label should include a summary of the detailed material provide in the package insert. If a package insert is not provided, the immediate container label must include those instructions necessary for the safe and effective application of the IVD device. This includes (TPD IVD Guidance p. 11):

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• The immediate container label must clearly and succinctly indicate the intended use(s) and indications for use of the IVDD. An example of an appropriate statement for the immediate container label is: [ASSAY

NAME] FOR THE DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO

TYPES I

AND

II (HIV-1/HIV-2)

IN

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS HUMAN SERUM OR PLASMA.

• Class IV IVD devices not intended for donor screening must indicate “Not for donor screening” on the device’s immediate container label and package insert. • When appropriate, the immediate container label should set out any necessary operating instructions. The immediate container label should also provide the user of the IVD devcie with appropriate warnings or precautions. For all IVD devices, the immediate container label should include the statement: FOR IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC USE

• For IVD devices containing potentially infectious agents, whether inactivated or not, indicate a statement such as: HANDLE

ALL THE REAGENTS AS THOUGH CAPABLE OF TRANSMITTING INFECTION.

• The immediate container label must list the necessary storage instructions, including any special storage conditions, applicable to the IVD device. Sterile Devices or Devices with a Limited Life

The CMDR requires devices sterilized by the manufacturer and sold in a sterile condition to be labeled with the words “Sterile” and “Stérile.” This would apply to the IVD device as a whole or to the components provided in the kit. When applicable, the label must contain the expiration date of the device. The expiration date is based upon the component of the IVD device having the shortest projected useful life. Expiration dates are required for the unopened IVD device or its components (reagents, calibrators, quality control materials, etc.) and for the opened IVD device or its components if the date is different from the unopened IVD device (TPD IVD Guidance pp. 11-12). Class III or IV Devices

A control number is required for Class III and IV IVD devices, in order to determine the complete manufacturing history of the product (TPD IVD Guidance p. 12). REAGENT LABEL The reagent label should contain the same basic information as the immediate container label. Device Identification

The device-identiÞcation section of the reagent label should include (TPD IVD Guidance pp. 12–13): • The name of the IVD device and the reagent. For reagents used within a single kit, indicate the name of the reagent and the name of the IVD device. For multipurpose reagents that can be used with a number of kits, the name of the reagent should be sufÞcient. • The name and mailing address of the manufacturer.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• If applicable, the identiÞer or catalog number of the reagent. • The quantity, proportion, or concentration of each reactive ingredient and, for a reagent derived from a biological material, the source and a measure of its activity. • If more than a single test may be performed using the product, any statement of the number of tests should be consistent with the IFU and amount of material provided. Instructions for Use (IFU)

The IFU section of the reagent label should include instructions necessary for the safe and effective application of the reagent. This includes (TPD IVD Guidance pp. 12–13): • The IFU section of the reagent label must indicate warnings and precautions appropriate to the reagent. For all reagents, this label should include the statement: FOR IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC USE

• For reagents containing potentially infectious agents, whether inactivated or not, indicate a statement such as: HANDLE

THE REAGENT AS THOUGH IT IS CAPABLE OF TRANSMITTING INFECTION.

• The reagent label must include appropriate storage instructions adequate to ensure the stability of the product. Where applicable, the label should include information such as conditions of temperature, light, humidity, and other pertinent factors. The label for reagents that will be stored in the original bottle after being reconstituted, mixed, or otherwise processed before use should provide appropriate storage instructions for the reconstituted or mixed product. Sterile Devices or Devices with a Limited Life

When a reagent is sterilized by the manufacturer and sold in a sterile condition, the reagent label should contain the words “Sterile” and “Stérile.” When applicable, the reagent label must contain the expiration date of the individual reagent in both its unopened and opened state (TPD IVD Guidance pp. 11-12). Class III or IV Devices

A control number is required for Class III and IV reagents in order to determine the complete manufacturing history of the product (TPD IVD Guidance p. 13). LABELING

FOR

IVD DEVICES CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS

OR

COMPONENTS

In addition to the requirements referred to in Section 21 of the CMDR, the TPD requires the label of an IVD device containing explosive material or components to have the following information (TPD IVD Guidance pp. 14–15): • The identity of the material or the components • The nature of the potential hazard • The precautions that should be taken during handling, storage, or disposal of the device in order to avoid an explosion Guidance on disclosing this type of information taken from the Canadian Consumer Chemicals and Containers Regulations (CC&CR) is presented later in this chapter.

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TABLE 8.1 Medical Devices Classified as Implants Item

Device

1 2 3 3(a) 3(b) 3(c) 3(d) 3(e) 4 4(a) 4(b)

Heart valve Annuloplasty ring Active implantable device system All models of implantable pacemakers and leads All models of implantable deÞbrillators and leads ArtiÞcial heart Implantable ventricular support system Implantable drug infusion system Devices of human origin Human dura mater Wound covering containing human cells

Source: CMDR, Schedule 2

IMPLANT-REGISTRATION CARD The manufacturer of a medical device classiÞed as an implant in Schedule 2 of the CMDR must provide, along with the implant itself a means to register that implant. The devices classiÞed as an implant at the time of publication are listed in Table 8.1. The CMDR speciÞes the information content of a registration card that meets the intent of the regulation. During the registration process, the manufacturer may propose an alternative method for registering an implant. If the TPD determines the proposed method enables the manufacturer to achieve the purpose established in Paragraph 66(1)(c) of the CMDR as effectively as the use of the implant card, the Minster of Health Canada can authorize the use of the alternative method. Unless another system has been approved by the Minister of Health Canada, the manufacturer of an implant must provide two implant-registration cards. The minimum required information is (CMDR §66(1)): • the name and address of the manufacturer; • the name and address of a representative designated by the manufacturer for the collection of implant-registration information; • a notice advising the patient that the purpose of the cards is to enable the manufacturer to notify the patient of new information concerning the safety, effectiveness, or performance of the implant, and any required corrective action; and • a statement advising the patient to notify the manufacturer of any change of address. The implant-registration card must be designed to enable a person at the healthcare facility where the implant procedure took place to record the following information (CMDR §66(2)): • The name of the device, its control number, and its identiÞer, including the identiÞer of any medical device that is part of a system, test kit, medical device group, medical device family or medical device group family. • The name and address of the healthcare professional who carried out the implant procedure. • The date on which the device was implanted.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• The name and address of the healthcare facility at which the implant procedure took place. • The patient’s name and address or the identiÞcation number used by the healthcare facility to identify the patient. The patient’s written consent is required before the patient’s name and address may be entered on the implant-registration card that is forwarded to the manufacturer or the manufacturer’s representative (CMDR §67(2)). The healthcare facility, the manufacturer, or the manufacturer’s representative may not disclose the patient’s name or address, or any information that might identify the patient, unless the disclosure is required by law (CMDR §67(3)). The manufacturer must provide either (CMDR §66(3)): • two implant-registration cards printed in both English and French, or • four implant-registration cards, two in English and two in French. As soon as possible after the completion of the implant procedure, a staff member of the healthcare facility where an implant procedure took place must enter the required information on each implant-registration card. One card is given to the implant patient and the second card is forwarded to the manufacturer of the implant or the person designated by the manufacturer to receive and record the information. LABELING FOR INVESTIGATIONAL DEVICES From time to time, the manufacturer or importer of a medical device may be required to submit evidence of the effectiveness of the device as part of the registration process. That information can include the results of clinical trials conducted on human subjects. Under Canadian law, a manufacturer may only sell a medical device for investigational testing on human subjects to a qualiÞed investigator. For a Class II, III, or IV medical device, the manufacturer or importer must also possess an authorization issued by the TPD. In all cases, a device must be have a label that sets out the following (CMDR §86): • The name of the manufacturer • The name of the device • The statements “Investigational Device” and “Instrument de recherché,” or any other statement, in English and French, that conveys that meaning • The statements “To Be Used by QualiÞed Investigators Only” and “Réservé uniquement à l’usage de chercheurs compétents,” or any other statement, in English and French, that conveys that meaning • In the case of an IVD device, the statements “The performance speciÞcations of this device have not been established” and “Les spéciÞcations de rendement de l’instrument n’ont pas été établies,” or any other statement, in English and French, that conveys that meaning LABELING OF CUSTOM-MADE DEVICES AND MEDICAL DEVICES FOR SPECIAL ACCESS Custom-made devices and medical devices imported for special purposes must have a label that (CMDR §75):

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• sets out the name of the manufacturer, • sets out the name of the device, and • speciÞes whether the device is a custom-made device or is being imported or sold for special access. EXPORT OF MEDICAL DEVICES The F&DA does not apply to any packaged device not manufactured for consumption in Canada and not sold for consumption in Canada. The labels must conform to the requirements of the country to which it is or is about to be consigned, and the package is marked in distinct overprinting with the word “Export” or “Exportation.” SPECIAL LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC DEVICES Sections 21 through 23 of the CMDR set out the basic labeling requirements applicable to all medical devices. Under the provisions of the F&DA, the TPD can publish additional guidance or requirements as needed in order to ensure safety and effectiveness. This material can appear in guidance documents such as Guidance for the Labelling of Medical Devices or in TPD policy documents such as the Policy on Safety and Effectiveness Requirements for Latex Condoms.* These documents are intended to replace the Schedules and Information Letters relevant to the old Regulations. LABELING

FOR

SOFT CONTACT LENSES

Contact lenses are any prosthetic device that covers the cornea, and may cover a portion of the limbus or the sclera, for the purpose of correcting refractive errors of the eye. Soft contact lenses are manufactured from a ßexible polymer material. In addition to the information required by Section 21 of the CMDR, the labeling for soft contact lenses shall include the following (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 11): 1. The outer label of the package shall display the correction factor of the contact lens. 2. The outer label, or the package insert, shall contain information indicating: • at least two lens-care systems that are recommended by the manufacturer for the contact lens; • a warning statement contraindicating the use of noncompatible lens-care products, if applicable; • that the safety and effectiveness of contact lenses depends on proper use; • that an eye-care professional should be consulted regarding proper use; • the recommended period of continuous wear, expressed in hours, or, in the case of an extended-wear lens, in days; • the minimum period the contact lens should be left out of the eye before reinsertion; • the recommended number of times, if any, that the contact lens can be cleaned; • that adequate follow-up by an eye-care professional is essential for the safe use of the contact lens; • that infection, with possible permanent damage to vision, could result from the failure to strictly follow recommended directions for use and lens-care procedures; • that an eye-care professional should be consulted regarding the use of the contact lens in certain atmospheric or environmental conditions that can cause irritation to the eye; * Therapeutic Products Programme.1998. Policy on Safety and Effectiveness Requirements for Latex Condoms, (June 30) Ottawa: Health Canada.

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• that, in the event of an adverse reaction to the wearing of the contact lens, including discomfort to the eye, red eye, and blurred vision, the user should immediately remove the contact lens and consult an eye-care professional before resuming use; • where the contact lens is a cosmetically tinted contact lens, a warning statement that the tinted contact lens can reduce visibility in low-light condition; • where the contact lens is an extended-wear lens, a warning statement that users of extendedwear lenses have a higher risk of infection and permanent damage to their vision; and • where the soft contact lens is not an extended-wear lens, a warning statement that the wearing of the contact lens while sleeping increases the risk of infection and permanent damage to vision. 3. Where the preceding information is displayed in a package insert, the following statement is to appear on the outer label: ATTENTION: READ MISE

LABELING

FOR

EN GARDE:

VEUILLER

AND SAVE THE ENCLOSED INFORMATION.

LIRE ET CONSERVER LES RENSEIGNEMENTS CI-JOINTS.

MENSTRUAL TAMPONS

A menstrual tampon is a medical device used to absorb menstrual ßow. Menstrual tampons have been linked with an increased risk of Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS). The higher the absorbency of the tampon, the greater the risk the user will develop TSS. The TPD-recommended labeling is intended to provide the consumer with information to help select the tampon with the minimum absorbency needed to control menstrual ßow in order to reduce the risk of contracting TSS. In addition to the information required by Section 21 of the CMDR, the labeling for menstrual tampons shall include the following (TPD Labeling Guidance pp. 13–14): 1. Absorbency identiÞcation information shall appear on the display panel that is the part of the package displayed or visible under normal conditions of sale or advertisement to the consumer. This absorbency identiÞcation is found in Column II of Table 8.2 and it represents the range of absorbency of the menstrual tampon as set out in Column I of Table 8.2. The absorbency of a menstrual tampon must be measured by an accepted test method. 2. Anywhere on the outer label, the statement: ATTENTION: TAMPONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME (TSS). TSS IS A RARE BUT SERIOUS DISEASE THAT MAY CAUSE DEATH. TABLE 8.2 Menstrual Tampon Absorbency Identification

Item

Column I Range of Absorbency (grams)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Less than or equal to 6 Greater than 6 less than 9 Greater than 9 less than 12 Greater than 12 less than 15 Greater than 15

Source: TPD Labeling Guidance p. 14

Column II Absorbency Identification Junior Absorbency Regular Absorbency Super Absorbency Super Plus Absorbency Ultra Plus Absorbency

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MISE EN GARDE: LES TAMPONS HYGIÉNIQUES SONT ASSOCIÉS AU SYNDROME DE CHOC TOXIQUE (SCT). LE SCT SE MANIFESTE RAREMENT, MAIS IL N’EN CONSTITUE PAS MOINS UNE MALADIE GRAVE QUI PEUT ÊTRE MORTELLE.

3. Information provided on the label or in a package insert shall: • explain to the user the warning symptoms and risks of TSS associated with the use of menstrual tampons; • advise the user on the duration of use and proper hygiene during use; • advise the user to use menstrual tampons with the minimum absorbency needed to control menstrual ßow in order to reduce the risk of contracting TSS; • explain to the user the various ranges of absorbency, described in Table 8.2, and the corresponding absorbency identiÞcation of menstrual tampons sold in Canada by that manufacturer; • describe to the user how to compare the ranges of absorbency and the corresponding absorbency identiÞcations to select the tampon with the minimum absorbency needed to control menstrual ßow in order to reduce the risk of contracting TSS; • advise the user to seek medical attention before using menstrual tampons again if TSS warning symptoms have occurred in the past, or if the user has any questions about TSS or tampon use; and • describe to the user the material composition of the tampon. 4. If the preceeding information is provided in a package insert, the following statement is to appear on the outer label: ATTENTION: READ MISE

LABELING

FOR

EN GARDE:

VEUILLEZ

AND SAVE THE ENCLOSED INFORMATION.

LIRE ET CONSERVER LES RENSEIGNEMENTS CI-JOINTS.

CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES

Section 3(1) of the F&DA prohibits the advertising to the general public of any contraceptive device except as authorized by the CMDR, Section 24(b). As detailed in Section 21(1), a device label must contain information regarding the directions for use for the device and its performance characteristics. For labeling of natural-rubber latex condoms, refer to the TPD policy document dated 30 June 1998, entitled, Policy on Safety and Effectiveness for Latex Condoms. The next three sections describe labeling features that should apply to all contraceptive devices. The last two sections describe labeling features recommended by the TPD to satisfy Section 21(1)(h) and (i) of the CMDR for condoms made of synthetic materials. Individual Containers for Contraceptives Devices

Each individual contraceptive or container should bear at least the following information (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 15): • The identity of the manufacturer or distributor (e.g. trademark, name, abbreviated name) • The manufacturer’s identifying reference for traceability (e.g., the batch/lot number) • The expiry date recommended to be expressed as the year (four digits), month (two digits), and day (two digits) separated by a hyphen (-) Contraceptive Effectiveness

The communication of information on pregnancy rates to users is important for the safe and effective use of barrier contraceptive devices. The manufacturer should include efÞcacy data resulting from

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

clinical studies detailing the rate of observed pregnancies that may be expected during routine use of the device over a one year period (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 15). Prophylactic Effectiveness

Users need to be informed whether or not the contraceptive device is also effective in the prevention of disease. The manufacturer should specify for the user whether or not the contraceptive device provides protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 15). Individual Containers for Synthetic Condoms

The outside of the individual condom container containing the minimum unit of sale to the customer should bear at least the following information (TPD Labeling Guidance pp. 15–16): • A description of the condom (e.g., color, tip type, ribbing, lubrication, and material of manufacture such as polyurethane) • The number of condoms contained • The nominal width or sizing of the condom • The name of the manufacturer • The expiration date indicating year and month, in an unambiguous format • Instructions for storage • Whether the condom is lubricated or dry, and, if lubricated, whether spermicidal and the nature of the spermicide Instructions for Use (IFU) of a Synthetic Condom

The IFU of a synthetic condom should include (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 16): • the need to remove the condom from the package carefully so as to avoid damage to the product; • how to put on the condom, and that the condom should be donned prior to any sexual contact with the partner in order to effectively assist in the prevention of STDs; • the need to withdraw the penis soon after ejaculation, while holding the condom in place at the base of the penis or while holding the collar of the condom in place; • the advantage of concomitant use of a spermicidal preparation for prevention of pregnancy; • instructions for the safe and sanitary disposal of the condom; and • a statement that the condom is for single use only. LABELING

FOR

MEDICAL GLOVES

In Canada, gloves used for a medical purpose are considered a medical device and are subject to the requirements of Section 21(1) of the CMDR. This section describes the minimum information the TPD considers necessary to satisfy the requirements of the regulation. Examination Gloves Only (Sterile and Non-Sterile)

Each smallest unit for dispensing examination gloves shall be labeled with the following information (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 17):

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• • • •

111

The brand name of the gloves, if applicable. The lot number. The number of gloves contained in the dispensing unit. Wording to clarify to the user that the gloves are for single use only. For example: SINGLE USE ONLY

• “Disposable” is not acceptable labeling, because some disposable goods can be reused many times. • Wording to clarify to the user that the gloves are for medical use. For example: MEDICAL EXAMINATION GLOVES

• In the case of nonsterile gloves, wording to indicate that the glove is not sterile. For example: NON-STERILE

• The glove size, using one of the following designations: extra-small, small, unisize, medium, large, extra-large. Material of Manufacture

The TPD’s expectations for the labeling of medical glove composition are described in the following sections. The TPD does not require that the exact wordings given in these examples be used. Manufacturers may choose to add additional informative labeling. Powdered Natural Rubber Latex

• The TPD recommends that gloves that are labeled “latex,” “natural-rubber latex,” or “natural-latex rubber” be labeled “natural-rubber latex” for uniformity. • The manufacturer may choose to include a warning statement regarding allergenicity. • The manufacturer may choose to label the gloves as “powdered.” • Medical gloves labeled as “low powdered” should have test data to demonstrate less powder than the “regular” powdered gloves. Powderless Natural Rubber Latex

• The TPD recommends that gloves that are labeled “latex,” “natural-rubber latex” or “naturallatex rubber” be labeled “natural-rubber latex” for uniformity. • The manufacturer may choose to label the gloves as “powderless.” • The label should include descriptive information about the coating or surface treatment that renders the glove “powderless” unless the coating or treatment aids only in donning the gloves and the chemical and physical properties as well as the recommended use, remain unchanged. • Medical gloves labeled as “powderless” should have test data to demonstrate that the gloves have negligible powder levels and produce negligible airborne particle and allergen levels as compared to “powdered” gloves.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

Natural-Rubber Latex with a Thin Inner Polyurethane Coating

• The TPD recommends that gloves that are labeled “latex,” “natural-rubber latex”, or “natural-latex rubber” be labeled “natural-rubber latex” for uniformity. • The label should include descriptive information about the chemical and physical properties of the coating (e.g., permeability of the thin inner coating, unless the coating aids only in the donning of the glove). • The label should include descriptive information if the thin inner coating changes the recommended use of the glove. Bilayer Neoprene-Latex Rubber

The TPD recommends that medical gloves that are labeled “latex,” “natural-rubber latex” or “naturallatex rubber” be labeled “natural-rubber latex” for uniformity, and that the gloves have a “neoprene outer layer” (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 18). Neoprene

Medical gloves that are made of neoprene should be labeled “neoprene” (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 18). Polyolefin or Other Thin Film Copolymer

The TPD recommends that medical gloves that are made of the hydrocarbon copolymer should be labeled “polyoleÞn.” Medical gloves of another copolymer composition (e.g., ester copolymer) should be labeled as such to distinguish them from polyoleÞn (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 18). Vinyl

The TPD recommends that medical gloves that are made of vinyl should be labeled “vinyl,” “polyvinyl chloride,” “PVC” or “chlorinated oleÞn” (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 18). Hydrocarbon Polymer

The TPD recommends that medical gloves made of hydrocarbon polymer should be generally labeled “synthetic hydrocarbon polymer” or more precisely labeled identifying the polymer used (TPD Labeling Guidance p. 18). LABELING

FOR

MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

Electromedical equipment is the category that covers most electrical instruments and apparati used in the patient environment, and those electrically powered devices having a direct effect on the safety of the patient. These are medical devices that (a) are electrically powered or generate electrical potentials, and (b) may come in contact with a patient. Implantable devices, such as cardiac pacemakers, are not considered electromedical devices. Until January 13, 1994, electromedical equipment was regulated under a performance standard in Schedule VII of the CMDR. Privy Council Order P.C. 1994-63 revoked this schedule of the CMDR. The speciÞc requirements for electromedical equipment were removed from the CMDR because all of the provincial governments in Canada require that line-powered electromedical equipment be certiÞed as conforming to the applicable parts of the Canadian Electric Code. Because this mandatory certiÞcation provides reasonable assurance of electrical safety, the speciÞc requirements in Schedule VII were redundant. As medical devices, however, electromedical equipment is still subject to the general requirements of the CMDR.

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Compliance with the Canadian Electric Code can be demonstrated by adhering to the requirements of CSA C22.2 No. 601.1 (CSA). The labeling requirements from Clause 6 of this standard are described here. CSA C22.2 No. 601.1 is an adaptation of the second edition of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 60601-1 as amended. The modiÞcations to IEC 60601-1 were limited to aligning the document with essential requirements in the Canadian Electric Code and other statutory requirements. The Canadian adoption made minimal changes to Clause 6 on identiÞcation, markings, and documents. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) provides certiÞcation services for manufacturers who wish to obtain a license to use the appropriately registered CSA marks on their products to indicate conformity with CSA Standards. As of November 30, 1990, manufacturers could, at their discretion, use CSA C22.2 No. 601.1 for certiÞcation of electromedical equipment. Unless exempted in the standard, all electromedical equipment must have been certiÞed to CSA C22.2 No. 601.1 as of January 1, 2000. Markings on Electromedical Equipment

All required markings must be clearly legible and removable only with a tool or by application of considerable force. If the equipment is permanently installed, then all required markings must be visible when the equipment is mounted in its normal-use position. For transportable equipment or stationary equipment not permanently installed, it is preferred that required markings are visible during normal use. However, when necessary, the required marking must become visible when the equipment is moved or has been removed from the rack for dismountable rack units. However, warning statements and operating instructions must be afÞxed in a prominent location so they are legible with normal vision from the operator’s position (IEC 60601-1 p. 45). Where written safety warnings appear as equipment markings, these should appear in the English and the French languages (CSA p. 20). Markings required on the outside of the equipment depend largely on the type of power source. CSA C22.2 No. 601.1 deÞnes three conÞgurations. They are: • equipment that receives its energy from the supply mains in the facility where it is used (mains powered), • equipment that is able to operate from an internal electrical power source (internally powered), and • equipment that is supplied by another speciÞed power source (other than supply mains). The markings required on the outside of the equipment are described in Table 8.3. For permanently installed equipment, the nominal supply voltage or voltage range may be marked on either the outside or the inside of the equipment enclosure. The preferred location of the markings is adjacent to the supply-connection terminals. Electromedical equipment must have on its external surface a permanent label that sets out the equipment type as B, BF, or CF. Each equipment type has associated with it a maximum risk current that can ßow through any person in contact with the equipment. A device may not exceed the maximum allowable risk current speciÞed in the risk-current limit in Table IV in Subclause 19.3 of CSA C22.2 No. 601.1 for the labeled equipment type of the device. If the equipment has more than one part in contact with the patient, and the parts in contact with the patient have different degrees of protection, then the appropriate symbols must be clearly marked on each applied part, or on or near the relevant outlets.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

TABLE 8.3 Marking on the Outside of Medical Electrical Equipment

Items to be Marked 1. Name and/or trade mark and address of the manufacturer or supplier claiming that the equipment complies with CSA C22.2.601.1 2. Model or type identiÞcation (i.e., a combination of Þgures, letters, or both used to identify the equipment) 3. Mains supply characteristics (rated voltage/voltage range, current waveform—a.c., d.c., or dual supply, number of phases, etc.) 4. Supply frequency (Hz) 5. Rated power input 6. Auxiliary-mains socket output 7. Equipment classiÞcationc 8. DeÞbrillation protectiond 9. Mode of operatione 10. Fuses 11. Output 12. Physiological effectsf 13. Category AP/APG equipment (see Appendix C, Symbols 23 and 24) 14. High-voltage terminals accessible without a tool (see Appendix C, Symbol 25) 15. Cooling requirements 16. Mechanical-stability marking if special precautions are required 17. Protective packaging, if required during transport and storage 18. Earth-terminals markingsg 19. Removable protective means 20. Marking required for medical electrical systemsh 21. Other legally required markings

MainsOperated Equipment

Internally Powered Equipmenta

Equipment Supplied from a Specified Power Sourceb

*

*

*

*

*

*

** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **

** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **

*** *** *** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **

* Marking is required on all equipment ** Marking is required if applicable to the equipment. *** Marking is not required on permanently installed equipment that is marked appropriately on the inside. a Internally powered equipment is capable of operating from an internal electrical power source. b The equipment is intended to be supplied from a power source other than supply mains. c ClassiÞcation includes the degree of protection against electrical shock (see Appendix C, Symbol 11), the protection against leakage current (see Appendix C, Symbols 17, 18, and 19), and the harmful ingress of liquids using the IP Code deÞned in IEC 60529. d Amendment 2 introduced new symbols (see Appendix C, Symbols 20, 21, and 22) for deÞbrillation-proof equipment. For clear differentiation, Symbols 17 and 20 must not be applied in such a way as to give the impression of being inscribed in a square. If protection against deÞbrillation is partly in the patient cable, then a symbol instructing the operator to consult the accompanying documentation must be displayed near the relevant outlet (see Appendix C, Symbol 14). e If equipment is unmarked, continuous operation is assumed. f Equipment producing physiological effects that cause danger to the patient and/or operator must prominently display a symbol instructing the patient/operator to consult the accompanying documentations for warnings (see Appendix C, Symbol 14). If the device produces non-ionizing radiation such as high-power microwaves, then Symbol 43 in Appendix C must be displayed. g Earth terminal markings include the markings for connection to a potential equalized conductor (see Appendix C, Symbol 8), a functional earth terminal (see Appendix C, Symbol 5), and a protective earth conductor (see Appendix C, Symbol 6). h If the documentation accompanying the medical electrical system gives a warning related to a particular safety hazard from a nonmedical equipment component of the system, then a symbol instructing the patient/operator to consult the accompanying documentations for warnings (see Appendix C, Symbol 14) must be provided on the particular nonmedical electrical equipment or on a particular part of that equipment. Sources: IEC 60601-1, Subclause 6.1; IEC 60601-1-1, Subclause 6.1.201

When the size of the equipment or the conÞguration of the enclosure makes it impractical for all of the required information in Table 8.3 to be afÞxed to the outside of the equipment, then at least the information in items 1, 2, 3, 7, and, if applicable, 12 should be included on the outside of the enclosure. The remaining items may then be included in the accompanying documentation. If

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TABLE 8.4 Colors for Indicator Lightsa) and Push Buttonsb) and their Recommended Meanings Color

Meaning

Red Yellow Green Any other color a) b)

Required Usage

Warning of danger and/or the need for urgent action Caution or attention required Ready for use A meaning other than that associated with red or yellow

Recommended Usage

X X X X

Dot matrix or other alphanumeric displays are not considered to be indicator lights. An unilluminated push button may be colored red only if it is used to interrupt the function of the equipment in the event of an emergency.

Source: IEC 60601-1, Subclause 6.7 a).

it is impractical to include any markings on the outside of the enclosure, then all of the required information may be placed in the accompanying documentation. CSA 22.2 No. 601.1 speciÞes requirements for marking controls and instruments on medical electrical equipment, as well as marking on the inside of the equipment. These markings on the controls must include the following information, as applicable: • The main power switch must be clearly identiÞed with its “ON” and “OFF” positions indicated by a symbol, adjacent indicator light, or other unambiguous means (see Appendix C, Symbols 9 and 10). Indicator lights and push buttons should follow the conventions listed in Table 8.4. • Controls and indicators with a safety function must be clearly identiÞed. • The different positions of control devices and switches must be indicated by Þgures, letters, or other visual means (see Appendix C, Symbols 26 and 27). If the control is intended to adjust a device setting during normal operation, and changing the setting could cause a safety hazard to the patient, the control must be equipped with: • an associated indicating device (e.g., instruments or scale) or • an indication of the direction in which the magnitude of the function changes. A label near the point where the power supply conductors connect to the equipment must show the correct method of connecting the supply connector, unless no hazard would occur if the connections were interchanged. If there is insufÞcient room to appropriately label the connections on the equipment, the instructions can be included in the accompanying documentation. In permanently mounted equipment, the terminal for connection to the neutral supply conductor must be indicated by a capital letter “N.” The protective earth terminal must be marked (see Appendix C, Symbol 6) adjacent to the terminal unless the protective earth terminal is part of a detachable power cord. With permanently connected equipment that has a terminal box that reaches a temperature of more than 75 ºC when tested according to the normal temperature test speciÞed in IEC 60601-1, the following statement must be placed near the point of connection (IEC 60601-1 pp. 54–55): FOR POUR

SUPPLY CONNECTION, USE WIRING MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR AT LEAST

... ºC.

LE RACCORDEMENT L’ALIMENTATION, UTILISER DES CABLES ET CONDUCTEURS ADAPTS UNE TEMPRATURE D’AU MOINS

... ºC.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

The labels identifying the correct method of connecting the power supply, the supply neutral terminals, the protective earth terminal, and instructions about high temperature materials may not be afÞxed to any part that must be removed in order to make the supply connections. In addition, the labels must remain visible after the connections are made. The presence of parts that carry more than 1,000 V a.c., 1,500 V d.c, or 1,500 V peak value must be clearly marked (see Appendix C, Symbol 25). The functional earth terminal must be marked with the prescribed symbol (see Appendix C, Symbol 5). For those devices that contain heating elements or heating lamps, the maximum power loading must be permanently and indelibly marked near the heating element or lamp holder. For devices with internal fuses accessible only with the aid of a tool, the fuse ratings and characteristics must be marked near the fuse. Information on fuses may also appear in the instruction manual accompanying the equipment. However, a marking on the equipment (e.g., a diagram number) must establish a reference to the place in the instruction manual where information on the fuses is located. For equipment that incorporates batteries, the type of battery and mode of insertion must be marked adjacent to the battery holder. The device may contain capacitors that remain charged after the equipment has been deenergized. If the capacitors or the circuit parts connected to them become accessible when an access cover is removed, the hazard must be clearly marked. Documents Accompanying Electromedical Equipment

The electromedical equipment must be accompanied by documents giving the IFU, a technical description of the equipment, and an address to which the user can refer. Any markings required on the device that have not been permanently afÞxed to the equipment should be explained. All warning statements and explanations of warning symbols on the equipment must be provided in the accompanying documents (IEC 60601-1 pp. 59–63). Instructions for Use (IFU)

The IFU must contain all of the information that the intended user needs in order to operate the equipment so that it achieves its intended purpose. This includes such things as (IEC 60601-1 pp. 59–61): • the function of controls, displays, and signals; • the sequence of operations, including: • preparing the device for use; • steps to conÞrm the safe operation of the device including a description of alarms and indicators; • operation immediately before use, paying particular attention to abnormal displays, the underlying trouble, and the interlocks to prevent hazardous output; • operation during use, including the sequence of operations, the methods for reading displays, and necessary adjustments for maintaining normal function; • measures following use to prepare for the next use of the device; • measures for both short- and long-term storage of the device; • instructions for connecting and disconnecting detachable parts and accessories; • replacement of materials consumed during operation of the equipment; • a description of recognized accessories, detachable parts, and materials, if the use of other parts or accessories could degrade the minimum safety of the equipment;

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• instructions on cleaning, preventive inspections, and maintenance to be performed, including the frequency of such maintenance; • identiÞcation of parts on which preventive inspections, maintenance, and calibration should be performed by others—such as the manufacturer’s authorized representatives; and • the meaning of Þgures, symbols, warning statements, and abbreviations used on the equipment. For equipment parts that come into contact with the patient, the IFU should contain a clear description of the methods for cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization of the device. When sterilization is required, the instructions should identify suitable sterilization agents and list temperature, pressure, humidity, and time limits that the equipment can tolerate. A device may be connected to other equipment for the purpose of sending or receiving signals to or from other equipment (e.g., for display, recording, or data processing). If the signal outputs or inputs are intended only for connection to other equipment that meets the requirements of CSA C22.2 No. 601.1 (i.e., leakage current limits), this must be speciÞed in the IFU. Some medical electrical devices may be capable of operating both from power-supply mains and from an internal power source (i.e., batteries). If the internal power source is not automatically maintained at a fully usable state, the IFU must contain a warning statement describing the necessity for periodic checking or replacement of the internal power source. If this type of equipment relies on a protective earth conductor in addition to basic insulation for protection against electric shock, the instructions for use must warn the user that the equipment is to be operated from its internal power source if the integrity of the connection to the external protective earthing system is in doubt. If the device uses primary batteries, the IFU must contain a warning to remove the batteries if the device is not likely to be used for some time. The IFU for a device that uses rechargeable batteries must contain instructions to ensure safe use and adequate maintenance. If a speciÞc power supply or battery charger is required to ensure compliance with CSA C22.2 No. 601.1, these accessories must be identiÞed in the IFU. Technical Description

The technical description provides detailed information that supports and supplements the IFU. It should include details on all the markings required on the outside of the equipment (see Table 8.3). In addition, the technical description should explain all the characteristics (or an indication of the location of speciÞc items) that the user needs to understand for the safe operation of the device. This could include such items as: • an explanation of the device performance, giving special attention to the physiological effect and outputs that may be hazardous to the patient or user; • the appropriate environmental conditions required for the accurate, safe, and correct use of the device (i.e., ambient temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure); • if applicable, a description of the required power source (i.e., voltage, frequency, power rating, and allowable ranges); • required site preparation and installation procedures, including such items as space required for use, environmental conditions, protective barriers (radiation—ionizing and electromagnetic), and so on; • the construction of the equipment (e.g., using photographs, block diagrams, wiring diagrams, etc.) with special attention to the interconnection of system elements;

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• a description of the mechanical structure required for the safe use of the device, which includes such items as precautions to be taken with movable parts, motor circuits, radiation shields (like those on X-ray and laser equipment), and mobile equipment; • an explanation of the activation principle for the safe and correct use of the device; and • for portable devices, the preparation of the device for safe transport. The technical description should contain the type and rating of fuses utilized in the supply-mains circuit. This is required if the type and rating are not apparent from the rated current and mode of operation of the device. If the device incorporates interchangeable and/or detachable parts that are subject to deterioration in normal use, the technical description must provide the user with instructions for replacement of those parts. As part of the technical description of the device, the manufacturer must include a statement that he or she will make information available that will assist the user’s appropriately qualiÞed technical personnel to repair those parts that the manufacturer has designated as repairable. This information could include circuit diagrams, component-parts lists, descriptions, and calibration instructions. This information could be provided in a service manual. If the device cannot withstand the shipping and storage conditions speciÞed in Subclause 10.1 of CSA C22.2 No. 601.1, the technical description must contain the permissible environmental conditions for transport and storage. This information must be repeated on the outermost packaging of the device. GUIDANCE

ON

LABELING DEVICES

IN

PRESSURIZED CONTAINERS

Sections 11, 12, and 13 of the “old medical device regulations”* set out requirements for a medical device packaged in a disposable metal container that is designed to release pressurized contents by use of a manually operated valve that forms an integral part of the container (e.g., an aerosol container). These sections of the “old regulation” made reference to the applicable requirements of the Hazardous Products Act**, which in turn referred to the CC&CR. The current CMDR regulations no longer speciÞcally refer to those requirements. Section 3(b) of the Hazardous Products Act speciÞcally exempts any product that is a device within the meaning of the F&DA. However, the TPD’s guidance on IVD labeling describes additional information that the TPD feels is appropriate for an IVD device containing explosive material or components (TPD IVD Guidance p. 15). Therefore, the following sections are provided as guidance for those medical devices where a risk of Þre or explosion may be present. PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL The principal display panel of a regulated product is that part of the container that is displayed or visible under normal conditions of sale. For purposes of calculating various labeling requirements, the area of the display panel is deÞned as follows (CC&CR §1): • In the case of a rectangular-shaped container, the total area of the side of the container containing the display panel • In the case of a cylindrical-shaped container, the area to the top or 40 percent of the area obtained by multiplying the circumference of the container by the height of the container, whichever is larger * Canadian Medical Devices Regulations, C.R.C., c. 871 (repealed June 30, 1998). ** Hazardous Products Act, R.S. 1985, c. H-3 (updated to December 31, 2000).

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• In the case of a bag, the area of the largest side of the unfolded bag • If the container is not one of the ones listed above but has an obvious display panel, then the area of the obvious display panel if that area exceeds 40 percent of the display surface • In any other case, 40 percent of the total area of the container The information on the container must be clear and legible and be sufÞciently durable to remain legible throughout the useful life the contents. If the container is reÞllable, the label must remain legible during the useful life of the container under normal conditions of transportation, storage, sale, and use (CC&CR §17(b)). The color contrast between the printing and the background must be at least equal to a 70 percent screen of black on white (CC&CR §18). The printed information must the in a sans serif type that is not compressed, expanded or decorative. The type size must comply with requirements described late in this chapter where the height of the type is measured using an upper-case letter or a lower case letter that has an ascender or descender (e.g., “b” or “p”) (CC&CR §19). MANNER

OF

DISCLOSING REQUIRED INFORMATION

The CC&CR specify detailed requirements for the contents, size, and placement of information on the labels of products considered hazardous under the Hazardous Products Act. The information required to be disclosed must be easily legible and in distinct contrast to other information on the container, and set out in such a way that it is sufÞciently durable to remain legible under normal conditions of transportation, storage, sale, and use (CC&CR §17). Placement of Information on Display Panels

The information required by the CC&CR is to be displayed on the principal display panel of the container immediately below the common or brand name of the chemical product (CC&CR §26(1)(a)). The information must appear in the following order (CC&CR §25(1)(a)): • Hazard symbols • Signal words • Primary hazard statements, e.g., very corrosive, very ßammable The following information, when appropriate, can be displayed anywhere on the container except on the bottom of the container (CC&CR §25(1)(b)): • SpeciÞc hazard statements, e.g., causes severe burns, contents may catch Þre • negative instruction to help avoid the hazards, e.g., do not get on skin or clothing, do not smoke • positive instructions to help avoid the hazards, e.g., keep out of the reach of children, use only in well ventilated areas • First-aid statements, e.g., rinse with water, induce vomiting This information is to be placed parallel to the base of the container and centered on an imaginary vertical line bisecting the area of the display panel. The hazard symbols are located below the common name or brand name of the regulated product. The signal words are then placed below the hazard symbol. Finally, the primary hazard statements are placed immediately below the signal words (CC&CR §26). If the primary display panel is less than 10 cm high but

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Portion of a large display panel area (655 cm2)

Imaginary line bisecting the area of the display panel. Imaginary 50 mm diameter circle circumscribing the hazard symbol.

Hazard symbol

CAUTION ATTENTION

Signal word (sans serif capitals, 12.5 mm high type)

FLAMMABLE INFLAMMABLE

Primary hazard statement (sans serif capitals) Additional hazard statement (sans serif capitals)

Minimum height of text = 4 mm Minimum body size = 12 point

CONTENTS MAY CATCH FIRE LE CONTENU PEUT S'ENFLAMMER

Negative instructions

Do not smoke. Ne pas fumer.

Positive instructions

Use only in a well-ventilated area. Keep away from flames, such as a pilot light, any any object that sparks, such as an electric motor.

Demarcation border

N'utilser gue dans un endroit bien aÈrÈ. Tenir loin des flammes, telle une flamme pilot, et de tout objet produisant des Ètincelles, tel un moteur Èlectrique.

FIGURE 8.1 Example of a hazard symbol on a large label.

at least twice as wide as it is high, the signal word many be located beside the hazards symbol instead of below it (CC&CR §26(3)). When present, the speciÞc hazards statement, negative and positive instructions, and the Þrst aid statements are left justiÞed and enclosed in a border that separates this information from other information on the primary display panel. This demarcation border may be constructed as a series of dots or hatched lines, be in a color or shading, or utilize some other graphic device that distinguishes it from the background. It must be different from the label border speciÞed in Schedule II of the CPR and from any other border on the label (CC&CR §§ 29, 30). The size of the hazard symbols and the type style and size for the signal words and other warning statements is a function of the area of the display panel. Above a minimum threshold, the larger the area of the label, the larger the required warning information. Figure 8.1 is an example showing the approximate placement of the required information on part of a “large” display panel. In this example, large means a panel with an area of 655 cm2. The regulations specify that the minimum size of the hazard symbol is based on the area of an imaginary circle circumscribing the symbol. The minimum area of this imaginary circle is equal to three percent of the area of the display panel or the area of a circle with a diameter of 50 mm, whichever is smaller. Three percent of an area of 655 cm2 is equal to the area of a circle with a diameter of 50 mm. The size of the hazard symbol does not have to increase as the area of the label panel grows above 655 cm2. The diameter of a circle circumscribing the hazard symbol may never be less than 6 mm. The area of a circle with a diameter of 6 mm is equal to three percent of a label area of 9.5 cm2. Figure 8.2 is an example showing the approximate positioning of the required information on a display panel with an area of 9.5 cm2. Between these two extremes, the minimum size of the hazard symbol can be calculated based on the area of the display panel. Where more than one hazard symbol is required on the container of a regulated product, the required hazard symbols shall be placed on the principal display panel of the container in a row such that a straight line drawn through the center of the hazard symbols is parallel to the base of the container. The hazard symbols are placed in the following order from left to right (CC&CR §25(1)):

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Imaginary 6 mm diameter circle circumscribing the hazard symbol.

Small display panel area (9.5 cm≤)

Hazard symbol

Signal word (sans serif capitals, minimum height of type 2 mm, minimum body size 6 point)

CAUTION ATTENTION

Imaginary line bisecting the area of the display panel.

FIGURE 8.2 Example of a hazard symbol on a small label.

1. The hazard symbol that corresponds to the signal word “EXTREME DANGER” 2. The hazard symbol that corresponds to the signal word “DANGER” 3. The hazard symbol that corresponds to the signal word “CAUTION” Where a product is packaged in a collapsible tube, the required information may be located above the common name or brand name of the product if that placement is closer to the tube opening than the placement required above (CC&CR §26(2)). Hazard Symbols

Where a hazard symbol is required, it must be an exact reproduction (except for size and color) of that hazard symbol depicted in Schedule 2 of the CC&CR (CC&CR §21). The hazard symbol is to be displayed in a color that is not likely to be confused with other safety marks such as those required by the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations. An imaginary circle circumscribing the hazard symbol may never have a diameter less than 6 mm regardless of the size of the primary display panel. As the primary display panel increases in size, the area of the imaginary circle circumscribing the hazard symbol must increase so that it is never less than three percent of the area of the display panel. The size of the hazard symbol must continue to increase in proportion to the area of the primary display panel until the area of the imaginary circle circumscribing the hazard symbol is equal to the area of a circle with a diameter of 50 mm (CC&CR §22). The minimum sizes for the hazard symbol as a function of the area of the display panel are listed in Table 8.5. Signal Words

The signal words, which must appear in both English and French, associated with the respective hazard symbols are “EXTREME DANGER”/“DANGER EXTRÊME,” “DANGER”/“DANGER,” and “CAUTION”/“ATTENTION.” The signal words associated with the respective hazard symbol must be printed directly below the symbol in sans serif capitals (CC&CR §20(a)). The minimum height of the letters must be at least one-fourth of the diameter of an imaginary circle circumscribing the associated hazard symbol (see Table 8.5) (CC&CR §23).

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TABLE 8.5 Minimum Hazard Symbol and Signal Word Size Area of the Principal Display Panel (centimeters2)

Minimum Diameter of Circle Circumscribing the Hazard Symbol (millimeters)

Minimum Height of Signal Word (millimeters)

£9.5

6

1.5

9.5 < Area < 655

Diameter =

≥655

12 ¥ Area(cm ) p 50 2

Height =

0.75 ¥ Area(cm 2 ) p 12.5

Source: CC&CR §§22 and 23

TABLE 8.6 Minimum Height and Body Size of Type Area of the Principal Display Panel (centimeters2)

Minimum Height of Type

Minimum Body Size of Type

£100 100 < Area £ 330 Area £ 330

2 mm 3 mm 4 mm

6 point 8 point 12 point

Source: CC&CR §24

Primary Hazard Statements

When a primary hazard statement (e.g., “EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE” and “EXTREMEMENT INFLAMMABLE”) is required on a label, it must be printed in sans serif capitals. The minimum height of the text is dependent on the area of the primary display panel (CC&CR §24). The minimum sizes are shown in Table 8.6. Additional Hazard Statements, Negative and Positive Instructions, and First Aid Statements

When an additional hazard statement (e.g., “CONTENTS MAY CATCH FIRE.”) is required on the label, it must be printed in sans serif capitals (CC&CR §20(a)). The negative and positive instructions can be printed in upper- and lower-case sans serif type. As with the primary hazard statement, the minimum height of the additional hazard-statement text and the negative and positive instructions is dependent on the area of the primary display panel (CC&CR §24(1)). The minimum sizes are shown in Table 8.6. When a device contains any of the chemicals regulated by the Hazardous Products Act, the label should include an appropriate Þrst-aid statement. The Þrst-aid statement is printed in the same type style and size as the additional hazard statement except that the phrases “FIRST AID TREATMENT”/“PREMIERS SOINS” are printed in sans serif boldface capitals (CC&CR §20(b)). The type used for the phrases “FIRST AID TREATMENT”/“PREMIERS SOINS” must have a minimum height of 2 mm and a minimum body size of 6 points (CC&CR §24(2)). SMALL PACKAGES Section 25(2)(a) of the CC&CR deÞnes a small container as one having a primary display panel with an area of less than 35 mm2. The label of such a container is only required to display the hazard symbol and the associated signal word (see Figure 8.2). A container with a primary display panel that is greater than or equal to 35 mm2 but less than 70 mm2 may omit the negative and positive

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instructions other than the positive instructions required if the container has a child-proof closure when more than one hazard symbol is required (CC&CR §25(2)(b)). LABELING

HOME-USE DEVICES

FOR

Home-use devices are intended to be used by laypersons having little knowledge of medicine or the technology employed in the device. The IFU must be described in language that is correct and succinct and makes clear use of words. See Chapter 27 and Chapter 28 for recommendations for preparing the IFU. Although not required by the CMDR, the manufacturer of a home-use device that contains a substance that is characterized as “toxic,” “harmful,” “very corrosive,” “corrosive,” or an “irritant” must be packaged in a child-resistant container. A child-resistant container is one that meets the performance requirements listed in Sections 9 to 11 of the CC&CR. A container that is child-resistant by virtue of requiring the operation or removal of a functional part of the container with a tool that is not supplied with the container does not need special labeling. Other child-resistant containers should bear instructions for opening and, where applicable, for closing the container so that it retains its child-resistant characteristics. The labeling must contain either text in English and French, or diagrams or symbols that are self-explanatory (CC&CR §11). It is appropriate to sell a regulated product in a container other than a child-resistant container provided it has the following characteristics (CC&CR §40(b)): • The outlet of the container is designed to dispense the regulated product in single drops. • The primary display panel of the container discloses the following “primary hazard statement” in addition to any other labeling required on the container. THIS

CONTAINER IS NOT CHILD-RESISTANT.

KEEP

OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

CE CONTENANT N’EST PAS UN CONTENANT PROTÈGE-ENFANTS. TENIR HORS DE LEUR PORTÉE DES ENFANTS.

A regulated product may be sold in a container that does not remain child-resistant once opened if it meets the following requirements (CC&CR §13): • The contents of the container are intended to be used immediately after the container is opened. • The container meets the requirements for a child-resistant container except that it cannot be reclosed. • The primary display panel of the container discloses the following “primary hazard statement” in addition to any other labeling required on the container. USE

ENTIRE CONTENTS ON OPENING.

UTILISER

THIS

CONTAINER IS NOT CHILD-RESISTANT ONCE OPENED.

LA TOTALITÉ DU CONTENU APRÈS OUVERTURE. PLUS UN CONTENANT

UNE FOIS OUVERT, PROTÈGE-ENFANTS.

LE CONTENANT N’EST

The requirement for child-resistant containers does not apply to containers with a capacity greater than 5 L unless the contents are classiÞed as very toxic or very corrosive (CC&CR §14). DEVICES

WITH

CONTENTS

UNDER

PRESSURE

Unless exempted under the provisions for small-size packages described in a later section, the principal panel of the inner and outer label of a medical device that is contained in a pressurized

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

This figure is prepared for convenience of reference only and has no official sanction. The reader is referred to Schedule 2 of the CC&CR. Source: CC&CR, Schedule

FIGURE 8.3 Explosive symbol.

disposable metal container, must include the explosive symbol superimposed on the caution symbol (see Figure 8.3). The symbols must comply with the requirements in Sections 17 through 31 of the CC&CR. These sections of the CC&CR prescribe in detail the size and type requirements for the symbols and accompanying signal words and text. Of course, all text must appear in English and in French. The explosive symbol must be accompanied by the signal words “CAUTION”/“ATTENTION,” and the nature of the primary hazard presented by the container expressed in the following wording (CC&CR §59): CONTENTS CONTENU

UNDER PRESSURE SOUS PRESSION

The label must include the following speciÞc hazard statement: CONTAINER CE

MAY EXPLODE IF HEATED

CONTENANT PEUT EXPLOSER S’IL EST CHAUFFÉ

Also required are the following negative and positive instructions: DO

NOT PUNCTURE.

NE

PAS PERFORER.

DO

NOT BURN.

NE

PAS BRÛLER.

STORE

AWAY FROM HEAT

C ONSERVER

LOIN DES SOURCES DE

CHALEUR

LABELING

FOR

FLAMMABLE PRODUCTS

Unless exempted under the provision for small-size packages described earlier in this chapter, a device that can produce a ßame projection or a ßashback must bear a ßammable warning. If the substance is packaged in a pressurized container, it may also be required to display the explosion warning described in the previous section. The required symbols and statements must appear on the principal display panel of the inner and outer labels of the device (CC&CR §§48–56). The symbols must comply with the requirements in Sections 21 and 22 of the CC&CR. The required warning is dependent on the speciÞc hazard as determined by the test described in Schedule I of the CC&CR. Flammable products are classiÞed as “combustible,” “spontaneously combustible,” ßammable,” or “very ßammable” using the table in Section 49 of the CC&CR. The information required on the

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This figure is prepared for convenience of reference only and has no official sanction. The reader is referred to Schedule 2 of the CC&CR. Source: CC&CR, Schedule 2

FIGURE 8.4 Flammable symbol.

principle display panel depends on the classiÞcation (CC&CR §54). All ßammable products must display the ßammable symbol in Figure 8.4. Devices with Combustible or Spontaneously Combustible Contents

A container whose contents are classiÞed as combustible or spontaneously combustible must bear on the principal panel of the inner and outer label the ßammable symbol (see Figure 8.4). The symbol must be accompanied by the signal words “CAUTION”/“ATTENTION” and the nature of the primary hazard presented by the container must be expressed in the following wording: READ LIRE

INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE USING.

LES INSTRUCTIONS AVANT USAGE.

Both the inner label and outer label must display on one of their panels the additional hazard statement: DANGER

OF COMBUSTION

DANGER

DE COMBUSTION

Also required are the following positive instructions: KEEP

AWAY FROM FLAMES OR SPARKS

TENIR

LOIN DES FLAMMES ET DES ÉTIN-

CELLES.

If the contents are classiÞed as spontaneously combustible, the positive instructions are replaced by: MATERIALS

SUCH AS RAGS USED WITH

THIS PRODUCT MAY BEGIN TO BURN BY THEMSELVES.

AFTER USE, PUT RAGS IN WATER OR LAY FLAT TO DRY, THEN DISCARD.

LES MATÉRIAUX UTILISÉS AVEC CE PRODUIT , TELS LES CHIFFONS , PEUVENT S’ENFLAMMER SPONTANÉMENT. APRÈS

UTILISATION METTRE LES CHIF-

FONS DANS L’EAU OU LES SÉCHER À PLAT, PUIS LES JETER.

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Devices with Flammable Contents

A container whose contents are classiÞed as ßammable must bear on the principal panel of the inner and outer label the ßammable symbol (see Figure 8.4). The symbol must be accompanied by the signal words “DANGER”/“DANGER” and the nature of the primary hazard presented by the container must be expressed in the following wording: FLAMMABLE INFLAMMABLE

Both the inner label and outer label must display on one of their panels the additional hazard statement: CONTENTS LE

MAY CATCH FIRE.

CONTENAU PEUT S’ENFLAMMER.

If a vapor or fume posses a hazards, then the following text is substituted for the additional hazard statement: FUMES LES

MAY CATCH FIRE.

ÉMANATIONS PEUVENT S’ENFLAMMER.

Also required are the following negative and positive instructions: DO USE

NOT SMOKE.

NE

N’UTILISER AÉRÉ.

ONLY IN WELL VENTILATED AREAS.

KEEP

PAS FUMER. QUE DANS UN ENDROIT BIEN

AWAY FROM FLAMES, SUCH AS A

PILOT LIGHT, AND ANY OBJECT THAT

TENIR

SPARKS, SUCH AS AN ELECTRIC MOTOR.

FLAMME PILOTE, ET DE TOUR OBJET PRO-

LOIN DES FLAMMES, TELLE UNE

DUISANT DES ÉTINCELLES , TEL UN MOTEUR ÉLECTRIQUE.

Devices with Very Flammable Contents

A container whose contents are classiÞed as very ßammable must bear on the principal panel of the inner and outer label the ßammable symbol (see Figure 8.4). The symbol must be accompanied by the signal words “EXTREME DANGER”/“DANGER EXTRÊME” and the nature of the primary hazard presented by the container must be expressed in the following wording: VERY TRÈS

FLAMMABLE

INFLAMMABLE

Both the inner label and outer label must display on one of their panels the additional hazard statement: CONTENTS LE

MAY CATCH FIRE.

CONTENAU PEUT S’ENFLAMMER.

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If a vapor or fume posses a hazards, then the following text is substituted for the additional hazard statement: FUMES LES

MAY CATCH FIRE.

ÉMANATIONS PEUVENT S’ENFLAMMER.

Also required are the following negative and positive instructions: DO USE

NOT SMOKE.

NE

N’UTILISER AÉRÉ.

ONLY IN WELL VENTILATED AREAS.

KEEP

PAS FUMER. QUE DANS UN ENDROIT BIEN

AWAY FROM FLAMES, SUCH AS A

PILOT LIGHT, AND ANY OBJECT THAT

TENIR

SPARKS, SUCH AS AN ELECTRIC MOTOR.

FLAMME PILOTE, ET DE TOUR OBJET PRO-

LOIN DES FLAMMES, TELLE UNE

DUISANT DES ÉTINCELLES , TEL UN MOTEUR ÉLECTRIQUE.

LABELING

FOR

CORROSIVE PRODUCTS

Unless exempted under the provision for small-size packages described earlier in this chapter, a device that contains a substance that is classiÞed as a corrosive substance in Section 41 of the CC&CR must bear a corrosive warning. If the substance is packaged in a pressurized container, it may also be required to display the explosion warning described in the previous section. The required symbols and statements must appear on the principal display panel of the inner and outer labels of the device (CC&CR §39). The symbols must comply with the requirements in Sections 21 and 22 of the CC&CR. Most corrosive products must display the corrosive symbol in Figure 8.5 Devices with Corrosive Contents

For devices with substances that are classiÞed as corrosive in Section 41 of the CC&CR, the corrosive symbol must be accompanied by the signal words “DANGER”/“DANGER,” and the nature of the primary hazard presented by the container expressed in the following wording (CC&CR §46(2)): CORROSIVE CORROSIF

This figure is prepared for convenience of reference only and has no official sanction. The reader is referred to Schedule 2 of the CC&CR. Source: CC&CR, Schedule 2

FIGURE 8.5 Corrosive symbol.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

TABLE 8.7 Required Information for Devices with Substances Classified as Corrosive Type of Information SpeciÞc hazard statement

Negative instructions

Positive instructions

Route of Exposure

French Information

(a) All

CAUSES BURNS

PROVOQUE DES BRÛLURES

(b) Inhalation

DANGEROUS FUMES FORM WHEN MIXED WITH OTHER PRODUCTS

(a) All

When appropriate and before the other negative instructions: Do not mix with [Insert description of other products that react with the chemical product, such as toilet bowl or drain cleaners, bleach or ammonia.].

(b) Oral (c) Eyes (d) Dermal

Do not swallow. Do not get in eyes. Do not get on skin or clothing.

(e) Inhalation (a) All

Do not breathe fumes. Handle with care. Keep out of reach of children. Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., a mask.].

DÉGAGE DES ÉMANATIONS DANGEREUSES LORSQUE MÉLANGÉ AVEC D’AUTRES PRODUITS When appropriate and before the other negative instructions: Ne pas mélanger avec [Insert description of other products that react with the chemical product, such as des nettoyants pour cuvettes de toilette ou tuyaux d’évacuation, des agents de blanchiment ou de l’ammoniaque.]. Ne pas avaler. Éviter tout contact avec les yeux. Éviter tout contact avec la peau ou les vêtements. Ne pas respirer les émanations. Manipuler avec soin. Tenir hors de la portée des enfants. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., un masque.]. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., des gants de caoutchouc, des lunettes de sécurité.]. N’utiliser que dans un endroit bien aéré. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., un masque, un respirateur.]. PREMIERS SOINS Contient [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. En cas d’ingestion, appeler immédiatement un centre antipoison ou un médecin. Ne pas provoquer le vomissement. En cas de contact avec les yeux, rincer avec de l’eau pendant [Insert appropriate period of time.]. En cas de contact avec la peau, bien rincer avec de l’eau. En cas de contact avec les vêtements, enlever ceux-ci. En cas d’inhalation, transporter à l’air frais la personne exposée.

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(b) Oral

(c) Dermal

(d) Inhalation

First-aid Statement

English Information

(a) All

Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., rubber gloves, safety glasses.]. Use only in a well-ventilated area. Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., a mask, a respirator.]. FIRST AID TREATMENT Contains [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. If swallowed, call a Poison Control Centre or doctor immediately. Do not induce vomiting.

(b) Eyes

If in eyes, rinse with water for [Insert appropriate period of time.].

(c) Dermal

If on skin, rinse well with water. If on clothes, remove clothes.

(d) Inhalation

If breathed in, move person to fresh air.

Source: CC&CR §46(2)

The labels of corrosive products must include particular speciÞc hazard statements, negative and positive instructions, and Þrst-aid information depending on the route of exposure. These markings are shown in Table 8.7.

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Devices with Very Corrosive Contents

For devices with substances that are classiÞed as very corrosive in Section 41 of the CC&CR, the corrosive symbol must be accompanied by the signal words “EXTREME DANGER”/“EXTRÊME DANGER,” and the nature of the primary hazard presented by the container expressed in the following wording (CC&CR §46(1)): VERY TRÈS

CORROSIVE CORROSIF

The labels of very corrosive products must include particular speciÞc hazard statements, negative and positive instructions, and Þrst-aid information depending on the route of exposure. These marking are shown in Table 8.8. Devices with Contents Classified as an Irritant

Devices with substances that are classiÞed as an irritant in Section 41 of the CC&CR are not required to display the corrosive symbol. They are required to display the signal words “CAUTION”/“ATTENTION,” and the nature of the primary hazard presented by the container expressed in the following wording (CC&CR §46(3)): IRRITANT IRRITANT

The labels of products classiÞed as an irritant must include particular speciÞc hazard statements, negative and positive instructions, and Þrst-aid information depending on the route of exposure. These marking are shown in Table 8.9. LABELING

FOR

TOXIC PRODUCTS

Unless exempted under the provision for small-size packages described earlier in this chapter, a device that contains a substance that is classiÞed as toxic using the procedure in Section 35 of the CC&CR must bear a toxicity warning. If the substance is packaged in a pressurized container, it may also be required to display the explosion warning described in the previous section. The required symbols and statements must appear on the principal display panel of the inner and outer labels of the device (CC&CR §39). The symbols must comply with the requirements in Sections 21 and 22 of the CC&CR. All toxic products must display the toxic symbol in Figure 8.6. Devices with Contents Classified as Toxic

For devices with substances that are classiÞed as toxic in Section 33 of the CC&CR, the toxic symbol must be accompanied by the signal words “DANGER”/“DANGER,” and the nature of the primary hazard presented by the container expressed in the following wording (CC&CR §39(1)): POISON POISON

The labels of toxic products must include particular speciÞc hazard statements, negative and positive instructions, and Þrst-aid information depending on the route of exposure. These marking are shown in Table 8.10.

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TABLE 8.8 Required Information for Devices with Substances Classified as Very Corrosive Type of Information SpeciÞc hazard statement

Negative instructions

Positive instructions

Route of Exposure

French Information

(a) All

CAUSES SEVERE BURNS

PROVOQUE DES GRAVES BRÛLURES

(b) Dermal and contains a concentration of 0.5 percent or more of available ßoride ions. (c) Inhalation

SYMPTOMS MAY NOT APPEAR IMMEDIATELY

LES SYMPTOMES PEUVENT NE PAS SE MANIFESTER IMMÉDIATEMENT

DANGEROUS FUMES FORM WHEN MIXED WITH OTHER PRODUCTS

DÉGAGE DES ÉMANATIONS DANGEREUSES LORSQUE MÉLANGÉ AVEC D’AUTRES PRODUITS When appropriate and before the other negative instructions: Ne pas mélanger avec [Insert description of other products that react with the chemical product, such as des nettoyants pour cuvettes de toilette ou tuyaux d’évacuation, des agents de blanchiment ou de l’ammoniaque.]. Ne pas avaler. Éviter tout contact avec les yeux. Éviter tout contact avec la peau ou les vêtements. Ne pas respirer les émanations. Manipuler avec soin.

(a) All

When appropriate and before the other negative instructions: Do not mix with [Insert description of other products that react with the chemical product, such as toilet bowl or drain cleaners, bleach or ammonia.].

(b) Oral (c) Eyes (d) Dermal

Do not swallow. Do not get in eyes. Do not get on skin or clothing.

(e) Inhalation (a) All

Do not breathe fumes. Handle with care.

(b) Oral

Keep out of reach of children. Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., a mask.].

(c) Dermal

(d) Inhalation

First-aid Statement

English Information

(a) All

Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., rubber gloves, safety glasses.]. Use only in a well-ventilated area. Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., a mask, a respirator.]. FIRST AID TREATMENT Contains [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. If swallowed, call a Poison Control Centre or doctor immediately. Do not induce vomiting.

(b) Eyes

If in eyes, rinse with water for [Insert appropriate period of time.].

(c) Dermal

If on skin, rinse well with water. If on clothes, remove clothes.

(d) Inhalation

Source: CC&CR §4 t6(1)

If breathed in, move person to fresh air.

Tenir hors de la portée des enfants. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., un masque.]. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., des gants de caoutchouc, des lunettes de sécurité.]. N’utiliser que dans un endroit bien aéré. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., un masque, un respirateur.]. PREMIERS SOINS Contient [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. En cas d’ingestion, appeler immédiatement un centre antipoison ou un médecin. Ne pas provoquer le vomissement. En cas de contact avec les yeux, rincer avec de l’eau pendant [Insert appropriate period of time.]. En cas de contact avec la peau, bien rincer avec de l’eau. En cas de contact avec les vêtements, enlever ceux-ci. En cas d’inhalation, transporter à l’air frais la personne exposée.

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TABLE 8.9 Required Information for Devices with Substances Classified as an Irritant Type of Information SpeciÞc hazard statement

Negative instructions

Positive instructions First-aid Statement

Route of Exposure (a) All

English Information CAUSES SEVERE BURNS

French Information PEUT IRRITER LES YEUX

(b) Dermal (c) Inhalation

MAY IRRITATE SKIN DANGEROUS FUMES FORM WHEN MIXED WITH OTHER PRODUCTS

(a) All

When appropriate and before the other negative instructions: Do not mix with [Insert description of other products that react with the chemical product, such as toilet bowl or drain cleaners, bleach or ammonia.].

(b) Eyes (c) Dermal

Do not get in eyes. Do not get on skin or clothing.

(d) Inhalation (a) All

Do not breathe fumes. Keep out of reach of children.

PEUT IRRITER LA PEAU DÉGAGE DES ÉMANATIONS DANGEREUSES LORSQUE MÉLANGÉ AVEC D’AUTRES PRODUITS When appropriate and before the other negative instructions: Ne pas mélanger avec [Insert description of other products that react with the chemical product, such as des nettoyants pour cuvettes de toilette ou tuyaux d’évacuation, des agents de blanchiment ou de l’ammoniaque.]. Éviter tout contact avec les yeux. Éviter tout contact avec la peau ou les vêtements. Ne pas respirer les émanations. Tenir hors de la portée des enfants.

(a) All

FIRST AID TREATMENT Contains [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. If swallowed, call a Poison Control Centre or doctor immediately. Do not induce vomiting.

(b) Eyes

If in eyes, rinse with water for [Insert appropriate period of time.].

(c) Dermal

If on skin, rinse well with water.

PREMIERS SOINS Contient [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. En cas d’ingestion, appeler immédiatement un centre antipoison ou un médecin. Ne pas provoquer le vomissement. En cas de contact avec les yeux, rincer avec de l’eau pendant [Insert appropriate period of time.]. En cas de contact avec la peau, bien rincer avec de l’eau.

Source: CC&CR §46(3)

This figure is prepared for convenience of reference only and has no official sanction. The reader is referred to Schedule 2 of the CC&CR. Source: CC&CR, Schedule 2

FIGURE 8.6 Toxic symbol.

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TABLE 8.10 Required Information for Devices with Substances Classified as Toxic Type of Information SpeciÞc hazard statement

Negative instructions

Positive instructions

Route of Exposure

French Information

(a) Oral or aspiration

CONTENTS HARMFUL

CONTENU NOCIF

(b) Dermal (b) Inhalation

CONTENTS HARMFUL CONTENTS HARMFUL or, if only the vapour or fume poses a hazard: FUMES HARMFUL Do not swallow.

CONTENU NOCIF CONTENU NOCIF or, if only the vapour or fume poses a hazard: ÉMANATIONS NOCIVES Ne pas avaler.

(a) Oral or aspiration (b) Oral and contains 1 percent or more methyl alcohol and a total quantity of 5 mL or more (b) Dermal

May cause blindness if swallowed.

L’ingestion peut causer la cécité.

Do not get in eyes or on skin or clothing.

(b) Inhalation (a) All

Do not breathe fumes. Keep out of reach of children.

Éviter tout contact avec les yeux, la peau et les vêtements. Ne pas respirer les émanations. Tenir hors de la portée des enfants.

(b) Oral or aspiration

Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., a mask.].

(c) Dermal

Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., rubber gloves, safety glasses.]. Use only in a well-ventilated area. Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., a mask, a respirator.]. FIRST AID TREATMENT Contains [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. If swallowed, call a Poison Control Centre or doctor immediately. If person is [Insert instructions for administering Þrst aid, e.g., for methyl alcohol: If person is alert, induce vomiting.]

(d) Inhalation

First-aid Statement

English Information

(a) All

(b) Oral or aspiration

(c) Dermal

If in eyes or on skin, rinse well with water. If on clothes, remove clothes.

(d) Inhalation

If breathed in, move person to fresh air.

Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., un masque.]. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., des gants de caoutchouc, des lunettes de sécurité.]. N’utiliser que dans un endroit bien aéré. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., un masque, un respirateur.]. PREMIERS SOINS Contient [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. En cas d’ingestion, appeler immédiatement un centre antipoison ou un médecin. Si la personne est [Insert instructions for administering Þrst aid, e.g., for methyl alcohol: Si la personne est consciente, provoquer le vomissement.]. En cas de contact avec les yeux ou la peau, bien rincer avec de l’eau. En cas de contact avec les vêtements, enlever ceux-ci. En cas d’inhalation, transporter à l’air frais la personne exposée.

Source: CC&CR §39(1)

Devices with Contents Classified as Harmful

For devices with substances that are classiÞed as harmful in Section 33 of the CC&CR, the toxic symbol must be accompanied by the signal words “CAUTION”/“ATTENTION,” and the nature of the primary hazard presented by the container expressed in the following wording (CC&CR §39(2)):

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TABLE 8.11 Required Information for Devices with Substances Classified as Harmful Type of Information SpeciÞc hazard statement

Negative instructions

Positive instructions

Route of Exposure (a) Oral or aspiration (b) Dermal (b) Inhalation

LE CONTENU PEUT ÊTRE NOCIF

CONTENTS MAY BE HARMFUL CONTENTS MAY BE HARMFUL or, if only the vapour or fume poses a hazard: FUMES MAY BE HARMFUL

LE CONTENU PEUT ÊTRE NOCIF LE CONTENU PEUT ÊTRE NOCIF or, if only the vapour or fume poses a hazard: LES ÉMANATIONS PEUVENT ÊTRE NOCIVES Ne pas avaler.

Do not get in eyes or on skin or clothing.

(b) Inhalation (a) All (b) Oral or aspiration

Do not breathe fumes. Keep out of reach of children. Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., a mask.].

(c) Dermal

Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., rubber gloves, safety glasses.]. Use only in a well-ventilated area. Wear [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., a mask, a respirator.]. FIRST AID TREATMENT Contains [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. If swallowed, call a Poison Control Centre or doctor immediately. If person is [Insert instructions for administering Þrst aid, e.g., for methyl alcohol: If person is alert, induce vomiting.]

(a) All

(b) Oral or aspiration

(c) Dermal

Do not swallow.

If in eyes or on skin, rinse well with water. If on clothes, remove clothes.

(d) Inhalation

French Information

CONTENTS MAY BE HARMFUL

(a) Oral or aspiration (b) Dermal

(d) Inhalation

First-aid Statement

English Information

If breathed in, move person to fresh air.

Éviter tout contact avec les yeux, la peau et les vêtements. Ne pas respirer les émanations. Tenir hors de la portée des enfants. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., un masque.]. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., des gants de caoutchouc, des lunettes de sécurité.]. N’utiliser que dans un endroit bien aéré. Porter [Insert description of the speciÞc safety equipment relevant to the hazard, e.g., un masque, un respirateur.]. PREMIERS SOINS Contient [name of hazardous ingredients in descending order of proportion]. En cas d’ingestion, appeler immédiatement un centre antipoison ou un médecin. Si la personne est [Insert instructions for administering Þrst aid, e.g., for methyl alcohol: Si la personne est consciente, provoquer le vomissement.]. En cas de contact avec les yeux ou la peau, bien rincer avec de l’eau. En cas de contact avec les vêtements, enlever ceux-ci. En cas d’inhalation, transporter à l’air frais la personne exposée.

Source: CC&CR §39(2)v

POISON POISON

The labels of harmful products must include particular speciÞc hazard statements, negative and positive instructions, and Þrst-aid information depending on the route of exposure. These marking are shown in Table 8.11.

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THINGS TO REMEMBER Under the authority of the F&DA, the Canadian government established a national system of regulation of medical devices. The medical device regulation program is intended to ensure that therapeutic and diagnostic devices are safe and effective. The requirements for labeling of these devices in Canada are contained in the CMDR, which are published in the Canada Gazette, Part II–Statutory Orders and Regulations. A medical device that is not labeled as required by, or is labeled contrary to, the CMDR is deemed to be misbranded. Misbranding is a violation of the law and subjects the perpetrator to signiÞcant penalties including seizure and forfeiture of the misbranded goods. This chapter explores the parts of the regulations that deal with misbranding of medical devices. The TPD, which is a part of the HPFB of Health Canada, has developed a minimum set of labeling requirements that are applicable to all medical devices. These requirements are contained in Sections 21 through 23 of the CMDR. To assist manufacturers in interpreting the regulations, the TPD has developed guidance documents on labeling of medical devices and labeling of IVD devices. Under the provisions of the F&DA, the TPD can publish additional guidance or requirements as needed in order to ensure safety and effectiveness. This material can appear in guidance documents or in TPD policy documents. At the time of publication, additional labeling requirements and guidance had been developed for prolonged-wear contact lenses, menstrual tampons, contraceptive devices, and medical gloves. Electromedical devices as a group are regulated by the federal government as medical devices and by the provincial governments in Canada under the applicable parts of the Canadian Electric Code. Compliance with the Canadian Electric Code can be demonstrated by adhering to the requirements of C22.2 No. 601.1. The labeling requirements from Clause 6 of that standard are described in this chapter. Sections 11, 12, and 13 of the “old medical device regulations” set out requirements for a medical device packaged in a disposable metal container which is designed to release pressurized contents by use of a manually operated valve that forms an integral part of the container (e.g., an aerosol container). The current CMDR regulations no longer speciÞcally refer to these requirements. However, the TPD’s guidance on IVD labeling describes additional information that the TPD feels is appropriate for an IVD containing explosive material or components. Some guidance extracted from the CC&CR is provided for those medical devices where a risk of Þre or explosion may be present.

Device Labeling 9 Radiation-Emitting in Canada In Canada, the responsibility for regulating radiation-emitting devices is assigned to the Minister of Health under the provisions of the Radiation Emitting Devices Act (REDA). The act deÞnes radiation as energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or acoustical waves (REDA §2). Therefore, a radiation-emitting device is (REDA §2): • any device that is capable of producing and emitting radiation, and • any component of or accessory to such a device. The Minister of Health has assigned responsibility for regulating these devices to the Radiation Protection Bureau (RPB). The RPB is an administrative division within the Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety sector of Health Canada. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW Regulation of radiation-emitting devices in Canada dates from the early 1980’s. The purpose and intent of this regulatory program is to assess, monitor, and assist in reducing the risks associated with radiation-emitting devices and other sources of radiation. Other sources of radiation include naturally occurring sources or ionizing radiation appearing in the environment such as radon gas, radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight. The REDA focuses on X-ray and non-ionizing radiation. Radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic agents are regulated as drugs under the Food and Drugs Act (F&DA) and its associated regulations. THE REGULATIONS Section 13 of the REDA authorizes the development of regulations that: • prescribe classes of radiation emitting devices for the purposes of this act; • prescribe standards regulating the design, construction, and functioning of any designated classes of radiation-emitting devices to protect persons against injury or death from radiation; • exempt any radiation-emitting device or class of radiation-emitting device from the application of provisions of the REDA; and • prescribe the information that must be present on any label or package and the manner in which that information must be shown. The regulations relating to radiation-emitting devices are published in the Canada Gazette Part II—Statutory Orders and Regulations. The Canadian “Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations” (REDR) covers a range of products used in medical, industrial, commercial, consumer, and educa-

135

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tional activities. Schedule I of the REDR deÞnes the following classes of devices that are covered by the regulation: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

television receivers dental X-ray equipment with an extra-oral source microwave ovens baggage inspection X-ray devices demonstration-type gas discharge devices (used to demonstrate the production, properties or effects of glow discharges or X-rays, or the ßow of electrons or ions) photoßuorographic X-ray equipment laser scanners (used to read or generate codes represented by drawn or printed geometrical patterns) demonstration lasers (used for demonstrating the principles of optics in educational institutions) low-energy electron microscopes high intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps (including mercury vapor lamps, metal halide lamps, and self-ballasted lamps) sunlamps (not used to produce therapeutic effects for medical purposes) diagnostic X-ray equipment ultrasound therapy devices analytical X-ray equipment (used to identify elemental composition or examine the microstructure of material) cabinet X-ray equipment (designed primarily for the examination of material)

This chapter will be restricted to those devices with a medical application. LABELS AND LABELING The REDA deÞnes a label as “any legend, word, or mark attached to, included in, belonging to, or accompanying any radiation-emitting device or package” (REDA §2). With respect to the emission of radiation, the REDA prohibits the labeling, packaging, or advertising of a radiation-emitting device “in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive, or is likely to create an erroneous impression regarding its design, construction, performance, intended use, character, value, composition, merit or safety” (REDA §5). A person who knowingly violates the provisions of the REDA may be subject to penalties ranging from seizure of the equipment to Þnes prescribes in the act. LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR RADIATION-EMITTING PRODUCTS Schedule II of the REDR deÞnes the requirements for each of the covered classes of radiation emitting products. The REDR speciÞes design standards, construction standards, functional standards, and labeling and information requirements for each of the covered classes of products. This chapter focuses on the labeling and information requirements. DENTAL X-RAY EQUIPMENT

WITH AN

EXTRA-ORAL SOURCE

Dental X-ray equipment with an extra-oral source is X-ray-generating equipment that is primarily intended for the examination of dental structures in humans and that has an X-ray generating tube designed to be used outside the mouth.

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This figure is prepared for convenience of reference only and has no official sanction. The reader is referred to Schedule II, Part II, Section 5 of the REDR. Source: REDR, Schedule II, Part II §5(1)(vi)

FIGURE 9.1 X-ray warning symbol.

Labeling

Dental X-ray equipment with an extra-oral source must bear the X-ray warning symbol in Figure 9.1. The label bearing the symbol must (REDR §II(5)(1)(a)): • • • • •

be securely afÞxed to the equipment control panel; appear in two contrasting colors; be clearly visible and clearly readable from a distance of 1 m; have no outer dimension that is less than 2 cm; and bear the following words: CAUTION: X-RAYS – ATTENTION: RAYONS X.

A warning sign that is clearly visible to the operator must indicate that the possibility of hazardous radiation will be emitted when the equipment is in operation and state that any unauthorized use is prohibited (REDR §II(5)(1)(b)). A mark or label must appear on the external surface of the equipment control panel that indicates (REDR §II(5)(1)(c)): • • • • •

the the the the the

name of the equipment’s manufacturer, model designation, serial number, date of manufacture, and country of manufacture.

This mark or label must be permanent, clearly visible, and readily discernable to the operator. The external surface of the X-ray-tube assembly must also have a clearly visible and readily discernable permanent mark or label that indicates (REDR §II(5)(1)(d)): • • • • •

the the the the the

name of the manufacturer of the X-ray-tube assembly, model designation, serial number, date of installation of the X-ray tube in the X-ray tube housing, and country of manufacture.

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Instructions for Use (IFU)

The manufacturer of dental X-ray equipment with an extra-oral source must provide instructions for use (IFU) that provides the following minimum information (REDR §II(5)(2)): • operating instructions that provide the information necessary for the safe and proper operation of the equipment; and • the following information about the functioning of the equipment: • the maximum allowable deviation from the speciÞed X-ray tube current and voltage, • the accuracy of the controlling timer, and • the speciÞc conditions on which the information described above are based. PHOTOFLUOROGRAPHIC X-RAY EQUIPMENT Photoßuorographic X-ray equipment is an X-ray-generating appliance designed primarily for examining the human chest and the photographic recording of the image produced on a ßuorescent screen. Labeling

Photoßuorographic X-ray equipment must be designed so that all controls, meters, lights, or other indicators are clearly labeled to indicate their function. The control panel must bear the X-ray warning symbol in Figure 9.1. The label bearing the symbol must (REDR §VI(6)(1)(a)): • • • • •

be securely afÞxed to the equipment control panel; appear in two contrasting colors; be clearly visible and clearly readable from a distance of 1 m; have no outer dimension that is less than 2 cm; and bear the following words: CAUTION: X-RAYS – ATTENTION: RAYONS X.

A warning sign that is clearly visible to the operator must indicate that the possibility of hazardous radiation will be emitted when the equipment is in operation and state that any unauthorized use is prohibited. This warning sign must be permanently afÞxed to the control panel (REDR §VI(3)(b)). The equipment must bear a replaceable label mounted on the camera hood in clear view of the operator indicating the type and date of insertion of the ßuorescent screen (REDR §VI(4)(1)(i). A mark or label must appear on the external surface of the equipment control panel that indicates (REDR §VI(4)(2)): • • • •

the the the the

name of the equipment’s manufacturer, model designation, serial number, and date and place of manufacture.

This mark or label must be permanent, clearly visible, and readily discernable to the operator. The external surface of the X-ray-tube housing must also have a clearly visible and readily discernable permanent mark or label that indicates (REDR §VI(4)(2)): • the name of the manufacturer of the X-ray tube, • the model designation,

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• the serial number, and • the date and place of manufacture. DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY EQUIPMENT Diagnostic X-ray equipment is an X-ray device that is used for examining the human body. Not included in this class are dental X-ray equipment with an extra-oral source covered by Part II of the REDR, photoßuorographic X-ray equipment covered by Part VI of the REDR, radiation-therapy simulators, and computer-assisted tomographic equipment. Labeling

Diagnostic X-ray equipment must be designed so that all controls, meters, warning lights and other indicators required by this part must be clearly labeled as to their function (REDR §XII(5). The equipment must display all required information in a legible, permanent, and visible manner on the speciÞed surfaces of the equipment. The main control panel must bear the X-ray warning symbol in Figure 9.1. At the manufacturer’s option, the symbol in Figure 9.2 may be used as an alternative. The label bearing the symbol must (REDR §XII(4)): • • • • •

be securely afÞxed to the equipment control panel; appear in two contrasting colors; be clearly visible and clearly readable from a distance of 1 m; have no outer dimension that is less than 2 cm; and bear the following words: CAUTION: X-RAYS – ATTENTION: RAYONS X.

A warning sign that is clearly visible to the operator must indicate that the possibility of hazardous radiation will be emitted when the equipment is in operation and state that any unauthorized use is prohibited (REDR §XII(3)(a)). The external surface of the X-ray-tube housing must also have a clearly visible and readily discernable permanent mark or label that indicates (REDR §XII(3)(b)): • the name of the manufacturer of the X-ray-tube assembly, • the model designation,

This figure is prepared for convenience of reference only and has no official sanction. The reader is referred to Schedule II, Part II, Section 5 of the REDR. Source: REDR, Schedule II, Part XII ß4(e)(ii)

FIGURE 9.2 Alternate x-ray warning symbol.

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• • • •

the serial number, the date of installation of the X-ray tube in the X-ray-tube housing, the country of manufacture, and the minimum permanent inherent Þltration of the X-ray beam emitted from the X-ray-tube assembly, expressed in millimeters of aluminum equivalent at a speciÞed X-ray-tube voltage.

The external surface of the X-ray-tube housing or another suitable structure permanently attached to the X-ray-tube housing must bear (REDR §II(5)(1)(c)): • an indicator that enables the focal spot to image receptor distance to be determined to within 2 percent of that distance, and • if the X-ray tube and the X-ray generator are not located within a common enclosure, marks that clearly indicate the anode and cathode terminals on the X-ray-tube housing and on the high-voltage generator. If a beam-limiting device is installed on the equipment that adds Þltration to the X-ray beam, the external surface of the beam-limiting device must be marked with the total permanent Þltration deliverable by the beam-limiting device, expressed in millimeters of aluminum equivalent at a speciÞed X-ray-tube voltage (REDR §II(5)(1)(d)). Instructions for Use (IFU)

The manufacturer must provide the following information in the IFU provided with each piece of diagnostic X-ray equipment (REDR §XII(2)): • the name and address of the manufacturer; • the installation instructions; • any radiological safety procedures and additional precautions that are necessary because of any unique features of the equipment; • the maintenance instructions necessary to keep the equipment in compliance with the requirements of the REDR; • the rated line voltage, the maximum line current and the line voltage regulation for the operation of the equipment at the maximum line current; • the loading factors that constitute the maximum line current condition for the X-ray generator; • the duty cycles, rectiÞcation type; and generator rating of the equipment; and • if the equipment is battery powered, the minimum state of charge necessary for it to operate. The manufacturer must also include in the IFU: • the operating range of X-ray-tube voltages and the maximum deviation for any selected Xray-tube voltage within that range of values; • if the equipment is not operated exclusively in automatic exposure control mode, the accuracy limits of: • the controlling timer, • the X-ray-tube current; • the current time product; and • where the equipment operates under automatic exposure control, the accuracy limits of that control; and • the conditions under which the information provided in the preceding three bullets are valid.

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For each X-ray-tube assembly, the manufacturer must provide (REDR §XII(2)(g)): • • • •

the nominal focal spot sizes and the method of their determination; the cooling curves for the anode and for the X-ray-tube housing; the X-ray-tube rating charts; and the method by which the focal spot to image receptor distance can be determined using the indicator speciÞed in Section 3(c)(i) of the REDR.

ULTRASOUND-THERAPY DEVICES An ultrasound-therapy device is designed to generate and emit ultrasonic power at acoustic frequencies above 20 kHz for use in physical therapy. Labeling

Every ultrasound-therapy device must be designed so that all marks, labels, and signs are permanently afÞxed and clearly visible. All user controls, meters, lights, or other indicators must be clearly visible, readily discernible, and clearly labeled to indicate their function. Every ultrasound-therapy device must bear on the external surface of its housing (REDR §XIII(2)(3)(a)): • • • • • • •

the name and address of the manufacturer; the name and address of the distributor, if the distributor is not the manufacturer; the type and model designation; the serial number; the month and year that the equipment was manufactured; the ultrasonic frequencies in kilohertz (kHz) or megahertz (mHz); a statement indicating if the wave produced by the device is a continuous wave or an amplitude modulated wave; and • the line voltage used for normal operation. For an ultrasound-therapy device that produces an amplitude-modulated wave, the external surface of the device housing must also be marked with: • the pulse repetition rate, • the pulse duration, • the ratio of the temporal maximum effective ultrasonic intensity to the temporal average effective ultrasonic intensity, and • a description of the wave shape. If these parameters vary depending on the output power, then the parameters are to be stated at the temporal maximum ultrasonic power. The external surface must also be marked with the ultrasound radiation-warning symbol in Figure 9.4. The label bearing the symbol must (REDR §XIII(4)(1)(a)): • • • •

be shown in two contrasting colors; be clearly visible and identiÞable from a distance of 1 m; have no outer dimensions less than 2 cm; and bear the following words:

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This figure is prepared for convenience of reference only and has no official sanction. The reader is referred to Schedule II, Part XIII, Section 4 of the REDR. Source: REDR, Schedule II, Part XIII ß4(e)

FIGURE 9.3 Ultrasonic radiation warning symbol.

CAUTION-ULTRASOUND, ATTENTION-ULTRASONS.

The external surface of each ultrasound-therapy applicator housing must bear the following information (REDR §XIII(2)(3)(b)): • • • •

the type and model of the ultrasound-therapy device for which the applicator is designed; if it is a focusing type applicator, the focal length and the focal area; a unique serial number or other unique identiÞcation; and the effective radiating area in square centimeters (cm2).

THINGS TO REMEMBER The Canadian Minister of Health has responsibility for regulating radiation-emitting devices under the provisions of the REDA. This includes any devices that emit radiation as energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or acoustical waves. This can include a broad range of medical and nonmedical devices. However, the regulations issued under the authority of the REDA focus on devices where the radiation could pose a direct health hazard. The REDR covers devices such as television receivers, microwave ovens, and laser scanners as well as medical products such as diagnostic Xray and ultrasound-therapy devices. The Minister of Health has assigned responsibility for regulating these devices to the RPB. Schedule I of the REDR deÞnes the following classes of devices with a medical application that are covered by the regulation: • • • •

dental X-ray equipment with an extra-oral source photoßuorographic X-ray equipment diagnostic X-ray equipment ultrasound therapy devices

Schedule II of the REDR deÞnes the requirements for each of the covered classes of radiation emitting products. The REDR speciÞes design standards, construction standards, functional standards, and labeling and information requirements for each of the covered classes of products.

10 Mexico Mexico has one of the largest and fastest growing markets for medical devices among the Latin American countries. The approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 was a major milestone in economic relations between Mexico, the United States (US) and Canada. NAFTA has spurred hefty increase in both import and export trade with its North American trading partners. The Mexican market is expected to continue to grow rapidly. Mexico is vigorously pursuing free-trade agreements with many other countries as a way of expanding the beneÞts from trade liberalization and attempting to lessen its dependence on the US market. Prior to 2000, Mexico had free-trade agreements in effect with Chile, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, and Nicaragua. In 2000, Mexico signed a free-trade agreement with the European Union (EU). Similar to NAFTA in its coverage, this agreement went into effect on July 1, 2000. Mexico also signed trade agreements with Israel and with the Central American “Northern Triangle” (Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras). Free-trade negotiations are now underway with Panama and with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (Norway, Switzerland, Iceland, and Liechtenstein), and Mexico continues to push Japan to begin similar negotiations. In addition to these free-trade efforts, Mexico renewed a bilateral accord with Uruguay within the framework of Asociacion Lationamericana de Integracion (ALADI) and has since begun negotiations on a similar preference agreement with Brazil. Mexico hopes that these accords can become stepping-stones for an eventual free-trade agreement with Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). (DoC, 2001 Chap. 1). A growing afßuence coupled with an expanding middle class is expected to increase the demand for healthcare services. The ßow of medical devices should continue to grow rapidly as NAFTA and other free-trade agreements eliminate tariffs on most devices. NAFTA will ensure that the important Mexican public-sector market, which accounts for the bulk of medical device purchases, remains open to US and Canadian manufacturers by requiring transparent and nondiscriminatory government practices. The manufacture and sale of medical goods in Mexico is regulated under provisions of the Ley General de Salud (General Health Law).* Medical devices are also covered under provisions of the Health Goods Ruling** and the Federal Consumer Protection Law.*** Under the law, medical goods are any instruments, devices, implements, machines, designs, reagents for in vitro usage, cultivation medias, contrast medias, healing materials, hygiene products, dental materials, prostheses and orthesis, susceptibility test for antimicrobians, reagents for in vivo usage, allergenics, antiserums, antigens, calipers, veriÞers, or any other similar competent products, parts or accessories that (NOM137 p 49): • are listed on National Pharmacopoeia or its supplements; • are designed for use in the diagnosis of an illness or other condition, in healing, mitigation, treatment or prevention of a human disease; and • are designed to modify the structure or any function of human body. * Ley General de Salud, Secretaria de Salud, México, D.F.,1993. ** Reglamento de Insumos para la Salud, México, D.F.,1998. *** Ley Federal de Protectión al Consumidor, publicada en el Diario OÞcial de la Federación en 24 de diciembre de 1992.

143

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

Medical equipment (devices) are any apparatus, accessories, and instruments, the Þnal intended use of which is medical attention, surgery or exploration procedures, diagnosis, treatment and patient rehabilitation, as well as for performing biomedical research activities (NOM-137 p. 49). BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW Compared to other countries in Latin America and on the PaciÞc Rim, Mexico has a rather long history of regulating medical devices. The practice of regulating medical devices dates from well before the adoption of the current General Health Law in 1992. Medical devices are also covered under provisions of the Health Goods Ruling and the Federal Consumer Protection Law. The cornerstone of conformity assessment in Mexico is the 1992 Federal Law of Metrology and Standardization (as amended on December 24, 1996 and May 20, 1997), which provides for greater transparency and access by the public and interested parties to the mandatory standard-formulation process. Another key document is the regulations to the Federal Law of Metrology published on January 14, 1999. Under the provisions of these laws, products must conform to all applicable Mexican standards, known as Normas OÞciales Mexicanas (NOMs). In addition to mandatory standards (NOMs), there are numerous voluntary standards known as Normas Mexicanas (NMXs). As of June 2000, there were over 6,200 valid NMXs in Mexico. NMXs become mandatory for importation purposes when they are referred to in a NOM. Many NOMs include labeling requirements that are applicable to the products covered by those NOMs. The ofÞcial labeling guide for NOM-050-SCFI-1994, which covers labeling for most commercial products, lists 37 other labeling NOMs that are applicable to speciÞc products. Medical devices are covered by the NOM-137-SSA11995 (NOM-137). The May 20, 1997, revision to Mexico’s Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization requires that all NOMs be reviewed at least every Þve years. Around every April 15, Mexico publishes, in the Diario OÞcial, its annual standardization program, and a subsequent amendment is published in the fall of the same year. This annual program lists all committees working on the development, update, or cancellation of NOMs and NMXs for the year. SCOPE OF THE REGULATIONS Regulations promulgated under the provisions of the General Health Law are applicable to domestically produced and imported medical goods. NOM-137 establishes minimal general requirements for sanitary and commercial information that should be included in labeling for healing materials, diagnostic agents, dental supplies, prostheses, ortheses, functional aids, hygiene products and medical equipment that will be addressed to consumers. NOM-137 is obligatory for all the industries, laboratories and establishments working on manufacturing, processing, importing and distributing of medical goods. Certain medical goods are excluded from the scope of NOM-137. These include (NOM-137 p. 48): • Highly specialized medical devices that are products intended for the special use of the importer or a third Þscal or moral person. The product is acquired under a purchase-sale contract and meets the speciÞcations of the purchaser who assumes the risk of the acquired product. These products are not sold to the general public. • Medical devices that are not intended for commercial, industrial, or service processes and are not intended for sale directly to the consumer. The consumer is deÞned as the Þscal or moral person who acquires, realizes, or uses the goods, products, or services.

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• Medical devices that are imported by Þscal or moral people for their own use. • Medical devices imported by educational and scientiÞc institutions. • Medical devices that because of their nature or size cannot have labels or devices with labels too small to contain all the data required by the regulation. These devices are subject to the disposition of the Ministry of Health–the Secretaria de Salud (SSA). • Products sold in bulk. • Products subject to NOM-137 when imported for the purpose of obtaining the certiÞcation under the OfÞcial Mexican Rule. • Products intended only for export. • Any other device speciÞcally excluded from the scope of the regulation by the Ministry of Health. BRINGING DEVICES TO MARKET IN MEXICO Like many of the countries in Latin America and on the PaciÞc Rim, Mexico requires that medical devices be reviewed by the SSA prior to sale. Although the domestic production of medical devices has markedly increased in recent years, Mexico still imports a signiÞcant percentage of the needed medical devices from the United States, Japan, and the EU. For these products, the Mexican government relies heavily on the product approvals from the regulatory entity in the country where the device was manufactured. PRODUCT REGISTRATION A person who proposes to bring a medical device to market in Mexico is required to register the device with the SSA. To obtain registration, the manufacturer must submit a dossier on the product. A nominal fee is charged for processing each submission. The dossier must contain the following information, as applicable to the product in question: 1. A description of the product, its purpose, a summary of the intended use(s), and engineering drawings. Published product literature may fulÞll this requirement. The information, however, must be submitted in Spanish. 2. A copy of the package insert or product manual that describes product performance, handling, warnings, contraindications, precautions, and so forth is required. 3. Clinical abstracts discussing the clinical experience with the device. These documents must show clearly the source of the clinical data (i.e., the institutions where the clinical work was done). 4. A description of the materials used in the product, emphasizing those materials in contact with the body tissue. The information should stress body compatibility, corrosion resistance, and so on. This description must include evidence of the testing that was performed from the laboratory responsible for the report. 5. Evidence of the testing (functional tests) to which the product has been exposed. The evidence must include test procedures and results, and the reports must be on the letterhead of the organization performing the testing and signed by the person responsible for conducting the testing. The required battery of tests includes tests for toxicity, pyrogenicity, hemolysis, biocompatibility, hermeticity, and sterility. 6. A description of the packaging system and packaging testing that has been performed. The description should include such items as the packaging conÞguration (e.g., sterile package inside a sales package), the physical characteristics of the packages, and the materials used

146

7. 8.

9. 10.

11.

12.

13.

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

in the package. Evidence of package stability and integrity testing must be included. When applicable, use-before-date information and testing is required. When applicable, details on the sterilization methods and the expected results are to be provided. Device-speciÞc information requested by the SSA. For example, the dossiers for tissue heart valves and tissue conduits should include documentation on the following: • Individual certiÞcates of results from biological tests made on low-porosity Dacron grafts, intracutaneous toxicity, implantation tests, cytotoxicity, and hemolysis tests • Quality controls implemented for polyester-based duct, water permeability, adaptability, wall width, internal diameter, strain force, radial resistance, Dacron-adhesion resistance, suture retention, Þnal elongation, and spiral-adhesion resistance • Metallic-chemical composition of Haynes Alloy No. 25 metallic ring, as well as corrosion resistance and Rockwell hardness tests • CertiÞcate of quality for raw material in heart valves of porcine or any other tissue origin • CertiÞcate of biologic and immunologic tests undertaken with heart valves of porcine origin • Finished-product quality control showing mechanical and physical tests undertaken (e.g., hydrodynamic tests, structural design, valve/duct separation resistance) • Finished-product analysis certiÞcate for 2 percent glutaraldehyde solution • Stability-test certiÞcates indicating dates of initial and subsequent analyses, temperature studies, and results obtained, as well as valve/duct functionality tests A certiÞcation that the product is manufactured under appropriate manufacturing controls (e.g., US Good Manufacturing Practices [GMP]) to ensure the quality of the end product. A certiÞcate showing the address of the manufacturer. This information may appear on some other required document such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) CertiÞcate for Foreign Government (CFG). For imported products, evidence of approval of the product from the regulatory entity in the country where the device was manufactured is required. This could take the form of a Japanese shonin (device approval), a US FDA CFG, a US FDA Premarket Approval Letter or 510(k) Approval Letter, or a CE Conformity CertiÞcate. For imported products, a letter addressed “to whom it may concern” naming the distributor in Mexico and granting an exclusive license for distribution of the product in Mexico. This may not be required with each dossier if the distributor has a properly notarized and legalized letter on Þle granting the distributor an exclusive license to distribute all products manufactured by all of the manufacturer’s facilities. Because Mexico is member of the Haya Convention, the legalization takes the form of an apostille or marginal annotation or note such as a notary seal so that consularization is no longer necessary. A CertiÞcate of Free Sale completes the dossier. This document is issued by a Ministry of Health and means the product is freely sold among the citizens of the country where the goods are manufactured. For goods manufactured in the United States, the CertiÞcate of Free Sale takes the form of a CFG.

Some of the documents, such as the Free Sale CertiÞcate and the Letter of Exclusive Distributor, must be notarized. The notarization gives the document legal status in the eyes of the SSA. Any documents required by the SSA in the form of a letter should appear on letterhead and be signed by a responsible ofÞcial of the organization. Original documents are preferred, but if these are not available, notarized copes will be sufÞcient.

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In Mexico, the Approval Letter “belongs” to the SSA. This means that even if the Þle is submitted by a distributor and the Approval Letter grants the distributor the rights to import, distribute, or export the goods, the manufacturer will always have the rights over its goods. All of the items listed above are important to getting a product registered in Mexico. However, the SSA places special emphasis on (a) the certiÞcate showing the address of the manufacturer (item 10), (b) the Approval Letter or certiÞcate from the Ministry of Health where the product was manufactured (item 11), (c) the description of the materials in contact with the body (item 4), and (d) the description of testing (item 5). Once a product has been accepted for registration by the SSA, a CertiÞcate of Registration will be issued. This allows the distributor to sell the device on the open market. For imported products, the SSA registration also enables some products to be cleared by Mexican customs ofÞcials at the entry point into Mexico. Implanted goods require an Import Permit Þled with a copy of the Approval Letter. However, for eligibility to sell products to government institutions, further approvals are required. QUALIFYING

FOR

SALE

TO THE

MEXICAN GOVERNMENT

Having a product approved for sale to the healthcare agencies of the Mexican government is important because government purchases account for more than 75 percent of the Mexican market. Mexican citizens are covered by one of Þve health plans operated by the Mexican Government. The largest and best known is the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Social Security or IMSS). This is a group of hospitals that are managed by the government and provide services to employees in the private sector. The second is the Instituto de Seguridad Social al Servicio de los Trabajadores del Estado (Mexican Institute for Healthcare for Government Employees or ISSSTE). The ISSSTE provides services for all nonmilitary government employees. The Army and Navy are covered by their own healthcare system. The fourth plan covers national institutes whose goals include investigations. Finally, there is the system administered by the SSA for unemployed persons. All public hospitals have to go out for bids for products listed in a catalog called Cuadro Básico del Sector Salud. This catalog describes in a generic form all types of goods that can be acquired by the system. Effective in 2001, hospitals are requiring goods to be quality tested in order to participate in bids. So far, the IMSS is the only system that has the capability to perform the required testing. From the general catalog, IMSS has chosen the goods they require and have listed them in a special catalog known as Cuadro Básico Institucional. If a product Þts into a description in the catalog, a manufacturer or distributor can request approval of its product. In order for a product to be qualiÞed for government purchase, that product must be evaluated by an authorized third party, which could be: • the National Polytechnical Institute; • the Secretaria de Salud Laboratory; or • the IMSS Quality Assurance (QA) Department. To be qualiÞed to perform this testing, the laboratory must be accredited by the Entidad Mexicana de Acreditación (Mexican Accreditation Entity or EMA) or the Sistema Nacional de Acreditamiento de Laboratorios de Prueba (National Accreditation System for Testing Laboratories or SINLAP). The laboratories charge a nominal fee for the evaluation, and the manufacturer or distributor is usually required to provide samples for evaluation. Effective in 2000, the number of samples provided depends on the type of good. For example, pacemakers require four samples, while PTA catheters

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require an average of 15 samples. Sterile products must be provided in a sterile state and are usually not returned, as they will most likely be used on a patient. Evaluation of a product by the IMSS QA Department is typical of the process that is followed. The manufacturer begins by notifying the IMSS Acquisition Department of the product from the list of products accepted in government tenders (bids) for which it is a potential supplier. Then the manufacturer will request in writing that the IMSS QA Department evaluate the product. The letter should be on letterhead, signed by a responsible person, and have the name and address of the manufacturer/distributor, the brand name, and country of origin. The letter should include a list of the samples and lot numbers submitted for analysis and establish the equivalent between the manufacturer’s catalog number and the IMSS code. The dossier and the samples must be submitted with the request for testing. If anything is missing, the application will not be accepted. In addition to the requirements listed above, the submission should include: 1. A technical dossier on the product including the following, as applicable: • The technical speciÞcations for the product, including tolerance levels where appropriate. • The operation, technical, and service manual(s) for the product when applicable. • A copy of the manufacturing standards under which the product has been built, and the appropriate process validation. • The protocol of the QA test to which the product has been subjected during its manufacture and the laboratory test results. This should be submitted in the form of a Quality Control Release document. • When appropriate, certiÞcates of the sterilization, pyrogenicity, and toxicity of the device issued by the manufacturer. (They may all be in the same certiÞcate.) • An explanation of the lot or serial-number system used to identify the product. • A product catalog. • Publications that show the behavior of the product submitted for evaluation. • A list of countries and hospitals where the product has been used and number of cases. 2. Device-speciÞc information requested by the IMSS QA Department. For example, the technical dossier for a tissue heart valve should include documentation on the following: • Washing protocol • Microscopic tissue control • Electronic microscopy investigation • Chemical features for Þxing and preservation • Gradient table • Hemodynamic image information • In vitro investigation reports 3. OfÞcial certiÞcates giving the regulatory status of the device, including the following: • A copy of the SSA Approval Letter along with the original to check/verify the copy • For imported products, the following certiÞcates should be notarized and have an Apostille: • CertiÞcate of Free Sale showing that the product is freely sold among the people of the country where the device was manufactured. This certiÞcate should be issued by the Ministry of Health (e.g. a US FDA CFG). • GMP CertiÞcate issued by the Ministry of Health of the country where the device was manufactured. 4. A speciÞed number of saleable products for evaluation in the Þeld (i.e., a hospital) and in the IMSS QA Department laboratory. If the device is labeled with an expiration date, the

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sample devices should have at least 18 months before they expire (i.e., the IMSS QA Department wants fresh devices and is not willing to accept obsolete products). The IMSS will not accept imported devices labeled as being only for export from their country of origin (e.g., “Export Only,” “Investigation Only,” “Pilot Lot,” “Experimentation Phase,” or any similar labeling from the US or any other country). If support instruments (e.g., a pacemaker programmer) are required during part of the testing, the manufacturer must provide these instruments. They are returned after the evaluation is completed. 5. Where applicable, the name, address, and telephone number of a person in Mexico who will provide technical assistance (i.e., a technical representative). The IMSS QA Department will evaluate the submitted material. If the device is acceptable, the IMSS will issue an ofÞcial announcement that the product can be accepted to compete in a tender. MISBRANDING The requirements described in the following sections are mandatory under Mexican law. The SSA is charged with responsibility for surveillance to ensure that regulatory requirements are met. Its personnel will perform the veriÞcation and surveillance that is required. Penalties can be assessed under the provisions of the General Health Law. GENERAL LABELING PROVISIONS The common feature of most labeling requirements in Mexico is that package labels must carry commercial information in Spanish. The content should be easy to understand and read. If the required information appears in a language other than Spanish, then this information must appear in Spanish in the same size font, format, and clarity as it appears in the other language. Consequently, many of the labels added to packages in the past for the Mexican market are no longer acceptable. However, placing stickers over information preprinted on a package or label is permitted as long as the resulting label complies with the labeling requirements. Secondary or additional labeling should not cover original labeling. Additionally, labels can be applied or modiÞed in Mexico provided that the process complies with Mexico’s veriÞcation procedures. Additionally, a comma must be used as a decimal point in the quantity declaration on packages, as required by NOM-008-SCFI-1993. Imported products using a period as a decimal point are likely to be rejected by Mexican customs ofÞcials. Accredited veriÞcation units exist, where companies can obtain an evaluation of their labels prior to export to Mexico. Within the scope of NOM-137, a label is any printed bill, stamp, inscription, image, or any other descriptive or graphic, written, printed, outlined, marked, engraved in high- or low-raised work or attached form to the container or packaging. TYPES

OF

PACKAGING

NOM-137 deÞnes a container or packaging for a medical good as any receptacle that guarantees the full preservation of product quality. Several layers of packaging are described in NOM-137. They are (NOM-137 p. 49): • Primary packaging—Any container that is in direct contact with the product, with the intended purpose of preserving its physical, chemical, and microbiological integrity; • Secondary packaging—Any container in which the primary packaging resides;

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• Collective packaging—Any container or wrapping in which two or more varieties of prepacked products reside, as a mean of presentation to be sold to the consumer; and • Multiple packaging—Any container or wrapping in which two or more primary or secondary packages reside. MINIMUM LABELING REQUIREMENTS NOM-137 speciÞes the minimum information that must appear on the labeling of medical goods. The minimum information required in order to comply with the regulation includes (NOM-137 pp. 51–52): 1. The product’s commercial name. This is the only required item that can be stated in a language other than Spanish. 2. The brand, logotype, social reason (name given in Mexico to the legal name of a company) and the commercial address of the manufacturer or distributor that is registered with the SSA. The distributor is deÞned as the Þscal or moral person who imports, conditions, distributes, or commercializes goods, products, or services inside Mexico. For the purpose of this regulation, a distributor is anyone who is not involved in the manufacturing process and is dedicated to the commercialization of a product. 3. For imported goods, the name and address of the importer. 4. The country of origin. 5. The approval number given by the SSA. 6. For sterile products, the following should be indicated on the label: “Sterile Product. Product sterility is not guaranteed in case primary packaging shows previous rupture/breaking signs.”* 7. For sterile products, the expiration or “use by” date in those cases when the manufacturer does not guarantee at least 5 years of sterile shelf life. The expiration date (in Spanish, fecha de caducidad) is displayed on the primary and secondary (if applicable) packaging and delineates the useful life of the product. It is calculated from the manufacturing or sterilization date. The shelf life (in Spanish, periodo de caducidad) is the estimated time during which the product remains inside speciÞcations when preserved under normal or particular storage conditions. Normal storage conditions are deÞned in NOM-137 as storage in a dry place (not more than 65% relative humidity), properly ventilated, room temperature between 288 K and 303 K (15 °C to 30 °C), protected from intense light and strange odors or any other form of contamination. Particular storage conditions are any conditions other than normal storage conditions. Particular storage conditions must be shown on the product label. 8. When special storage temperatures are required, these should be expressed as ___K (°C) to ___K (°C) or similarly. 9. The lot or serial number. NOM-137 deÞnes a lot as the quantity of a product manufactured in one single process with the equipment and required substances in the same period of time to guarantee its homogeneity. 10. The manufacturing date. This can be part of the lot number. 11. The contents of the package, giving a description of the product and indicating the number of units, the volume, or the weight of the contents. 12. The nominal dimensions (if applicable). * Subclause 4.1.1.11 of NOM-137 speciÞes the following statement in Spanish, “Producto estéril, ‘No se garantiza la esterilida del producto en caso de que el primario tenga señales de haber sufrido ruptura previa’.”

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13. When the use, handling, and conservation of the product is not obvious, this information should be stated in the instructions for use (IFU) with a statement on the label saying “Read attached instructions” or similar wording.* 14. Any warnings or precautions regarding the use of a product. 15. Any adverse secondary effect caused by the use of the product should be detailed on the label. 16. A statement that the product is atoxic, pyrogen free, or similar (if applicable). 17. An indication if the product is disposable (if applicable). 18. Precise instructions for reuse, disposal, or destruction of empty containers (if applicable). 19. For every product that is composed or made up of several ingredients, the label should list the qualitative and quantitative formula of its active ingredients (if applicable). When the products are imported goods, they should have the required labeling in Spanish. The data required by NOM-137 can be added to imported goods inside Mexico after clearing customs but before commercialization or supply to the public. Products that, because of their nature or the size of the units in which they are sold or supplied, cannot have labels or, because of the size, cannot have all the data required by NOM-137, will be subjected to the discretion of the SSA. In these cases, the SSA must be contacted for information. Customs brokers and agents generally have the information about NOMs that must be complied with to import into Mexico, as well as other regulatory requirements for importation. Bulk product is only required to have original labeling on the collective packaging. Bulk product is deÞned in NOM-137 as product placed in any type of container where the contents may vary and have to be weighed, counted, or measured at the moment of its conditioning and later sale. The nature of the product, its formula, composition, distinctive name or brand, generic or speciÞc designation, and labeling should match with the authorized speciÞcations approved by the SSA in the applicable certiÞcate and cannot be modiÞed. THINGS TO REMEMBER In Mexico, as with most other countries in Latin America and on the PaciÞc Rim, medical devices must be registered with the public health department—the Secretaria de Salud—prior to sale. To obtain registration, the manufacturer must submit a dossier on the product. Registration allows the product to be sold on the open market. However, in order to be eligible for sale to the IMSS and/or other government institutions, the product must be evaluated by an authorized third party. This evaluation includes the review of a technical dossier on the product, and may involve laboratory testing of devices. The minimum information that must appear on the labeling of medical goods is speciÞed in OfÞcial Mexican Rule NOM-137-SSA1-1995. The common feature of most labeling requirements in Mexico is that package labels must carry commercial information in Spanish. If the required information appears in a language other than Spanish, then this information must appear in Spanish in the same size font, format, and clarity as it appears in the other language. Placing stickers over information preprinted on a package or label is permitted as long as the resulting label complies with the labeling requirements. Placing secondary or additional labeling over the original labeling is considered misbranding and therefore it is not permitted.** The labeling of a product must match the authorized speciÞcations approved by SSA in the applicable certiÞcate and cannot be modiÞed. * Subclause 4.1.1.10 of NOM-137 provides the following example: “Léase Instructivo Anexo.” ** Subclause 4.1 of NOM-137 states that additional labels should not cover the original labels.

Part V China, Korea, and Thailand

11 People’s Republic of China The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is the worlds largest potential market for medical devices. In the last two decades of the twentieth Century, China witnessed a dramatic growth in its population, rapid urbanization, the transition from a planned toward a market economy, and its integration into the global economy. Following drawn-out preliminary negotiations begun in 1985, China became the 143rd member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in November 2001. China’s initial attempt to regulate medical devices was characterized by a good deal of overlap and competition for preeminence between agencies of the central government. The current system rationalized some of the responsibilities although overlapping requirements and redundant testing for some medical devices by different agencies remains. The framework for medical device regulation in China was established by an order of the State Council of the PRC. The Regulation on Supervision and Administration of Medical Devices (China MDR) was adopted in council on December 18, 1999, and became effective on April 1, 2000. Under the provisions of the China MDR, a medical device is deÞned as “any instrument, equipment, apparatus, appliance, material, or other article (including necessary software) that is used alone or in combination on human bodies. The application of the medical device is intended to achieve: • prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, or alleviation of diseases; • diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, treatment, alleviation, or reparation of injuries or the handicapped; • research, replacement, or modiÞcation of anatomy or certain physiological process: • control of pregnancy. The function of a medical device on or in the human body is not achieved by pharmacological, immunological, or metabolic means even though these processes may be involved and play a supporting role in the performance of the medical device (China MDR §3). BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW The Chinese system for medical device regulation began in 1994 and was administered by the State Pharmaceutical Administration of China (SPAC). Prior to April 1, 2000, SPAC oversaw the registration of medical products and the development of the medical products industry. SPAC has been succeeded by the State Drug Administration (SDA) as the central government agency in charge of drug and medical device regulation. The SDA has established supplemental regulations and orders to facilitate the regulation and supervision of medical devices. Although the SDA retains overall authority, responsibility for supervision and administration of certain provisions of the China MDR are delegated to other levels of government within the PRC. Responsibility for dealing with domestically produced, low-risk medical devices is assigned to municipal governments. Responsibility for domestically produced, medium-risk devices is assigned to the government of the provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government. The SDA retains responsibility for domestically produced high-risk devices and for registration of all imported products. The SDA has the authority to review any registration granted by another government entity and can order it to correct its mistakes if the SDA concludes that it 155

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

has wrongly granted a registration certiÞcate. If that government entity fails to correct its error within a speciÞed time, the SDA can revoke its registration certiÞcate by making a public announcement. The SDA does not have exclusive jurisdiction over all aspects of the approval process, especially for imported medical devices. Depending on the product, there can be several Chinese agencies involved in granting approval. Beginning in 1989, the State Administration for Entry/Exit Inspection and Quarantine (SAIQ)* was charged with safety licensing for a wide range of imported consumer products. In 1997, the SAIQ extended the coverage of its licensing power to include six categories of medical devices (ITA, China, p. 2). These products were required to bear the China Commodity Inspection Bureau (CCIB) mark when imported into China. Imported medical devices that incorporate a pressure vessel were also required to have a certiÞcate issued by the Safety Quality Licensing OfÞce of Boiler and Pressure Vessels (SQLO), a division of the State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervisions (SBTS), before Chinese Customs would allow the product into the country. Also, measuring and weighing devices or equipment that contain a major measurement component, such as thermometers, blood-pressure meters, syringes, biochemical analyzers, blood gas analyzers, and so on, require the approval of SBTS. Testing of these devices could be performed by SBTS or by the end-users on behalf of SBTS (ITA China, p. 2). On December 3, 2001, the Chinese government established a Compulsory Product CertiÞcation System (CPCS). This system is jointly administered by the State General Administration for Quality Supervision and Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and the CertiÞcation and Accreditation Administration (CNCA) of the PRC. It replaces the Safety License System for Imported Commodities administered by SAIQ and Compulsory Supervisions System for Product Safety CertiÞcation administered by SBTS. The system came into force on May 1, 2002, for products listed in the CPCS product catalog. For medical devices, the following categories are listed in the Þrst edition of the CPCS catalog (CPCS p. 5): • • • • • • •

Medical diagnostic X-ray equipment Hemodialysis equipment Hollow Þber dialysis equipment Blood puriÞcation equipment Electrocardiographs Implantable cardiac pacemakers Ultrasound equipment

These devices required an Import Safety License and a CCIB mark issued by SAIQ prior to the enactment of the new regulation. An example of the CCIB mark is found in Figure 11.1. Prior to April 30, 2003, products may be certiÞed under either system. As of May 1, 2003, products listed in the CPCS catalog must have a new certiÞcate and the new mark (CNCA pp. 2–3). See the section on the Compulsory Product CertiÞcation System later in this chapter. SCOPE OF THE REGULATIONS Article 5 of the China MDR speciÞes the establishment of a three-tier classiÞcation system to facilitate the management of medical devices in China. The three classes are: * At one time, the State Administration for Entry/Exit Inspection and Quarantine (SAIQ) was known as the State Administration of Import and Export Commodity Inspection of China (SAIC).

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+1* S

Source: CPS Reg p. 2.

FIGURE 11.1 CCIB safety certiÞcation mark.

• Class I — Medical devices for which conventional management is sufÞcient to ensure safety and effectiveness • Class II — Medical devices for which certain controlling measures must be applied to ensure safety and effectiveness • Class III — Medical devices that are implanted into the human body, that are life supporting, or that may impose potential risks to humans for life support and require strict controls to ensure safety and effectiveness To standardize the classiÞcation of medical devices, the SDA has established a Regulation for Medical Device ClassiÞcation. This regulation speciÞes that the criteria for classifying a medical device are to be based on the intended purpose and the form of operation of a medical device. Devices intended for laboratory use and in vitro diagnostic (IVD) reagents are classiÞed as medical devices. Should one medical device Þt in two classes at the same time, the higher one must be used (China ClassiÞcation pp. 1–3). For those medical devices to be used in combination with other devices, the classiÞcation of each part should be determined separately. Accessories for a medical device are classiÞed independently from the master device based on the accessories’ own characteristics. For those medical devices to be used on particular parts of the human body, the classiÞcation should be determined on the basis of the risks involved with the intended purpose of a device and its form of operation. Software that controls the functions of a medical device should be designated to the same class as its associated medical device. Those products that are designed to monitor or affect the major functions of a medical device should be designated to the same class as the device being monitored or affected. Devices intended for measuring and weighing or equipment that contains a major measurement component must comply with the relevant provisions of the Metrology Law of the People’s Republic of China (China MDR §6). MISBRANDING The SDA has the right to withdraw a product registration for a device if the applicant has made false statements in the registration dossier (China MDR §40). Since the product manual is provided as part of the registration, false or misleading statements in the labeling could be viewed by the SDA as false or forged statements in the product registration dossier. Likewise, lack of evidence to support a contention in the labeling could be viewed as a false statement, even if the statement was strictly true. Loss of the product registration would result in the manufacturer being prohibited from manufacturing or marketing the product in China.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

BRINGING DEVICES TO MARKET IN CHINA Any Þrm that intends to manufacture or import a medical device for sale in China should apply for product registration with a competent department of the Chinese government; products that are not registered cannot be sold (China MDR §35). The basic procedures and requirements for registering a product are outlined in the following sections. MEDICAL DEVICES MANUFACTURED

IN

CHINA

Medical devices manufactured in China are subject to regulation by the SDA or by an authorized agency of the municipal or provincial government* where the manufacturer is located. The governmental agency responsible for processing the registration application depends on the classiÞcation of the device. For devices in the Class III (highest) category, examination of the application is performed by the SDA. For devices in the Class II category, the application is examined and approved by the drug and medical device administration afÞliated with the provincial government where the manufacturer is located. For Class I (lowest) category devices, the application is examined and approved by the drug and medical device administration afÞliated with the municipal government where the manufacturer is located. For purposes of the regulation, a medical device whose Þnal production procedures are completed within China is considered a domestically produced device. Devices produced in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macao are examined by the SDA regardless of class (China Registration §3). Medical Device Registration

A manufacturer initiates the registration procedure for any product by submitting the proper registration application forms with the required accompanying documents to the local drug and medical device administration that has jurisdiction in the area where the manufacturer is located. The requirements for registration are covered in the SDA regulation, “Management Provisions on Registration of Medical Devices” (China Registration). The steps in processing the application depend on the classiÞcation of the device. The SDA has the authority to cancel the product registration certiÞcate for a device under the following conditions (China Registration §§25–29): • It is determined that any information in the registration dossier is false or misleading. • Labeling is changed to expand the scope of application and indications for the device without prior approval. • The safety and effectiveness of a device cannot be guaranteed because an imported device fails an SAIQ import inspection. • The SDA has concluded that another government entity has wrongly granted a registration certiÞcate. If a manufacturer ceases production of a medical device for more than two consecutive years, the registration certiÞcate is automatically invalidated. The manufacturer must apply for a new registration before reentering the market (China Registration §21). Class I Devices

For Class I devices, the application for registration is Þled with the local drug and medical device administration. The application must include (China Registration §5): * Provincial government includes the governments of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities under the direct control of the central government.

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159

the manufacturer’s qualiÞcation certiÞcate, speciÞcations for the medical device with related notes and explanations, a self-test report on the performance of the device, a description of the manufacturer’s production quality-management system, the instruction manual of the product, and a statement of guarantee on the authenticity of the materials submitted.

The local drug and medical device administration reviews the application and issues a registration certiÞcate that is sufÞcient to allow sale of the device in China. The registration certiÞcate is valid for a period of four years. Six months before the expiration of the certiÞcate, the manufacturer can apply for a four-year extension. Class II and III Devices

For Class II and III devices, the application for registration is Þled with the local drug and medical device administration. For Class II devices, the application is sent to the drug and medical device administration associated with the provincial government. For Class III devices, the application is forwarded to the SDA. Class I devices may proceed directly from registration to full production. However, domestically produced Class II and III devices must undergo a two-step procedure before full production is authorized. The steps are: 1. Trial production registration indicates that the basic safety and effectiveness of the product have been established (see “Investigational Use” later in this chapter). The trial production registration certiÞcate is valid for two years. During this time, the manufacturer will gather feedback from the product users. 2. Formal production registration indicates that (a) the safety and effectiveness of the product have been established, (b) the manufacturer’s quality system has been inspected, and (c) the product has achieved an acceptable level of Þeld performance as measured by the users’ quality feedback. Trial production registrations expire naturally at the end of the two-year term. The SDA has the right to terminate a trial production registration or a production permission registration at any time based on (a) postmarket surveillance of product quality, (b) user complaints, or (c) a determination that the applicant made false statements in the registration application or product dossier. The trial production application must include (China Registration §6): • • • • • •

The manufacturer’s qualiÞcation certiÞcate. A technical report on the product. An analysis on risks to safety presented by the product. SpeciÞcations on the medical device with related notes and explanations. A self-test report on the performance of the product. A test report on the medical device issued within one year (half a year for biological materials) by a testing institution certiÞed by the SDA. • Clinical trial reports from more than two clinical-trial bases. These reports must be provided in the manner stipulated by the Provisions on Report Items of Clinical Trials for Medical Device Registration.* The clinical trials must be conducted in compliance with the Provisions on Clinical Trials for Medical Device Products.

* Provisions on Report Items of Clinical Trials for Medical Device Registration appears as an appendix to State Drug Administration Decree No. 16 (China Registration).

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• The instruction manual for the product. • A statement of guarantee on the authenticity of the materials submitted. After seven months of trial production, the manufacturer can apply for formal production registration (China Registration §4(I)). The formal production application must include (China Registration §7): • • • • • •

the manufacturer’s qualiÞcation certiÞcate, copies of the registration certiÞcate for trial production, speciÞcations for the medical device, a report on improvements made during the trial production, a valid certiÞcate of inspection of the manufacturer’s quality system, a test report on the medical device issued within one year by a testing institution certiÞed by the SDA, • a quality-tracking (postmarket surveillance) report on the product, and • a statement of guarantee on the authenticity of the materials submitted.

If granted, the formal production registration is valid for four years. Six months before the expiration of the certiÞcate, the manufacturer can apply for a four-year extension. Under certain circumstances, a manufacturer may not have to wait seven months before applying for registration for formal production. After applying for a trial production registration, the manufacturer can immediately apply for formal production registration if the manufacturer has a quality system certiÞed by an agency designated by the SDA, and the medical device is equivalent to one already registered for full production, or the differences in structure or function of the device have no material impact on the safety or effectiveness of the device as compared to a device already registered for formal production (China Registration §10). When applying for renewal of any registration, the manufacture must provide a quality-tracking report on the product detailing postmarket-vigilance experience with the product. For Class II and III products, the manufacturer must also provide a test report issued within one year by a testing institution certiÞed by the SDA and a valid certiÞcate for inspection of the manufacturer’s quality system (China Registration §8). Drug/Device Combinations

A product that employs a drug in an ancillary role is registered as a medical device. However, the drug itself must be approved by the appropriate government agency and have a registration number before the drug/device combination is registered with the SDA. MEDICAL DEVICES IMPORTED

INTO

CHINA

Imported medical devices are examined and approved by the SDA regardless of the classiÞcation. An imported medical device is one whose Þnal production procedures are completed outside of China. Unlike other Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, or Thailand, China issues registration certiÞcation and licenses in the name of the manufacturer, not to the local agent or distributor. An incountry agent is not required to register a product in China. However, foreign manufacturers have found it difÞcult to conduct registration from overseas due to communications problems and other requirements. A locally based representative, distributor, or a specialized agency Þrm to manage product registration on behalf of the manufacturer is recommended (ITA, China p. 7).

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The application for registration is Þled with the local drug and medical device administration with jurisdiction over the locality where the manufacturer’s in-country agent is located. The application must be submitted in Chinese. Following some initial review, the application is forwarded to the SDA. The application must include the following information (China Registration §11): 1. Documentation demonstrating the manufacturer’s business qualiÞcation. (This could include incorporation documents, manufacturing permits, and other legal documents that prove that the manufacturer is qualiÞed to conduct business.) 2. The business license, incorporation documents, or other legally binding documents that prove the qualiÞcation of the manufacturer’s in-country agent to do business and represent the manufacturer. 3. A certiÞcate issued by the country (region) of origin indication that the medical device was approved or that permits the medical device to enter the market of that country (region) (e.g., US FDA CertiÞcate for Foreign Government [CFG] or CE mark CertiÞcate). 4. The technical speciÞcations for the device (i.e., the requirements on its safety and technical performance) and tests that the device must pass before shipment from the factory. The technical speciÞcations would include such items as: • a declaration of compliance with adopted standards (see the section on Medical Product Standards later in this chapter); and • the product characteristics as appropriate, such as material composition, physical and chemical characteristics, sterility, toxicity, biocompatibility, packaging and transport requirements, markings, and so on. For Class III devices, two copies of such technical speciÞcations shall be provided. 5. The instruction manual. 6. A test report on the medical device issued within one year (half a year for biological materials) by a testing institution certiÞed by the SDA. 7. Clinical-trial reports from more than two clinical-trial centers. These reports shall be provided in the manner stipulated by the Provisions on Report Items of Clinical Trials for Medical Device Registration. The clinical trials must be conducted in compliance with the Provisions on Clinical Trials for Medical Device Products. In most cases, the report of clinical trials conducted in the country of origin will be sufÞcient. However, the SDA can require on-shore clinical trials if there is reason to believe that the device may operate differently in the Chinese population or if quality problems have been identiÞed by market vigilance. 8. A statement issued by the manufacturer, guaranteeing that the quality of the product to be registered and sold in China will have the same quality as the product sold in the country (region) of origin. 9. A letter of authorization that designates after-sales service agencies in China and a letter from each agency demonstrating that it accepts the responsibility, along with legal documents demonstrating the qualiÞcations of the after-sales service agencies (i.e., their business license). 10. A statement of guarantee on the authenticity of the materials submitted. These documents must be in Chinese or be accompanied by a Chinese version. The documents mentioned in items 1, 2, and 3 may be submitted as photocopies, but they must be signed and sealed by the original issuing authorities or notarized by local notary ofÞcer. Other documents mentioned above must be submitted as originals that are signed or sealed by legal representatives.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

Once the SDA is satisÞed that the device meets the intended level of safety and clinical effectiveness, a product registration certiÞcate is issued. An application for import may be submitted to the custom service only after the registration certiÞcate for the product has been issued by the SDA (China MDR §11). The registration certiÞcate is valid for four years. An applicant can apply for renewal of the registration within six months of the expiration of the currently valid registration certiÞcate. The information required to accompany the application for renewal is essentially the same as that which must accompany the original applications except: • A copy of the original registration certiÞcate must accompany the application. • A new test report on the medical device issued within one year by a testing institution certiÞed by the SDA is required. • A quality-tracking report on the product must be included. A clinical report and the documentation on the qualiÞcations of the manufacturer’s in-country agent are not required in the renewal application. BUSINESS LICENSING

AND

QUALITY-SYSTEM APPROVAL

Enterprises dealing with medical devices must have a license issued by the drug and medical device administration afÞliated with the government of the province, autonomous region, or a municipality directly under the central government. Two types of licenses are issued: (a) a production license, and (b) an operation license. Both licenses are valid for Þve years and can be renewed upon expiration. Medical institutions are required to purchase medical devices from enterprises that have a valid production or operation license (China MDR §26). Production License

A production license is necessary for a medical device manufacturer in China. The Chinese Administration of Industry and Commerce will not issue a business license for the Þrm without this production license. The applicant for a production license must demonstrate through its application that it has (China MDR §19): • • • •

qualiÞed employees trained in the production of the device, facilities appropriate for the production of the device, appropriate equipment, and qualiÞed institutions or personnel and relevant equipment to carry out quality inspections of the manufactured devices.

For Class I medical device manufacturers, notiÞcation of the appropriate authority is required. For Class II and III device manufacturers, the application must be examined and approved by the appropriate authority. Operation License

Other businesses, such as importers and distributors, must have an operation license. The applicant for an operation license must demonstrate thorough its application that it has (China MDR §23):

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• facilities appropriate for conducting business and handling the medical devices, • qualiÞed personnel to carry out quality inspections of the devices, and • the capacity to provide after-sales services such as technical training and maintenance. For enterprises handling Class I devices, notiÞcation of the appropriate authority is required. For enterprises handling Class II and III devices, the application must be examined and approved by the appropriate authority. Quality System

Since July 1995, manufacturers of Class II and III medical devices must undergo review and approval of their quality systems before they can complete registration of their devices. Examination and approval of the manufacturer’s quality system are the responsibility of the certiÞcation agencies on quality systems designated by the SDA. For Class II and III devices manufactured in China, the manufacturer must complete the examination of its quality system before applying for formal production registration (China Registration §9). For imported Class III devices, the foreign manufacturer’s facility will need to complete an on-site inspection of its production quality system as part of the registration process. An on-site inspection will be required every four years. If the same type of device is covered by a quality system that has passed an on-site inspection within four years, a second inspection is not required (China Registration §13). The manufacturer of a Class II or III medical device can apply for an exemption from the qualitysystem inspection requirement if (China Registration §15): • a domestic manufacturer has a valid “CertiÞcate of GB/T19001+YY/T0287” or “GB/T19002+YY/T0288” issued by a certiÞcation agency on quality systems designated by the SDA, and the medical device being registered is covered by the certiÞed system; or • a foreign manufacturer has been approved by the responsible regulatory authority in the country of origin and its quality system has been certiÞed to ISO 9000 (or equivalent) within the term of validity of the regulatory approval. REGISTRATION CERTIFICATE ALTERATION If there is a change in the contents of a registration certiÞcate, the manufacturer must apply to the authority issuing the registration for modiÞcation or reregistration within thirty days of the change in circumstances (China MDR §13). Four circumstances that would require modiÞcation or reregistration are (China Registration §19): 1. A manufacturer changes the business name on a registration certiÞcate due to renaming or merger. The manufacturer must apply for alteration of the registration certiÞcate by submitting an application report, its new business license, and a certiÞcate issued by the local drug and medical device administration. 2. A new product name is to be used for a registered product. The manufacturer must apply for alteration of the registration certiÞcate by submitting an application report to the relevant authorities.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

3. A lost or damaged registration certiÞcate. The manufacturer must reapply for the same registration certiÞcate by submitting to the appropriate authority an application report and a statement to assume relevant legal liabilities. 4. A change of production location. The manufacturer must apply for a new registration certiÞcate. A valid certiÞcate for the manufacturer’s quality system at the new location must be submitted with the registration. The original serial number assigned for the product is still valid, but a gèng ( ), meaning altered, is added at the end of the original serial number. The issue date of the new registration certiÞcate is the date when the alteration was approved. However, the expiration date is the same as the original certiÞcate. The original certiÞcate is revoked when the renewal certiÞcate is issued. COMPULSORY PRODUCT CERTIFICATION SYSTEM (CPCS) In addition to registering a product, a foreign manufacturer of any of the seven categories of medical devices listed in the CPCS catalog must obtain a safety certiÞcate. The CPCS is jointly administered by the SAIQ, who formulates the needed regulations, and the CNCA, who supervises the certiÞcation process. As part of its responsibilities, the CNCA selects and accredits the Designated CertiÞcation Bodies (DCB) who perform the actual testing and certiÞcation of products. Another of CNCA’s responsibilities is to specify the certiÞcation model applicable for any product in the CPCS catalog (CPS Reg §§6–7). The certiÞcation models identiÞed in the regulation are (CPS Reg §12): • • • • • •

design appraisal, type testing, testing or inspection of samples taken from factories, testing or inspection of samples taken from the market, assessment of the manufacturer’s quality-assurance system (QA), and follow-up inspection of certiÞed products.

The manufacturer, importer, wholesaler, or retailer can apply to a DCB to have a product certiÞed. When the importer, wholesaler, or retailer acts as an applicant, they should provide a copy of the contract with the manufacturer, along with the application forms, required technical documents, and samples (CPS Reg §§6–7). The cost incurred for the registration is borne by the applicant based on a fee chart for the services required (CNCA p. 4). The product certiÞcation requires all or part of the following steps to be taken (CPS Reg §12): • • • • • •

Acceptance of the application by the DCB Type testing Factory inspection Sampling and testing Evaluation of the certiÞcation results and approval of certiÞcation Follow-up inspection

Once issued, the certiÞcate serves as valid documentation to indicate that the product meets requirements and the China Compulsory CertiÞcation (CCC) mark can be applied (CPS Reg §16). The CCC mark exists in two forms (CCC Mark §7):

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A

B1

B

A1

Source: CCC mark, Figure 3

FIGURE 11.2 Basic CCC mark.

1. The basic or core design is illustrated in Figure 11.2. The design can appear in one of Þve standard dimensions. These are given in Table 11.1. When needed, an irregular-size mark may be used as long as it is proportional to the standard size. 2. The core design with a small capital letter(s) to the right as illustrated in Figure 11.3. The letter(s) reßects the type of certiÞcation. For example, “S” represents safety. The CNCA will design and announce additional letters as required. A

S

B1

B

A1

Source: CCC mark, Figure 3.

FIGURE 11.3 Basic CCC mark indicating type of certiÞcate.

TABLE 11.1 Specification for Standard-Size CCC Mark Standard-Size Categories (Dimensions in mm) Size

1

2

3

4

5

A A1 B B1

8 7.5 6.3 5.8

15 14 11.8 10.8

30 28 23.5 21.5

45 42 35.3 32.3

60 56 47 43

Source: CCC mark, Table 1.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

Standard-size CCC marks are printed only by the CNCA-authorized printing houses and are purchased by the manufacturer for application to the outer body of the certiÞed product. If it is not feasible to apply the CCC mark to the body of the product, it must be applied to the smallest packaging of the product(s) and indicated in the accompanying documents(s) (CCC Mark §11). The standard-size CCC mark is a black design on a white background (CCC Mark §10). The CCC mark may be printed, pressed, molded, screen-printed, painted, etched, carved, stamped, or sealed on a product or the nameplate of the product. A manufacturer who wishes to take this approach must submit the design to a CNCA-designated agency and can only produce the mark with the Þnal approval of the CNCA (CCC Mark §15). The applicant must pay the administrative charges if the CCC mark is printed, pressed, molded, screen-printed, painted, etched, carved, stamped, or sealed on a product or the nameplate of the product. If the manufacturer chooses this option, the color of the background and that of the design can be reasonably altered to match the appearance of the product or the nameplate of the product (CCC Mark §10). Domestic manufacturers must apply the CCC mark after receiving the certiÞcation but before the product is allowed out of the factory. For imported products, the CCC mark must be applied after the certiÞcation is received but before they are imported into China. MEDICAL PRODUCT STANDARDS The Chinese system assigns a signiÞcant role to standards as an element of the overall regulatory process. In China, medical product standards are classiÞed into national standards, industrial standards, and registered-product standards. National or industrial standards are those that are adopted by the state; they unify technical requirements nationwide. Registered-product standards are those formulated by the manufacturer to ensure the safety of products. The process for managing the process of developing national and industrial standards and reviewing product standards is set out in a decree from the SDA entitled, Measures for the Management of Medical Appliance Standards (China Standards). The SDA is responsibile for organizing the drafting of national standards for medical devices and for organizing the development and promulgation of the industrial standards for medical devices. The SDA also is responsibile for examining and approving registered-product standards for imported medical devices as well as the registered-product standards for Class III medical devices manufactured within the territories of the PRC. To discharge this responsibility, the SDA will organize and supervise standardization technical committees in the medical device specialties, oversee the transformation of international standards, and conduct external exchange on standardization efforts (China Standards §5). The drug and medical device administration associated with the government of the provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government are responsible for supervising the implementation of medical device standards within the administrative regions. In addition, they are responsible for examining registered-product standards for Class II devices manufactured within their jurisdiction and for the preliminary review of the registered-product standards for Class III devices manufactured within their jurisdiction. The municipal drug and medical device administration is responsible for examining registered-product standards for Class I devices manufactured within their jurisdiction. A registered-product standard must meet the requirements of the relevant national standard(s) and industrial standard(s), and the related laws, rules, and regulations. The manufacturer should submit the text of the registered-product standard as well as an explanation of the following points when applying for product registration (China Standards §14):

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xxx/xx xxxxx xxxx Year of release Serial number of registered-product standard Shortened form of the location of the standard-examination organization (for imported products, the three English letters of the country of origin) Code number of the registered-product standard Source: China Standards §17

FIGURE 11.4 Registered-product standard code number layout.

• Have the materials in touch with the human body been used clinically and has their safety and reliability been proven? • Provide a list of the related standards and materials cited or referred to in the product standard. • Describe the basis for determination of the device’s classiÞcation. • Provide a product overview and basis for determining major technical clauses. • Include a product self-testing report. • Include the background of other contents in the standard that may need more explanation. Once the examination is complete, the reviewing authority assigns a code number. The code number of a registered-product standard is composed of the code name of the registered-product standard, the shortened form of the location of the standard-examination organization (nationality for imported products), a serial number, and the year of registration. For medical devices manufactured within the territories of the PRC, the shortened form of the location of the standard-examination organization will be one or two Chinese characters. These characters encode (a) the country, province, autonomous region, and municipality directly under the central authority, or (b) the province or autonomous region plus the municipality. For imported products, the shortened form of nationality is presented in three English letters, corresponding to the country of origin of the imported medical device. Figure 11.4 illustrates the layout of a registeredproduct standard code number. POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE China has established systems for reporting and publicizing accidents caused by medical devices of poor quality. The provisions of these systems are to be jointly established by the SDA and the public health administration and family planning administration afÞliated with the state council. MEDICAL DEVICES EXPORTED

FROM

CHINA

A party who desires to export a medical device manufactured in China must apply for a CertiÞcate of Free Sales. The manufacturer should provide the following documents when applying for a CertiÞcate of Free Sales: • • • •

An application for export approval The Chinese and English names of the product for export and its manufacturer A brief introduction to the product Documents submitted for domestic-market-clearance registration or the relevant certiÞcate for a product production license • Reports of product testing performed within one year of the application

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

Once these documents have been examined and veriÞed, the CertiÞcate of Free Sales will be issued. The SDA has the right to cancel a CertiÞcate of Free Sales based on complaints from abroad about the device. Evidence of false or misleading statements in the application constitutes reasonable justiÞcation for cancellation of a CertiÞcate of Free Sales. INVESTIGATIONAL USE Before a Class II or III medical device enters the market, it is appropriate for the manufacturer to demonstrate that the device achieves the desired safety and clinical effectiveness under normal conditions of operation. The Chinese government considers clinical investigations an important factor in the process of granting market clearance for a medical device. The clinical investigation study and reporting requirements for Class II and various types of Class III devices are described in the Provisions on Report Items of Clinical Trials for Medical Device Registration. For imported devices, the clinical studies used to support approval in the country of origin may be accepted. However, a panel of specialists selected by the Chinese government will review the report. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION The Chinese government exercises control over the advertising of medical devices under the provisions of Article 34 of the Regulation on Supervision and Administration of Medical Devices. In particular, the SDA is concerned about companies mislabeling or incorrectly identifying products in order to circumvent government regulations. An example that is frequently cited is a company that attempts to circumvent the government limit on the number of Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) scanners imported into China. Companies have mislabeled products or shipped components under different names in order to exceed that limit. Advertising is broadly deÞned as the release of information about a medical device using radio, Þlm, television, newspapers, periodicals, and other media. Advertisements for medical devices must be examined and approved by the drug and medical device administrations afÞliated with the governments above the provincial level. Advertisements without such approval may not be published, broadcast, circulated, or posted. The content of medical device advertising must be strictly in compliance with the relevant instruction manuals approved by the SDA or the drug and medical device administrations afÞliated with the governments of relevant provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government. GENERAL LABELING PROVISIONS When examining the product labeling, the SDA will pay particular attention to the clinical veriÞcation of the indications for use (IFU). The SDA will also look for evidence that the technical performance of the device has been veriÞed. Finally, the SDA will check to make certain the IFU contain explicit directions, precautions, and warnings so that the device can be used safely for its intended purpose. PRODUCT MANUAL The labeling provisions of the medical device regulations focus on the content of the technical manual. In the guide for product registration, the CertiÞcation Commission for Medical Devices (CMD) identiÞed 11 topics that should be covered in the product manual. They are listed below.

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169

yào guan xiè xiè

(X) XXXX X XX XXXX

(X)

Mode of production (trial or formal) Abbreviation of the location of the registering authority Year of registration Type of medical device Expiration year for trial production or Product-type code for formal production Registration serial number

FIGURE 11.5 Form of the registration number for medical products produced in China.

• • • • • • • • • • •

A description of the technical performance of the device The principles of operation of the device The method of application The indications for use A description of clinical effectiveness The period of validity (i.e., “use before” date), when appropriate (see “The Chinese Calendar” later in this chapter) Contraindications describing when the device should not be used Appropriate warnings and precautions describing serious adverse reactions, potential safety hazards, and any special care to be exercised by the practitioner Any instructions for maintenance and repair, if appropriate Any storage and transport requirements for the device Packaging and accessories

THE ACKNOWLEDGMENT SYMBOL

FOR

MEDICAL EQUIPMENT

When the registration process has been completed, the reviewing authority issues a registration number. The form of the registration number depends on whether the product is domestically produced or imported. For domestic products, the form of the registration number is illustrated in Figure 11.5, and for imported products in Figure 11.6. The registration number is to be placed on the medical device and its external package. When marking on the device is not practical, for example, on an implanted device, it may be acceptable to place the registration number on the package label and in the instruction manual. The Chinese have also developed a product mark known as the “CMD” symbol after the China CertiÞcation Commission for Medical Devices (CMD) (see Figure 11.7). The symbol indicates that the manufacturer’s QA system has been examined and approved. At the time this chapter was written, a CMD mark was not required in China. There is no minimum size requirement for the CMD symbol. THE CHINESE LANGUAGE Chinese is the principal language of eastern Asia and is spoken by more people than any other primary language in the world. There are a number of major dialects. However, the northern or

170

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

gu

y

guan j n

( ) XXXX X XXXX

Year of registration Type of medical device Registration serial number Source: China Registration p. 2

FIGURE 11.6 Form of the registration number for imported products.

Source: Xi Xianmin to Charles Sidebottom via Terri Zavada, Embassy of the United States of America, Beijing, China, facsimile transmittion of March 6, 1996.

FIGURE 11.7 China certiÞcation commission for medical devices (CMD) mark.

“Mandarin” dialect is spoken by over 70 percent of Chinese people. This national language is known in China as putonghua, or “common speech.” Putonghua is taught in schools and used in universities and colleges throughout China. The majority of television, radio, and motion picture programs are made in putonghua (ScurÞeld p. viii). CHINESE WRITING Chinese is the oldest written language in common use today. The language is essentially monosyllabic with one character representing one idea. As the number of ideas that needed to be expressed expanded, so did the number of characters in the written language. Beginning in the last century, various Chinese governments have attempted to reduce the number of characters in common use and to simplify the remaining characters. This effort has continued under the present government, which has simpliÞed more than 2,000 of the characters in general use. Until the founding of the PRC in 1949, the structure of the Chinese characters had remained essentially unchanged for almost 2,000 years. Characters have changed mainly in the style of strokes, without altering the basic structure. The most commonly used form is the k’ai or “regular form,” in which most books are printed. The running hand and cursive hand are used for personal notes and calligraphic purposes (Britannica, Chinese p. 633). The written language does not have a phonetic alphabet but various systems have been devised for transcribing Chinese sounds into Latin script. The form in use today is known as pinyin, or “spell sounds.” The PRC ofÞcially adopted pinyin in 1958 (ScurÞeld p. ix).

People’s Republic of China

171

August 18, 2002 èr lìng lìng èr

ba

shí

ba

Year (nián) Month (yué) Day (rì)

2002

8 18

Source: Scurfield p. 160

FIGURE 11.8 Examples of Chinese dates.

THE CHINESE CALENDAR Traditionally, China has used the lunar calendar, which is divided into twelve months of either 29 or 30 days. The alternating cycle compensates for the lunar month’s mean duration of 29 days, 12 hours, and 44.05 minutes. The calendar is synchronized to the solar calendar by the addition of extra months at Þxed intervals. The beginning of the lunar year is Þxed at the second new moon of the winter solstice as seen in China. Therefore, the new year begins between January 21 and February 19 of the Gregorian Calendar. For example, the year 2002 is known as the Year of the Horse (Lunar Year 4700) and began on February 12, 2002. Both the Western (Gregorian) Calendar and the traditional lunar calendars are used publicly in China (World Almanac p. 312). However, while both calendars are in common use, the order of the date is the reverse of that used in the United States: year, month, day. In Chinese, you move from the general to the particular. The year is read as individual numbers followed by the word nián ( ), “year.” The month is read as a number followed by the word yuè ( ), “month.” The day is read as a number followed by the word rì ( ), “day.” Rì is used in formal written Chinese, whereas hào ( ) is commonly used in the spoken language (ScurÞeld p. 160). Therefore, a date such as August 18, 2002, would be written in Chinese as illustrated in Figure 11.8. Figure 11.8 also illustrates a mixed form of Arabic and Chinese characters that is sometimes used. THINGS TO REMEMBER The SDA is the agency of the Chinese central government that is responsible for the registration of medical products and the development of the medical products industry. The SDA does not have exclusive jurisdiction over all aspects of the approval process. Depending on the product, there can be several other Chinese agencies involved in granting approval. Certain medical devices are subject to the CPCS and are required to bear CCC mark. The CPCS is jointly administered by the AQSIQ and the CNCA. Although the SDA retains overall authority, responsibility for supervision and administration of certain provisions of the China MDR are delegated to other levels of government within the PRC. Responsibility for dealing with domestically produced, low-risk medical devices is assigned to municipal governments. Responsibility for domestically produced, medium-risk devices is assigned to the government of the provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central

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government. The SDA retains responsibility for domestically produced, high-risk devices and for registration of all imported products. The SDA derives its authority from an order of the State Council of the PRC. The Regulation on Supervision and Administration of Medical Devices (China MDR) was adopted in council on December 18, 1999, and became effective on April 1, 2000. China maintains a three-tier classiÞcation system for medical devices that is similar to the riskbased systems in other countries. The organization responsible for supervision of the device will depend on its classiÞcation. The need for third-party product testing, quality-system review, and clinical data to support the registration application also depends on the classiÞcation. Products that apply pharmacological principals through the use of drugs, even though the drugs do not play the principal role, are considered medical devices in China. Devices intended for laboratory use and IVD reagents are classiÞed as medical devices. Should one medical device Þt in two classes at the same time, the higher one must be used. At this time, China’s interest in product labeling is focused primarily on the product manual. The manufacturer is required to submit the product manual as part of the registration application. When examining the product labeling, the authorities will pay particular attention to the clinical veriÞcation of the indications for use. The CMD will also look for evidence that the technical performance of the device has been veriÞed by the required testing. Finally, the authorities will check that the IFU contain explicit directions, precautions, and warnings so that the device can be used safely for the intended purpose. The SDA has the right to withdraw a product registration for a device if the applicant has made false statements in the registration dossier. Since the product manual is provided as part of the registration, false or misleading statements in the labeling could be viewed by the SDA as a false or forged statement in the product-registration dossier. The Chinese government exercises control over the advertising of medical devices under the provisions of Article 34 of the Regulation on Supervision and Administration of Medical Devices. Advertising is broadly deÞned as the release of information about a medical device using radio, Þlm, television, newspapers, periodicals, and other media. Other media are interpreted by the SDA to include product manuals and brochures.

12 Republic of Korea The medical device market in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) is growing at a rate of 10–15 percent annually. With a medical device market of over one billion US dollars, South Korea is one of the most rapidly growing markets for medical technology in all of Asia. South Korea is seeing growth in both domestic production of medical devices and the import of medical technology. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW Until 1995, the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) managed the requirements for evaluation and testing of medical devices prior to entry into the market under the pharmaceutical law. In 1993, Dr. Hwal SUH, a researcher in medical materials, petitioned the National Assembly of Korea to establish a new Special Regulatory System for Testing and Evaluation for Implantable Devices. According to Dr. SUH, a new regulatory system was needed because the pharmaceutical law was not suitable to regulate the currently developed biochemical and physiologically functioning implantable devices. In 1994, the MOHW launched a special committee to prepare regulations for medical devices separate from the pharmaceutical law. These regulations were modeled on the system in the United States and emphasize local testing of products. After approval at the National Assembly, the Þrst medical device regulations became effective on January 1, 1995. The regulations are intended to screen new products for safety and efÞcacy before they are allowed on the Korean market. The increased regulation of medical devices was prompted by recent concerns about certain medical devices combined with increased consumer pressure. Almost immediately after implementing the regulations, the South Korean government began a process to restructure the approach to regulating medical devices. The regulations have been revised twice. The Þrst revision occurred in 1997. This restructuring was intended to achieve two objectives: (1) to bring the system closer into conformity with international practice for regulating medical devices; and (2) to lay the foundations for improving quality and enhancing the international competitiveness of the Korean medical device industry. The 1997 revisions were intended to improve the process in four areas: 1. Introduce a three-tiered classiÞcation system for medical devices based on the degree of risk to the patient. The approval and management procedures would be different for each classiÞcation. Class I products would involve the lowest level of risk and would only require that the MOHW be notiÞed before the product could be manufactured or imported and sold. Class II and Class III devices would be subject to review and approval before they could be sold in Korea. Only for Class III products would safety and effectiveness data be submitted with the premarket approval application. 2. Establish and implement Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines based on the ISO 9000 quality system. Initially, GMP would be voluntary, but eventually all domestic and foreign manufacturers would be required to comply. 3. Streamline the testing procedures for foreign manufacturers that satisfy ISO 9000 or equivalent quality-system standards. 4. Supplement the current postmarketing surveillance system.

173

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

In 1997, South Korea became a voting member of a number of the International Standards Organization (ISO) Technical Committees that deal with medical products. South Korea hopes to use these standards as part of its testing protocols to help in harmonizing the Korean regulations with those of other major markets. In 1998, the Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) was made an independent executive agency of the government. The KFDA is the principal government agency whose mission is to ensure that foods are safe, sound, wholesome, and well labeled and that medicines are safe and effective with all possible side effects detected. The KFDA is also responsible for regulating cosmetics, vaccines, blood products, medical devices, and radiation-emitting products. The KFDA has the authority to require that the manufacturer present both preclinical and clinical data establishing the safety and quality of any medical device sold in South Korea. This requirement applies to both products manufactured in South Korea and those imported into the country. Preclinical data must be provided according to the Guideline of Testing and Evaluation for Medical Devices. Only products that have been approved through this procedure may be used in clinical testing that follows the Guideline of Clinical Trials for Medical Device. In 2000, a new law entitled Act for Medical Device Regulatory System replaced the medical device regulations. The new law was intended to further streamline the process and provide a base for new guidelines. By 2001, Þve regulatory guidelines related to the licensing of medical devices in South Korea had been published. They are: • Guideline of the Appointment for Medical Devices, which deals with classiÞcation of the devices; • Guideline of the Safety and Effect Assessment for Medical Devices dealing with documentation and the process necessary to register; • Guideline of Permission for Medical Devices, which includes conditions for registration and licensing of the devices, and for registration of the testing agencies; • Guideline of the General Standard of Biological Safety for Medical Devices, which deals with testing Class II and III devices that directly contact the body; and • Guideline of Clinical Trials for Medical Devices, which regulates clinical trials. SCOPE OF THE REGULATIONS The South Korean medical device regulations are intended to regulate the sale of products manufactured in or imported into the Republic of Korea. According to the Guideline of the Appointment for Medical Devices, all the devices are classiÞed into one of three classes (see Table D.1 in Appendix D). Because of their simplicity or low risk to the patient, devices in Class I are exempted from the necessity of product testing and are subject to premarket registration only. Any medical device that is of the same type, or is substantially equivalent to the listed device, is also subject to premarket registration, according to the Guideline of the Safety and Effect Assessment for Medical Devices and the Guideline of Permission for Medical Devices. Devices in Classes II and III are subject to testing before the product is initially placed on the market. In addition, imported products in these categories are subject to testing on each shipment entering the country. The requirements for testing of Class II and III devices are set in the Guideline of the General Standard of Biological Safety for Medical Devices and the Guideline of Clinical Trials for Medical Devices. Under the Guideline of Clinical Trials for Medical Devices, any Class II or III medical device that is directly connected to the body or creates a possibility of hazard to the body must be tested under a study in more than two registered testing hospitals and supervised

Republic of Korea

175

by an Institutional Research Board. The clinical trial must adhere to the Guideline for Good Clinical Practice (GCP), which is governed by the Central Committee of Pharmaceutical Affairs, before the device can be approval by the KFDA. LABELING AND ADVERTISING At the present time, the advertising and promotion of medical devices is strictly regulated under the provisions of the medical device regulations. Advertising can promote only the indications registered and approved by the KFDA on the label. BRINGING DEVICES TO MARKET IN KOREA South Korean regulations require that the person holding the registration for a medical device must be a legal resident of Korea. For imported products, it is the local distributor, not the manufacturer, who applies for and serves as the legal holder of the medical device registration. Multiple distributors can hold approvals for a single product. Each distributor must undergo the full product-approval process and bear the full cost of the process. Alternatively, a “principal distributor” or an independent consultant holds the approval and the other distributors “share” the registration. The manufacturer can choose the approach that best Þts its business plan. Imported medical devices must be approved for sale in the country where they are manufactured before the KFDA will consider them for registration (ITA, Korea p. 1). A CertiÞcate of Free Sale or CertiÞcate of Product for Export from the country where the device was manufactured must be submitted as part of the registration package. A manufacturer or importer that wishes to bring a product to market in Korea must register the product with the KFDA. There are two pathways to obtaining marketing clearance. PREMARKET NOTIFICATION Registration of Class I devices requires that the manufacturer or importer submit an application to the KFDA district ofÞce of the region where the manufacturer’s or importer’s main ofÞce is located. If the KFDA district ofÞce decides to accept the registration application, a certiÞcate of completed notiÞcation is issued. This certiÞcate allows the product to be distributed in South Korea (ITA, Korea p. 3). PREMARKET APPROVAL Class II and III devices are subject to premarket approval by the KFDA. The premarket approval process involves a more rigorous documentary review followed by a product “type test” in a KFDAauthorized laboratory (ITA, Korea p. 4). The manufacturer or importer begins the process by Þling an application in Korean with the KFDA’s Medical Device Evaluation Department (MDED). The MDED reviews the application to evaluate the manufacturer’s quality standards for materials or Þnished products. Most products that are evaluated by the MDED are essentially the same as those already on the market. These products do not require a safety and effectiveness review, so once the MDED completes the quality review, the product can undergo a product type test. When products with new-to-market features in terms of materials, mechanism of action, usage, or effectiveness are submitted for registration, the KFDA may require a safety and effectiveness review. The safety and effectiveness review looks at a variety of data including information about the device, including the structure, physiochemical and biological properties, toxicity data, basic-

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TABLE 12.1 KFDA Authorized Testing Agencies Authorized Testing Agency

Device Type

Korea Testing Laboratory (KTL) Korea Testing & Research Institute for Chemical Industry (KOTRIC) Korea Electric Testing Institute (KETI) Korea Merchandise Testing and Research Institute (KOMTRI) Seoul National University Hospital Clinical Trial Center Yonsei University Hospital Medical Technology Evaluation Center Yonsei University Dental College, Dental Products Testing & Evaluation Center Kyung-hee Univ. Dental College, Open Laboratories for Dental Products

QualiÞed to test all medical devices 14 product groups, including implants and supplies 27 product groups, including electric/electronic devices 14 product groups, including medical supplies 11 product groups, including implanted devices and supplies 11 product groups, including implanted devices and supplies Dental devices only Dental devices only

Source: ITA, Korea

safety data, clinical-study data, an so on. When the MDED completes both the quality and the safety and effectiveness review, the product can undergo a product type test. Testing of Class II and III medical devices is mandatory before a product is approved. The manufacturer or importer prepares a product dossier in Korean. The dossier is submitted to a KFDAauthorized testing laboratory. The KFDA has eight authorized laboratories to test medical devices. The laboratories are listed in Table 12.1 along with the device types for which they are qualiÞed. For imported products, the test laboratory reviews any foreign test data that may be available. At its discretion, the test laboratory may decide to recognize foreign test reports and to forego local type testing of imported products. Once the review process has been completed, the testing agency issues a CertiÞcate of ConÞrmation and a CertiÞcate of ConÞrmation of Standards and Testing Methods. The agency sends the dossier to the KFDA for Þnal review and approval. The KFDA has the authority to approve or to reject the application and ask the manufacturer to have additional tests by the test laboratory. CLINICAL TRIALS When clinical trails are required, The KFDA prefers trials conducted at one or more of the South Korean institutions listed in Table 12.2. Foreign clinical studies may be accepted in lieu of local trials. The KFDA requires that such studies be conducted according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP). The KFDA prefers that the Þnal study report be published by a reputable professional journal listed in the Science Citation Index. The KFDA will consider unpublished study reports to determine acceptability, depending on GCP compliance and the reputation of the research organization. IMPORTING PRODUCTS For products imported into South Korea, additional steps are required. The manufacturer, or the manufacturer’s in-country agent must submit an Import NotiÞcation to the Korean Medical Instrument and Industry Corporation (KMIIC), a local trade organization. Originally, the regulations called for the import notiÞcation to include quantity and unit-price information. This provision was stricken from the Þnal regulations. The CertiÞcate of ConÞrmation and the CertiÞcate of ConÞrmation of Standards and Testing Methods must accompany the Import NotiÞcation. Once the KMIIC returns stamped certiÞcates to the person submitting the application, the product may be imported into South Korea. However, before the imported product can be sold, it may need to undergo further testing. The Class I product groups listed in Table D.1 in Appendix D are exempt from product testing. However, each shipment of products in the Class II and III product groups listed in Table D.1 in Appendix D

Republic of Korea

177

TABLE 12.2 KFDA Clinical Trial Agencies Yonsei MTEC, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea Yeongdong Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, Seoul Korea Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea Catholic Medical Center, Catholic University, Seoul, Korea Korea University Hospital, Seoul, Korea Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea Seoul Chung-Ang Medical Center, Seoul, Korea Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea Hanlim University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea Cha Medical Center, Seoul, Korea Inha University Hospital, Gyeongki-do, Korea Sooncheonhyang University Medical Center, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea Dankook University Hospital, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea Chonbuk National University Hospital, Cheollabuk-do, Korea Chonnam National University Hospital, Cheollanam-do, Korea Kyeongbuk National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea Yeongnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea Busan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea Inje University Hospital, Keongsangnam-do, Korea Source: Dr. Hwal SUH.

must undergo testing on each shipment that enters Korea. All other products must be tested on the Þrst shipment into South Korea, but are exempted on subsequent shipments. Once the product shipment clears customs, it must be quarantined until testing is completed by the appropriate KFDA-authorized testing agency. The report of the testing agency is submitted to and approved by the KFDA. The approval of quality from the KFDA is submitted to the KMIIC. Once conÞrmation has been received from the KMIIC, the product can be released from quarantine and is available for distribution. The content of the Korean labeling, including package inserts, sample stickers, or draft labels, is to be included with the report. For the second and later imports, this requirement is waived. GRANDFATHERED PRODUCTS Products that were sold in South Korea before January 1, 1995, are “grandfathered” under the provisions of the Korean medical device regulations. The manufacturer or the manufacturer’s incountry agent can register these products by submitting to the appropriate KFDA-authorized testing agency the following (Larkin pp. 6–7): • A CertiÞcate of Free Sale or CertiÞcate of Product for Export from the country where the device was manufactured. • A certiÞcate indicating that the product has been sold for more than three years, or at least 50 pieces have been imported into South Korea. • For implanted products, records showing that the product has been sold to two or more medical institutions in South Korea plus evidence demonstrating the safety of the products. The CertiÞcate of Free Sale or CertiÞcate of Product for Export must be notarized and consularized by the South Korean Council in the territory of the exporter’s home country. For grandfathered products, the local testing requirement is waived.

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GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LABELING OF MEDICAL DEVICES The common feature of most labeling requirements in South Korea is that key information must be provided in Korean. This information includes the directions for use and sufÞcient information to enable the user to identify the device, its manufacturer, importer, and/or distributor, and, when applicable, the device’s expiration date. ADEQUATE DIRECTIONS

FOR

USE

Medical devices must be labeled to provide a statement of the purposes for which the device is intended by the manufacturer. This statement must include the directions, dosage, or other information necessary for the use and handling of the device. It should also include an explanation of the device performance, as well as any warnings, cautions, contraindications, and possible side effects. PACKAGE LABEL According to Guideline of Permission for Medical Devices, the unit, shelf, or shipper package label must include the following information: • • • • • • • •

Description of the device Name of the manufacturer Directions for use Lot or serial number of the product Date of manufacture Expiration date, when applicable Sterilization date, when applicable Description of package contents, expressed as weight, volume, or packaging unit

For imported products, the description of the device, the name and nationality of the manufacturer, the name and address of the importer, the name and address of the distributor, the directions for use, and the description of package contents must appear on the label in Korean. This information must be printed by the manufacturer or stickered by the importer in characters sufÞciently large to be easily read by the consumer. If the container or package is too small to include all these items, the directions for use, the date of manufacture, and the description of the package contents may be deleted from the on-product label and placed in a separate package insert. If the product is very small and sold without packaging, the entire contents of the Korean label can be placed on a separate tag or leaßet that is provided along with each product. Separate from the KFDA regulations, South Korean commercial regulations require that the country of origin be marked on the product and the package. In case of a device that bears no space to mark the country of origin or if the marking itself disturbs the biocompatibility of the product, especially in implants, marking only on the package and label is permitted. THINGS TO REMEMBER In 1995, South Korea joined the growing number of nations that require evaluation and testing of some medical devices by a competent authority in the country before products are allowed on the market. The South Korean medical device regulations are intended to regulate the sale of products manufactured in or imported into the Republic of Korea after January 1, 1995.

Republic of Korea

179

The new regulations emphasize local testing of products. Class I product groups, because of simplicity or low risk to the patient, are exempted from the necessity of product testing. However, the devices in Class II and III product categories listed in Table D.1 in Appendix D are subject to testing before the product is initially placed on the market. In addition, imported products in these categories are subject to testing on each shipment entering the country. At the present time, the advertising and promotion of medical devices is Þrmly regulated under the provisions of the medical device regulations. A manufacturer or importer that wishes to bring a product to market in Korea must register the product and have it examined by a testing agency authorized by the KFDA. For products imported into South Korea, additional steps are required. The manufacturer or the manufacturer’s in-country agent must submit an Import NotiÞcation to the KMIIC. However, before the imported product can be sold, it may need to undergo testing. The Class I product groups listed in Table D.1 in Appendix D are exempted from product testing. Each shipment of products in the Class II and III product groups in Table D.1 in Appendix D must undergo testing on each shipment that enters Korea. All other products must be tested on the Þrst shipment into South Korea, but are exempted on subsequent shipments. Products that were sold in South Korea before January 1, 1995, are “grandfathered” under the provisions of the Korean medical device regulations. Medical devices must be labeled to provide a statement of the purposes for which the device is intended by the manufacturer. This statement must include the directions, dosage, or other information necessary for the use and handling of the device. The Korean regulations specify requirements for the unit, shelf, or shipper package label. Some of this information must appear in Korean. Separate from the MOHW regulations, the South Korean commercial regulations require that the country of origin be marked on the product and package.

13 Thailand The Kingdom of Thailand is one of the fastest growing markets for medical devices in Southeast Asia. Thailand has created a strong export economy and a positive balance of trade that has continued to grow despite the general Asian economic downturn of the late 1990s. The growth in the economy has enabled the Thai government to increase spending on public health. In 2000, the Thai government was spending 9.2 percent of its national budget on public health (Britannica, 2002 p. 722). The Thai Ministry of Public Health has the primary responsibility for ensuring that food, drugs, narcotic substances, medical devices, and household hazardous substances available to consumers are of standard quality, efÞcacy, and safety. The Thai government controls the sale of medical devices under the Medical Device Act of Thailand (Thai MDA). Under the provisions of the Medical Device Act, a medical device is (Thai MDA §3): 1. equipment, products, or articles used by the medical profession, in the profession of nursing and midwifery, in the clinical practice of medicine, or in veterinary practice as prescribed by the legislation concerned; 2. equipment, products, or articles that have effects on the health, the structure, or any function of the human or animal body; 3. constituents, components, accessories, or parts of the equipment, products, or articles under (1) or (2); or 4. other equipment, products, or articles prescribed by the Ministry as medical devices by publication in the Thailand Government Gazette. Under this deÞnition, 8165 products in 33 product categories were registered in Thailand by May 2001 (Thai Medical Device pp. 11–13). BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW Thailand has a long history of regulating food and drugs to protect consumers from the adulteration of these products. The Thai Ministry of Public Health can trace its regulatory roots to a 1922 act of the Thai Parliament. The Thai Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) was established in its current form in 1985. In 1988, the Thai Parliament enacted the Medical Device Act, which gives the TFDA the statutory authority to regulate the manufacture, import, and sale of medical devices. A major responsibility of the TFDA is to ensure that medical devices are of standard quality, efÞcacy, and safety. The TFDA monitors both pre- and postmarket phases of the manufacture, import, transport, storage, and sale of medical devices (Thai FDA §1). SCOPE OF THE REGULATIONS For purposes of regulation, the TFDA divides medical device products sold in Thailand into three categories. These categories are listed below (Thai Medical Device pp. 2–5):

181

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Class I This category includes devices that require full product registration, including condoms, examination gloves, surgical gloves, hypodermic syringes, insulin syringes, and Human ImmunodeÞciency Virus (HIV) test kits for diagnostic use. A license issued by the TFDA is required before any of these devices can be manufactured or imported and marketed in Thailand. Class II Devices in this category do not require a license, but they must be registered with the TFDA. This category includes HIV test kits for research investigation, physicaltherapy devices, alcohol-detection devices, and implanted silicone breast prostheses. Class III This Þnal category covers devices for which only a CertiÞcate of Free Sale or export certiÞcate by the competent authority of the country of manufacture (i.e., the United States [US] Food and Drug Administration[FDA]) is required for registration. In contrast to other classiÞcation systems, Class I devices are the most regulated, while Class III devices are the least regulated. Unlike systems in the United States, Canada, the European Union (EU), and Japan, the classiÞcation system is not primarily risk based. Thai law prohibits the importation of used or refurbished medical devices. In addition, products that cannot be marketed or sold in the country of origin (as certiÞed by a CertiÞcate of Free Sale, such as the US FDA’s CertiÞcate for Foreign Government[CFG]) cannot be legally imported. Production, importation, or distribution of a medical device without the proper registration and, in the case of Class I devices, a proper license is a violation of the Medical Device Act. Failure to comply with the law can subject the offender to a substantial Þne and/or a term of imprisonment. ADULTERATION AND MISBRANDING Although the Medical Device Act does not use the terms “adulteration” or “misbranding,” these concepts do appear in the Thai law. Manufacturing, importing, or distributing a counterfeit, substandard, deteriorated, or unsafe medical device is a criminal offense. A person found guilty of a violation is subject to a term of imprisonment or a substantial Þne, or both. Chapter VI of the Medical Device Act deÞnes the conditions under which the device could be considered adulterated or misbranded. These conditions include: • A counterfeit medical device—a medical device that: • is wholly or partially made in imitation to be fraudulently or deceptively represented as genuine; • bears a name, category, type, or characteristics that are different from those granted by the TFDA (Class I devices) or those in the list of particulars submitted to the TFDA (Class II devices); or • bears false statements of the manufacturer’s name, the source of production, the date of production, or the place of production. • A substandard medical device—a medical device whose quality or standard is below that speciÞed in a Ministerial order published in the Thailand Government Gazette. • A deteriorated medical device—a medical device whose condition has deteriorated so that its quality is below the standard speciÞed for the device or it is beyond its prescribed expiration date. • An unsafe medical device—a device that: • is already used, • was manufactured or stored in unhygienic conditions,

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• is contaminated by foreign or potentially health-hazardous substances, • contains degradable substances that may be toxic to the user, or • is a medical device whose effectiveness is still in doubt. BRINGING DEVICES TO MARKET IN THAILAND The Medical Device Act recognizes that medical devices vary widely in their complexity and the risks and beneÞts that they offer. They do not all need the same level of regulation in order to protect public health. For the purpose of product registration, the TFDA places all medical devices into one of the three categories described in the previous section. The level of regulatory review required before a product can be placed on the market is dependent on its classiÞcation. DEVICE REGISTRATION Full registration is required for all Class I medical devices. The registration process requires that the manufacturer demonstrate that a device complies with the applicable Thai Industrial Standards Institute standards, which are based on ISO standards. In addition, some products must undergo testing by the TFDA. In Thailand, the registration is the property of the applicant. It is normal for foreign manufacturers to register through an agent or distributor, because the TFDA requires the person holding the registration to be a locally based legal entity. A product registration is valid for Þve years. Should a foreign manufacturer change the Thai agent/distributor within this Þve-year period, the new Thai representative must apply for a new registration (Thai Medical Device p. 2). The registration process can be expected to take three months. When a product registration is granted for an imported product, the TFDA notiÞes the Customs OfÞce to permit clearance for the product to enter the country. The Medical Device Act requires that the manufacturer (importer) and distributor of Class I medical devices must have a license issued by the TFDA. The requirements for an applicant for a license to manufacturer, import, or distribute a Class I medical device are set out in Section 14 of the Medical Device Act. Additional requirements and the form of the application for a license are set out in Ministerial Regulations adopted under various provisions of the Medical Device Act. Ministerial Regulation No. 1* deals with the requirements for the production of medical devices in Thailand. The regulation is heavily weighted toward requirements for maintaining the hygiene and cleanliness of areas for production, packaging, and storage of manufactured products and raw materials. Ministerial Regulation No. 2** establishes the requirements for importers of medical devices. Again the requirements of the importer regulation focus on maintaining the proper facilities to protect the integrity of the imported devices. Thailand requires that a person who distributes a Class I medical device must also hold a license from the TFDA. The Medical Device Act deÞnes distribute as “sell, dispense, dispose of, trade or transfer the right or possession to other persons for commercial purpose, including having in possession for sale” (Thai MDA §3). The requirements for a distributor are set out in Ministerial Regulation No. 3.***

* Ministerial Regulation No. 1. 1990. Thailand Government Gazette, 107, part 28 (February 19 B.E. 2533). ** Ministerial Regulation No. 2. 1990. Thailand Government Gazette, 107, part 28 (February 19 B.E. 2533). *** Ministerial Regulation No. 3. 1990. Thailand Government Gazette, 107, part 28 (February 19 B.E. 2533).

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DEVICE NOTIFICATION Class II devices are those for which general controls alone are insufÞcient to assure safety and effectiveness. These products must be registered with the TFDA before being placed on the market and the manufacturer, importer, or distributor must submit a list of particulars to the TFDA in a form speciÞed in Ministerial Regulation No. 4.* The list of particulars include a description of the device, its physical properties, contents, production process, and copies of the labeling that contain the indications for use, instructions for use (IFU), storage requirements, shelf life (if any), and the name and address for the manufacturer or importer. The notiÞcation process can be expected to take approximately Þfteen days if there are no issues with the submission. In addition to the material described in the previous paragraph, the application for an imported device must be accompanied by a CertiÞcate of Free Sales issued by the health authority (or a related government body) in the country of origin. The TFDA accepts devices that meet the requirements in the following jurisdictions (Thai Medical Device p. 5): • • • • •

United States (US FDA) European Union (CE mark) Japan (Pharmaceutical and Medical Safety Bureau) Australia (Therapeutic Goods Administration) People’s Republic of China (State Drug Administration)

A CFG issued by the US FDA must be “consularized” either by the Thai Consulate in the United States (in Washington, DC) or by the Commercial Section of the US Embassy in Bangkok. GENERAL MEDICAL DEVICES Most medical devices fall into Class III and are subject to the lowest level of regulatory controls. Class III devices may be imported as long as it can be demonstrated that the devices are freely marketed and sold in the manufacturing country. As with Class II devices, a CertiÞcate of Free Sales issued by the health authority (or a related government body) in the country of origin is required to register the product. For these devices, the CertiÞcate of Free Sales is the only document that must accompany the registration application. The registration process can be expected to take approximately 10 days if there are no issues with the submission. REQUIRED POSTMARKET REPORTING The Medical Device Act requires that manufacturers, importers, and distributors of Class I and Class II medical devices periodically provide the TFDA with statistics on the number of devices produced and/or sold in Thailand. The content and frequency of these reports is speciÞed in Ministerial Regulation No. 5.** Manufacturers, importers, and distributors of Class I or Class II medical devices are also required to report when they become aware of adverse events associated with the device. An adverse event is deÞned in Ministerial Regulation No. 5 as one resulting in abnormal symptoms or health hazards including a death or serious injury. Events resulting from deÞciencies or problems with the labeling should be considered as reportable events. A written report is to be submitted within 15 days of the manufacturer, importer, or distributor becoming aware of the adverse event. In the case of a death or serious injury, the Secretary-General of the TFDA must be notiÞed within * Ministerial Regulation No. 4. 1990. Thailand Government Gazette, 107, part 28 (February 19 B.E. 2533). ** Ministerial Regulation No. 5. 1990. Thailand Government Gazette, 107, part 28 (February 19 B.E. 2533).

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24 hours. A follow-up written report must be submitted within 15 days. The forms to be used and the required follow-up on the initial report are speciÞed in Ministerial Regulation No. 5. THAI LABELING REQUIREMENTS Labeling of medical devices is regulated by the TFDA under the provision of Chapter V of the Medical Device Act. The Medical Device Act considers labeling of medical devices to include labels and accompanying documents. A label includes any image, design, symbol, or statement displayed on a medical device, its container, or packaging. Accompanying documents include material (paper or otherwise) on which information about the medical device is displayed by an image, design, symbol, or statement. Accompanying documents are those inserted or included in the container or package of the medical device including the manual (Thai MDA, §3). The TFDA also regulates advertising of medical devices. Advertising is material intended for commercial purposes that does not accompany the medical device. Advertising requirements are discussed later in this chapter. LABELS The minimum requirements for the labels of all medical devices are set out in Section 33 of the Medical Device Act. Section 33 speciÞes the information that must appear on the medical device’s labels. It includes: • The name, category, and type of the medical device. • The name and address of the manufacturer or importer of the device. • For imported medical devices, the name of the manufacturer and the country where the device was manufactured. • The contents of the package. • The lot or serial number. • The intended use of the medical device (when feasible). • The IFU of the device (when feasible). • The instructions for storage and maintenance of the medical device (when feasible). • For a disposable medical device, the words “for single use” in RED must be clearly displayed. • Warnings and precautions for use of the device when required under Section 35(5) of the Medical Device Act. • The expiration date for the device where this information is required under Section 35(8) of the Medical Device Act. • Other information required by the TFDA under a Ministry Announcement published in the Thailand Government Gazette. ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS Section 34 of the Medical Device Act speciÞes that the following information must appear in the accompanying documents: 1. 2. 3. 4.

The intended use of the medical device The IFU of the device The instructions for storage and maintenance of the medical device Warnings and precautions for use of the device when required under Section 35(5) of the Medical Device Act

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When there are accompanying documents, items 1, 2, or 3 above need not be displayed on the label of the medical device. LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS The required information on the labels and the accompanying documents must appear in Thai. The labeling may bear information in languages other than Thai. However, the information content must be the same as that appearing in Thai. The type size of the Thai labeling cannot be smaller than the type size of the other languages. Thai, the standard spoken and literary language used throughout Thailand, is speciÞcally the dialect of Bangkok and its environs. The Thai alphabet is derived from the Devanagari of South India. Writing proceeds from left to right, and spaces indicate punctuation but not word division. The written alphabet contains 42 consonant signs, 5 tonal markers, and 41 vowels and special combinations. EXPIRATION DATES Expiration dates are expressed in the Buddhist Era (B.E.). The Buddhist Era begins in 544 B.C. Dates in the Christian Era are converted to the Buddhist Era by adding 543. (For example, October 1990 becomes 10/2533. A factor of 543 is used because chronologist admit no year zero between 1 B.C and A.D. 1.) ADVERTISING Advertising of medical devices is regulated by the TFDA under the provision of Chapter VII of the Medical Device Act. Falsely or fraudulently advertising the beneÞts, quality, quantity, standard, or source of medical devices is a violation of Section 41 of the Medical Device Act, and can subject the violator to a substantial Þne. Advertising of medical devices for commercial purposes must have the approval of the TFDA. This approval covers any statements, audio, or video aspects of the advertising. The advertising must be in accordance with the conditions prescribed by the TFDA (Thai MDA §42). The TFDA has the authority to issue a written order suspending any advertising that it considers violates or fails to comply with the Medical Device Act (Thai MDA §43). IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC (IVD) DEVICES In Thailand, in vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are treated as medical devices. In fact, HIV test kits for diagnostic use are designated Class I and HIV test kits for research investigation are designated Class II by the TFDA. In addition to meeting the requirements of the Medical Devices Act, any medical devices, including IVD devices, that contain hazardous substances must comply with the provisions of Thailand’s Hazardous Substances Act (Thai HSA). The Hazardous Substances Act deÞnes a hazardous substance as an explosive, ßammable substance, oxidizing agent and peroxide, corrosive substance, irritating substance, radioactive substance, toxic substance, substance causing disease, substance causing mutation, and any other substance, either chemical or otherwise, that may cause injury to persons, animals, plants, property, or the environment (Thai HSA §4). The Minister of Public Health is one of the government ofÞcials charged with applying this law. Within the ministry, this responsibility is delegated to the TFDA. The Hazardous Substance Act classiÞes hazardous substances according to the need for control. There are four classes (Thai HSA § 18):

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Class IA hazardous substance where the person who manufactures, imports, exports, or possesses the substance must comply with criteria and procedures prescribed under the authority of the Hazardous Substance Act. Class IIA hazardous substance where the person who manufactures, imports, exports, or possesses the substance must Þrst notify the responsible authority in addition to complying with criteria and procedures prescribed under the authority of the Hazardous Substance Act. Class IIIA hazardous substance where the person who manufactures, imports, exports, or possesses the substance must obtain a permit from the responsible authority. Class IVA hazardous substance where the manufacture, import, export, or possession of the substance is prohibited. Section 20 of the Hazardous Substance Act gives the TFDA the power to adopt regulations covering the composition, qualiÞcation and mixtures, containers, methods of examining and testing containers, labels, production, import, export, sales, transport, storage, disposal, destruction, treatment of hazardous-substance containers, and any other matters relating to hazardous substances. Requirements for the registration of Class II and Class III hazardous substances that pose a risk to public health are found in a 1995 notiÞcation from the Ministry of Public Health. * This notiÞcation sets out the procedure, speciÞes the forms, and details the material, including samples and labeling, that must be submitted with the application. THINGS TO REMEMBER In Thailand, medical devices are controlled under the authority of the Medical Device Act, which gives the TFDA the statutory authority to regulate the manufacture, import, and sale of medical devices. The TFDA monitors both pre- and postmarket phases of the manufacture, import, transport, storage, and sale of medical devices. For purposes of regulation, the TFDA divides medical device products sold in Thailand into three categories—Class I, Class II, and Class III—with Class I devices being the most regulated and Class III devices being the least regulated. Production, importation, or distribution of a medical device without the proper registration and, in the case of Class I devices, a proper license is a violation of the Medical Device Act. Failure to comply with the law can subject the offender to a substantial Þne and/or a term of imprisonment. The Medical Device Act speciÞes minimum labeling requirements for both the labels and accompanying documents associated with the medical devices. The required information must appear in the Thai language and dates must be expressed in the Buddhist Era (B.E.). Advertising of medical devices is also regulated by the TFDA. The law states that advertising of medical devices for commercial purposes must have the approval of the TFDA. The TFDA has the authority to suspend any advertising that it considers violates or fails to comply with the Medical Device Act. In Thailand, IVD devices are treated as medical devices. In addition to meeting the requirements of the Medical Devices Act, any medical devices, including IVD devices, that contain hazardous substances must comply with the provisions of Thailand’s Hazardous Substance Act.

* NotiÞcation of the Ministry of Public Health. 1995. Registration of Household or Public Health Hazardous Substances. Thailand Government Gazette, 112, part 43 (May 18 B.E. 2538).

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The Hazardous Substance Act classiÞes hazardous substances into one of four classes according to the need for regulatory control. Class II and Class III hazardous substances that pose a risk to public health must be registered with the TFDA. In addition, the organizations dealing with Class III hazardous substances must have a permit also issued by the TFDA.

Part VI European Union

European Medical Device 14 The Directives Long encumbered by separate regulatory systems, the European Union (EU, formerly the European Community) is now in the process of unifying its approach toward regulation of a variety of industrial products, including medical devices. The intent of the EU is to create an internal market that is open to the free movement of goods, persons, services, and capital. For a number of product classes, the laws and regulations of the Member States of the EU that regulated these products were different. In addition, the certiÞcation and inspection procedures for such devices differed from one member state to another. Together, these disparities constituted a barrier to trade within the EU. To establish a single market for these products, the EU has created a series of European technical harmonization directives. A directive is enacted by the EU Council of Ministers and requires the member states to harmonize their national laws, regulations, and administrative procedures with the provisions of the directive within a certain time period speciÞed in the directive. For the medical device sector, three technical harmonization directives have been adopted by the EU. The Medical Device Directive (MDD) (Directive 93/42/EEC) was not the Þrst of the three directives adopted by the EU. However, because it encompasses the bulk of medical devices and their accessories, the MDD will be considered Þrst. The MDD deÞnes a medical device as any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material, or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application, intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of (Directive 93/42/EEC §2(a)): • diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment, or alleviation of disease; • diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, alleviation of, or compensation for an injury or handicap; • investigation, replacement, or modiÞcation of the anatomy, or of a physiological process of the body; or • control of conception in humans. By deÞnition, a medical device does not achieve its principal intended action by pharmacological, immunological, or metabolic means, although it may be assisted in its function by such means. The second of the technical harmonization directives is the Active Implantable Medical Device Directive (AIMDD) (Directive 90/385/EEC). The AIMDD covers a subset of medical devices that are intended to be totally or partially introduced, surgically or medically, into the human body or by medical intervention into a natural oriÞce. Once introduced, the device is intended to remain in the body after the procedure. In addition, an active implantable medical device (AIMD) relies on a source of electrical energy or power other than that generated directly by the human body or gravity (Directive 90/385/EEC §2(c)). The third and Þnal member of the medical device directives triad covers in vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical devices. The In vitro Diagnostic Devices Directive (IVDD) (Directive 98/79/EC) deÞnes an IVD medical device as any medical device that is a reagent, reagent product, calibrator, control

191

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material, kit, instrument, apparatus, equipment, or system, whether used alone or in combination, intended by the manufacturer to be used in vitro for the examination of specimens, including blood and tissue donations, derived from the human body, solely or principally for the purpose of providing information (Directive 98/79/EC §2(b)): • • • •

concerning a physiological or pathological state, concerning a congenital abnormality, to determine the safety and compatibility with potential recipients, or to monitor therapeutic measures.

For the purposes of the IVDD, containers intended by their manufacturer to hold specimens are considered to be IVD medical devices. Specimen receptacles are those devices, whether vacuumtype or not, speciÞcally intended by their manufacturers for the primary containment and preservation of specimens derived from the human body for the purpose of IVD examination. Products for general laboratory use are not IVD medical devices unless, considering their characteristics, their manufacturer speciÞcally intendeds them to be used for IVD examination. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INTENT OF THE LAW The European Economic Community (EEC) was established on January 1, 1958, by the Treaty of Rome. Originally made up of France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg, the EEC was created to improve economic cooperation among the member states. The treaty aimed at establishing a general common market within a 12- to 15-year period. One of the problems faced by the EEC was its relationship with its European neighbors. Other European countries, principally the United Kingdom, sought to trade freely with the EEC member states without joining in a full economic or political union. Negotiations to resolve this issue in 1958 failed to reach a satisfactory agreement. One result of this failure was the formation of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) by the United Kingdom, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, and Portugal. The EFTA came into effect in May 1960 on the basis of a compact signed in Stockholm in November 1959. Finland, Iceland, and Liechtenstein subsequently joined the EFTA. The aim of the association was the establishment, through the gradual reduction in tariffs, of an industrial free-trade area by 1970. In the intervening years, the cooperation between EEC and the EFTA increased. Eventually, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Portugal, along with Ireland, Spain, and Greece, became full members of the EEC—or simply the European Communities (EC). The Treaty of Maastricht, which was signed in February 1992, proposed the creation of the EU as the successor to the EEC, the European Coal and Steel Community, and Euratom. After an intense political battle in several of the EC member states, the Maastricht Treaty was approved in 1993. On November 1, 1993, the Maastricht Treaty came into force, creating the EU. In parallel with the approval of the Maastricht Treaty, the EC entered into an agreement with the remaining seven EFTA countries (Austria, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Iceland, and Liechtenstein) to create a European Economic Area (EEA) (Palmer p. 419). Four of the EFTA countries (Austria, Norway, Sweden, and Finland) applied for full membership in the EU beginning in 1995 (Schöpßin p. 420). Austria, Sweden, and Finland voted to join the EU and became full members on January 1, 1995. Norwegian voters narrowly rejected membership in the EU, choosing to remain outside the expanding political coalition. The EU has moved to create better economic relations with the countries of central Europe. This effort will culminate on May 1, 2004 when the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,

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Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, along with Cyprus and Malta, will joint the EU. This will create a 25-nation market for all CE-marked devices (EU Expands p. 5). As a condition for participating in the EEA, the EFTA countries agreed to assume existing EC rules governing matters ranging from antitrust to the environment (Treverton p. 422). This agreement includes the products covered by the three medical device directives. Device manufacturers have access to a 19-nation market based on one certiÞcation (Active p. 5). There are various types of decisions issued by the EU (e.g., directives, regulations, decisions, recommendations, or opinions) all having different degrees of enforcement and applicability. The directive is the type of mechanism used most frequently in the legislation forming the basis of the internal market. A directive is enacted by the Council of Ministers of the EU. As a consequence, the member states are obligated to harmonize their national laws, regulations, and administrative measures with the requirements of the directive within a certain time period. A proposal for a directive is prepared by the Commission, the civil service of the EU. The Commission will normally consult interested parties such as trade associations, the professions, and consumers while preparing a proposal. The Commission’s proposal goes through a complicated process of consultation with the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee (an advisory body representing trade unions, employers, consumers, and professional interests) and the Council of Ministers of the EU. The Council of Ministers is the real decision-making body of the EU. It is made up of the Ministers responsible for the subsector under consideration. The Council votes on the Þnal adoption of the directive. To facilitate the development of the internal market, the EU has developed a new approach to technical harmonization and standards. Established by the Council Resolution of May 7, 1985, the new approach deÞnes the principles that will govern EU legislation on industrial products, including medical devices. These principles are: • The directives will not contain detailed technical provisions. Instead, they will list essential requirements (ERs), which must create legally binding and enforceable obligations when transposed into national law. • The detailed technical provisions will be contained in “harmonized” standards adopted by recognized European standards organizations such as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC). Conformity to harmonized standards will be presumed to imply compliance with the ERs of the applicable directive. • The standards themselves are voluntary, not mandatory. Only the ERs are a part of the law. However, the harmonized technical standards may take on a quasi-obligatory status because more effort may be required to demonstrate compliance with the ERs by other means. • A product that complies with the requirements of the directive and bears the ofÞcially recognized conformity marking (i.e., the initials “CE”), may circulate freely among the member states of the EU (and the EEA). MUTUAL RECOGNITION AGREEMENTS A number of countries and regions have developed formal mutual recognition agreements (MRA) with the EU covering medical devices. These include Australia, Canada, Switzerland, and the United States (US). The MRAs range from accepting some aspect of the medical device regulatory process such as Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) inspections to full bilateral acceptance of product approvals.

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AUSTRALIA In June 1998, Australia signed an MRA with the EU. This MRA applies to medical devices manufactured in the European Union and in Australia and New Zealand that are subject to third party conformity assessment. The new harmonization system went into force on October 5, 2002. For more information on this MRA, see Chapter 6. SWITZERLAND Although geographically in the center of the EU, Switzerland is not a full member of the EU or the EEA. In order to enjoy bilateral free trade in medical devices, a MRA was required. Although in process for many years, the MRA for products covered by the MDD and the AMID did not come into force until June 1, 2002. An MRA between Switzerland and other EFTA countries, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway, also came into force on June 1, 2002. Negotiations to extend the MRA to products covered by the IVDD continue although informal agreement has been reported in the trade press (Swiss MRA, p.2). The MRA is seen as largely beneÞting Swiss manufacturers as Switzerland has accepted CE marked medical devices since 1996. The MRA will enable the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Goods (Swissmedic) to appoint Swiss conformity assessment bodies (NotiÞed Bodies). Heretofore, Swiss manufacturers have had to use notiÞed bodies in the EU in order to place the CE mark on their products. EU manufacturers are no longer obliged to place the address of a Swiss representative on their labeling (Swiss MRA, p.2). SCOPE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION REGULATION The EU regulations for medical devices are contained in three technical harmonization directives—the MDD, the AIMDD, and the IVDD. In 1999, a fourth directive came into force in Europe that has a direct bearing on the regulation of medical devices. This is the Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive (R&TTED) (Directive 1999/5/EC). A critical feature of the deÞnition of a medical device in these directives is that it depends on the intended use of the device and on its principal intended action. Medical devices are deÞned as articles that are intended to be used for a medical purpose. The use of the term “intended” allows some opportunity for manufacturers to include or exclude their product from the scope of the directives. For instance, a piece of general-purpose laboratory equipment is not a medical device even though it may be used to examine human specimens. However, labeling the same piece of equipment as being “suitable for medical use” changes the classiÞcation. The piece of equipment with this labeling change satisÞes the deÞnition of a medical device falling within the scope of the IVDD (Higson, p. 143). The protection ensured by the directives becomes valid when they are supplied to the Þnal user. Taking this concept to its logical conclusion, raw materials, components, or intermediate products are normally not medical devices. However, raw materials, components, or intermediate products may need to present properties or characteristics that contribute to the safety and quality of Þnished devices. Therefore, the manufacturer of the Þnished device is responsible for the selection and control of raw materials, components, or intermediate products. Spare parts supplied for replacement of existing components of a device for which conformity with a directive has been established are not medical devices. However, if the spare parts change signiÞcantly the characteristics or performance of a device for which conformity to a directive has

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been established, then the spare parts are to be considered as devices in their own right (CEC, DeÞnitions §I.1.1(a)). Software that inßuences the proper functioning of a medical device may be part of a device or a device in its own right if it is placed on the market separately from the related device. Software that is used with multipurpose informatics equipment may be a medical device if it has a proper medical purpose. Examples of software with a proper medical purpose include (CEC, DeÞnitions §I.1.1(f)): • software for calculation of anatomical sites of the body, • image-enhancing software intended for diagnostic purposes, and • software for programming a medical device. There is no medical purpose for software used for administration of general patient data. The deÞnition of a medical device does not encompass products that are principally used for a toiletry or cosmetic purpose even though they may be used to prevent disease. Examples of products for which a medical purpose normally cannot be established are (CEC, DeÞnitions §I.1.1(d)): • • • • •

toothbrushes, dental sticks, dental ßoss; baby diapers, hygiene tampons; contact lenses without corrective function, intended to provide another color to the eye; bleaching products for teeth; and instruments for tattooing

THE MEDICAL DEVICE DIRECTIVE (MDD) The MDD came into force within the EU on January 1, 1995. The MDD applies to all medical devices and their accessories, unless they are covered by the AIMDD or the IVDD. There are certain other products that are not considered medical devices by Article 1 of the MDD. The speciÞc exemptions are listed in Chapter 15. ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICE DIRECTIVE (AIMDD) The AIMDD came into force on January 1, 1993. The labeling requirements peculiar to AIMDs are described in Chapter 17. IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC DEVICE DIRECTIVE (IVDD) The IVDD came into force on June 7, 2000. Until June 6, 2005, Member States must accept devices placed on the market that conform to the rules in force in their territory on June 7, 2000. For an additional period of two years, these devices may be put into service. The labeling requirements described in the directive that are peculiar to IVD devices are described in Chapter 19. RADIO EQUIPMENT

AND

TELECOMMUNICATIONS TERMINAL EQUIPMENT DIRECTIVE (R&TTED)

New approach directives cover a wide range of products and hazards that both overlay and complement each other. As a result, several directives may have to be taken into consideration for one product, since placing a product on the market and putting it into service can only occur when the product complies with all applicable provisions. Directives may make direct reference to other directives. For example, the MDD makes reference to Directive 65/65/EEC for certain aspects of devices that

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administer medicinal substances and to Directive 80/836/Euratom regarding the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. However, for the most part, compliance with the medical device directives is sufÞcient to allow the manufacturer to place that device on the market. As an example, medical devices were speciÞcally excluded from the provisions of the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive. On March 7, 1999, the EU adopted a new approach directive dealing with radio equipment and telecommunication terminal equipment. The R&TTED came into force on April 8, 2000. The purpose for this directive is to create an open competitive market for telecommunications equipment within Europe. The R&TTED deÞnes radio equipment as a product, or a component of a product, that is capable of communicating by means of the emission or reception of radio waves utilizing the spectrum allocated to terrestrial/space radio communications (Directive 1999/5/EC §2(c)). Telecommunication terminal equipment is a product, or relevant component of a product, intended to connect directly or indirectly by any means to interfaces of public telecommunications networks. A public telecommunication network is one used wholly or partly to provide publicly available telecommunications services (Directive 1999/5/EC §2(b)). Article 1 of the R&TTED explicitly applies the provisions of this directive to medical devices within the meaning of the MDD and to AIMDs within the meaning of the AIMDD (Directive 1999/5/EC §1(1)). IVD equipment is not mentioned in the unamended version of the R&TTED. Article 3 of the R&TTED sets out several essential requirements including compliance with the safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive and the protection requirements of the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EMCD).* The R&TTED involves the same basic conformity assessment modules as the medical device directives. These procedures require the interaction of a properly authorized NotiÞed Body in the testing of the product or the certiÞcation of the manufacturer’s quality system. The R&TTED is also concerned about the use of the radio-frequency (RF) spectrum, particularly the use of the frequency spectrum that is not allocated for a given purpose throughout the EC. For radio equipment using frequency bands whose use is not harmonized throughout the EC the manufacturer, its authorized representative, or the person responsible for placing the equipment on the market must notify the national authority in the relevant member state responsible for spectrum management of its intention to place such equipment on the member state’s national market. This notiÞcation must be given no less than four weeks in advance of placing the device on the market and shall provide information about the radio characteristics of the equipment (in particular, frequency bands, channel spacing, type of modulation, and RF-power) and the identiÞcation number of the NotiÞed Body responsible for conformity assessment (Directive 1999/5/EC §6(4)). LABELS AND LABELING For the purposes of the European medical device directives, a label is deÞned as all written, graphic, or printed matter that relates to the identiÞcation, technical description, and use of the medical device (EN 46001 §3.10). This includes all written, graphic, or printed matter (a) afÞxed to a medical device or any of its containers or wrappers, or (b) accompanying a medical device. The shipping documents accompanying a medical device are not considered a label. The directives make extensive reference to, and sets speciÞc requirements for, the instructions for use (IFU). A natural outcome of the organization of the ERs is to begin to think of the IFU as being synonymous with a package insert or some other accompanying document. For many devices, * Council Directive 89/336/EEC of 3 May 1989 on the approximation of the laws of the member states relating to electromagnetic compatibility. 1989. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 32, no. L139 (May 23).

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this will be the case. However, it is not required by the directives. When practical, the preferred location for the information needed for using the device safely and for its intended purpose is on the device itself. If placing the IFU on the device is impractical (e.g., on an implantable hip joint), the next best location is on the package, and the remaining alternative is in an instruction leaßet (Directive 93/42/EEC §13.1). In this and subsequent chapters on the EU, the term “label” will be used to refer to the written, graphic, or printed matter on a device or any of its containers or wrappers. The term “accompanying documents” will be used to refer to the material, such as the instruction leaßet, package insert, operator’s manual, service manual, and so on that accompanies the medical device. LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS Article 4 of each of the directives permits the member states to require that product labels and the IFU be in the member’s national language or languages, or in another community’s language at the time the device reaches the Þnal user. This requirement is independent of whether or not the Þnal user is a healthcare professional or a layperson. Therefore, the language requirement is contained in the national legislation that transposes the directive into local law. Several of the member states, such as Germany and France, were vigorously enforcing a requirement for local language before the directive came into force. Not surprisingly, virtually all of the member states included a provision requiring their local language(s) in the legislation implementing the directives. The ofÞcial languages of the member states are listed in Table 14.1. There is no requirement regarding the use of single- or multiple-language labeling. The manufacturer is free to choose the type of labeling system that works best for a particular product. STANDARDS The concept of harmonized standards plays an important role in the framework of the new-approach directives. According to new-approach directives, conformity with national standards that have transposed harmonized standards confers a presumption of conformity with the ERs covered by the harmonized standard. TABLE 14.1 Official Languages of the European Union Member State Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Official Language German Dutch, French, and German Danish Finnish French German Greek English Italian French or German Dutch Portuguese Spanish Swedish English

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

A harmonized standard is produced by European standards organizations at the instigation of the European Commission. After consultation with the member states, the European Commission may invite the European standards organizations to present harmonized standards within the meaning of each directive. This invitation is often referred to as a mandate. The documents that the standards organizations are invited to present are European Norms (ENs) or Harmonization Documents (HDs). In presenting harmonized standards, the standards organizations are not constrained to present newly developed standards. They may also identify existing standards that they judge, after examination, to meet the terms of the mandate. The standards organizations may modify an existing EN or HD to meet the terms of the mandate. In the same way, they may identify national or international standards and adopt them as European standards. The resulting European standard will then qualify as a harmonized standard (CEC, Guide p. 28). The presumption of conformity associated with a harmonized standard depends on (a) the publication of the reference in the OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, and (b) the transposition of the European standard into a national standard (CEC, Guide p. 29). Without publication of the reference by the Commission in the OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, use of the standard will not give rise to the presumption of conformity. Because of the legal implications, publication in the OfÞcial Journal is required so that a clear date is set from which presumption of conformity can take effect. The presumption of conformity is also dependent on the transposition of the European standard into a national standard. This means that no presumption exists unless the European standard has been transposed, even if a reference has been published in the OfÞcial Journal. However, it is not necessary for transposition to take place in all member states before a harmonized standard can be used to demonstrate conformity with the ERs of a directive (CEC, Guide p. 29). The European Commission maintains a summary list of titles and references of harmonized standards relating to all new-approach directives on their Web site. The URL can be found in Appendix H. Both the CEN and the CENELEC have active work programs underway to develop and maintain the harmonized standards needed to implement the medical device directives. A summary of the key top-level standards that specify labeling requirements is given in Table 14.2. BRINGING A DEVICE TO MARKET IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The medical device directives recognize only three categories of devices that may be “placed on the market” within the EU. They are (a) devices conforming to the ERs of the relevant directive (and bearing the CE conformity marking), (b) devices intended for clinical investigations, and (c) custom-made devices. Each of these categories is discussed brießy in the following sections. The following actions are not considered placing a product on the market (CEC, Guide p. 18): • Transfer of the product from a manufacturer located outside the EU to its authorized EU representative whom the manufacturer has made responsible for completing the procedures required to ensure that the product conforms to the applicable directive(s) in order to place it on the market • Import into the EU with a view to reexport (e.g., under a processing arrangement) • Transfer of a product manufactured in the EU with a view to exporting the product to a country outside the EU • Display of the product at fairs and expositions Only the manufacturer or its authorized representative may place a device on the market under the manufacturer’s own name. A manufacturer who, under its own name, intends to place devices

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TABLE 14.2 Key Technical Harmonization Standards for Medical Device Labeling Subject Quality Systems

AIMDs

IVD Systems

Labeling

Alarm Signals Nonactive Surgical Implants Electromedical Equipment

Sterile Devices

Responsibility/Key Documents CEN/CENELEC Coordination Working Group on Quality Supplements Quality systems –Medical devices – Particular requirements for the application of EN ISO 9001 Quality systems –Medical devices – Particular requirements for the application of EN ISO 9001 (revision of EN 46001) (identical to ISO 13485:1996) Quality systems – Medical Devices – particular requirements for the application of EN ISO 9002 Quality systems – Medical devices – Particular requirements for the application of EN ISO 9002 (revision of EN 46001) (identical to ISO 13488:1996) Quality systems – medical devices – particular requirements for the application of EN ISO 9003 CEN/CENELEC Joint Working Group Active implantable medical devices – Part 1: General requirements for safety, marking and information to be provided by the manufacturer CEN Technical Committee (TC) 140 and CENELEC TC 66 Requirements for labelling of in vitro diagnostic reagents for professional use Requirements for labelling of in vitro diagnostic reagents for self-testing Requirements for marking of in vitro diagnostic instruments Safety requirements for external equipment, control and laboratory use CEN TC 257 Graphical symbols for use in labelling of medical devices Information supplied by the manufacturer with medical devices CEN TC 259 Medical devices. Electrically generated alarm signals CEN TC 285 Nonactive surgical implants – General requirements CENELEC TC 62 Medical electrical equipment – Part 1: General requirements for safety Medical electrical equipment. Part 1: General requirements for safety – 1. Collateral standard: Safety requirements for medical electrical systems Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirements for safety – 2. Collateral standard: Electromagnetic compatibility – Requirements and tests CEN TC 204 Sterilization of medical devices – Requirements for medical devices to be designated “sterile” – Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices

Status

EN 46001:1996 a) EN ISO 13485:2000 b)

EN 46002:1996 a) EN ISO 13488:2000 b)

EN 46003: 1999 a)

EN 45502-1:1997 a)

EN 375:2001 EN 376:2002 EN 1658:1996 a) EN 61010-1:2001 a) EN 980:2001 a) EN 1041:1998 a) EN 475: 1995 a) EN ISO 14630:1997 a) EN 60601-1:1996 a) EN 60601-1-1:2001 a)

EN 60601-1-2:2001a)

EN 556-1:2001 a)

a)

Harmonized standard, a reference to which has been published in the OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities. EN ISO 13485 and EN ISO 13488 will replace EN 46001 and EN 46002, but during a transition period both may be used to comply with the directives.

b)

on the market in the EU must inform the competent authority of the member state in which the registered place of business is located of the address of that place of business. Under the medical device directives, a manufacturer that does not have a registered place of business within the EU may designate one or more authorized representatives who have registered places of business within the EU. The manufacturer delegates tasks in writing to the authorized representative(s), spelling out the manufacturer’s obligations under the directives for which it is

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

delegating responsibility to the authorized representative(s). The manufacturer is responsible for actions by the authorized representative(s). The manufacturer’s representative(s) must provide the business address to the competent authority of the member state in which the registered place of business is located. An importer is any person who places on the market a product from outside the EU that is covered by a directive. Unlike the authorized representative, the importer has no preferential relationship with the manufacturer. Therefore, if neither the manufacturer nor the manufacturer’s authorized representative is based in the EU, the importer is deemed responsible under the terms of the directives for placing the imported product on the EU market. In this capacity, the importer must maintain the technical Þle and the manufacturer’s declaration of conformity available for examination by the competent authorities (CEC, Guide p. 23). DEVICES CONFORMING

TO THE

ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS

Each of the directives stipulates that member states may not create any obstacle to the free movement within their territories of a device that complies with the requirements of the applicable directive. The CE conformity marking, when properly afÞxed, indicates that the device has been the subject of an assessment of its conformity with the essential requirements. Conformity Assessment

Conformity assessment is a process established in the directives that is intended to demonstrate that (a) a device complies with all of the applicable ERs and (b) the manufacturer has taken all necessary steps to ensure that the manufacturing processes produce devices that conform to the appropriate design documentation. Depending on the type of device, the conformity-assessment process can vary from a self-assessment done by the manufacturer to a complex design-dossier examination and quality-system certiÞcation performed by one or more external assessors (i.e., NotiÞed Bodies). Regardless of the extent of the conformity-assessment process that is required for a particular device, it is important to remember that every device must fully conform to all of the applicable ERs in the directive. This includes the labeling requirements in the appropriate directive, as well as any labeling requirements in standards used to demonstrate compliance with the ERs. Notified Bodies

New-approach directives have moved away from the traditional process whereby conformity assessment was the sole responsibility of the authorities within the member states. In the traditional system, the member states often delegated the technical work involved in conformity assessment to entities unknown to the other member states. Such practices make it difÞcult to operate a system that is based on the trust that national authorities are prepared to place in each other. The new approach replaced the traditional system with one oriented toward assured technical competence, objectivity, and transparency based on technical criteria documented in the directives themselves and in the appropriate European standards. Under this system, member states are invited to notify the Commission of those bodies that they consider competent to carry out the conformity-assessment tasks described in a directive. This process of notiÞcation has given its name to the conformity-assessment organizations, which are known collectively as “NotiÞed Bodies.” The member states are responsible to the other member states and to the Commission for the bodies they notify. The member state is responsible for ensuring that the NotiÞed Bodies implement

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fully and at all times the conditions under which they were notiÞed. Should a body notiÞed by a member state cease to fulÞll these conditions, the member state must inform the other member states and the Commission that notiÞcation has been withdrawn. Therefore, the NotiÞed Body must come under the jurisdiction of the member state. This entails legal jurisdiction and means that member states can only notify bodies established on their territory (CEC, Guide p. 36). A NotiÞed Body may be privately owned or state-owned. The legal status is irrelevant as long as the body can demonstrate that it meets the legally binding criteria set out in the directives in relation to the conformity assessment activities (CEC, Guide pp. 39–40). The bodies that are notiÞed are free to offer the conformity-assessment services for which they are notiÞed to any interested party established either inside the EU or in another country. They may carry out these activities within the territory of the member states or in another country. A NotiÞed Body may even subcontract part of its work to another body within clearly speciÞed limits. The subcontractor may or may not be located within the territory of the EU. The NotiÞed Body must establish and monitor on a regular basis the technical competence of the subcontractor. Ultimately, the NotiÞed Body remains entirely responsible for the work carried out by the subcontractor. A NotiÞed Body cannot subcontract assessment and appraisal activities, which are the essential tasks for which it was notiÞed (CEC, Guide p. 42). CertiÞcates are always issued by, and in the name of, the body notiÞed and not in the name of any subsidiary or subcontractor. Competent Authorities

The new approach to technical harmonization places a good deal of responsibility for technical assessment on the manufacturer and NotiÞed Bodies. The member states, however, retain the responsibility for protecting the health and safety of their citizens. One of the elements of the legislation that transposes the requirements of a directive into national law is the naming of a “competent authority” within the member state—usually the Ministry of Health or one of its bureaus or divisions (e.g., the Medical Devices Agency within the UK Department of Health). This competent authority is charged with discharging the responsibilities of the member state under the directive. These responsibilities include: • Adopting and publishing laws, regulations, and administrative procedures to implement the directives. • Selecting and supervising the NotiÞed Bodies, possibly in conjunction with ofÞcial accreditation organizations within the member state. • Reviewing clinical notiÞcations when required by Article 10 of the AIMDD or Article 15 of the MDD. • Taking the necessary steps under the postmarket vigilance provisions in Article 2 of the AIMDD, Article 10 of the MDD, and in Article 11 of the IVDD. • Exercising the safeguard clause leading to the removal of a device bearing the CE conformity marking from the market when it is determined that a device is in noncompliance with the respective directive because (Directive 90/385/EEC §7; Directive 93/42/EEC §8; Directive 98/79/EC, § 8): • The device failed to meet the ERs in Annex I of the directive. • The device failed to comply with the harmonized standards with which compliance was claimed by the manufacturer. • There are shortcomings in the harmonized standards themselves. • Other activities required by the directives of the authorities in the member states (i.e., receive notiÞcations concerning clinical investigations).

202

DEVICES

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

FOR

CLINICAL EVALUATIONS

The directives specify that a device bearing the CE conformity marking must achieve the characteristics and performances intended by the manufacturer, and that it be suitable for one or more of the functions of a medical device. As part of the conformity-assessment process, the manufacturer must be able to document that the device, in fact, meets these requirements. This may necessitate that a clinical evaluation be carried out. A clinical evaluation means that the available evidence supports the assertion of safety and performance in clinical use. In the case of existing, established devices, published scientiÞc literature may be adequate to establish the required level of conÞdence. In other cases, a clinical investigation (i.e., clinical trial) may be necessary to obtain the needed evidence. A device intended for use in clinical investigations cannot bear the CE conformity marking because, by deÞnition, there is insufÞcient evidence to demonstrate that the device meets all of the ERs of the applicable directive. Therefore, the directives provided a special mark that allows the clinical device to be “put into service” for its intended purpose. This mark is described later in this chapter. It is important to remember that the manufacturer must attest to the fact that the investigational device in question “conforms to the ERs apart from the aspects covered by the investigation and that, with regard to these aspects, every precaution has been taken to protect the health and safety of the patient” (Directive 90/385/EEC Annex 6(2.2); Directive 93/42/EEC Annex VIII(2.2)). This includes the labeling requirements in Annex I of the directives. DEVICES

FOR

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

OR

REEVALUATION

For IVD medical devices, the IVDD requires that the manufacturer possess adequate performanceevaluation data to support the performances claimed by the manufacturer. The claims must be supported by a reference measurement system (when available), with information on the reference methods, the reference materials, the known reference values, the accuracy and measurement units used. This data should originate from studies in a clinical or other appropriate environment, or result from relevant biographical references. In order to gather the necessary data, a manufacturer may need to conduct one or more performance-evaluation studies in laboratories for medical analyses or in other appropriate environments outside the manufacturer’s premises. A device undergoing such an evaluation cannot bear the CE marking of conformity because, by deÞnition, there is insufÞcient evidence that the device meets all of the ERs of the IVDD. Therefore, the IVDD provides a special mark that allows the investigation device to be put into service for its intended purpose. This mark is described later in this chapter. This provision does not affect national regulations relating to the ethical aspects of carrying out performance-evaluation studies using tissues or substances of human origin. The manufacturer must prepare a statement that the device in question conforms to the requirements of the IVDD, apart from the aspects covered by the evaluation and apart from those speciÞcally itemized in the statement, and that every precaution has been taken to protect the health and safety of the patient, user, and other persons. CUSTOM-MADE DEVICES A custom-made device is one that is “speciÞcally made in accordance with a duly qualiÞed medical practitioner’s written prescription which gives, under his responsibility, speciÞc design characteristics and is intended for the sole use of a particular patient” (Directive 90/385/EEC §1(2(d)); Directive 93/42/EEC §1(2(d))).

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Like a device intended for use in clinical investigations, the custom-made device cannot bear the CE conformity marking. The directives provide a special mark that allows the custom-made device to be put into service for the sole use of a particular patient. This mark is described later in this chapter. It is important to remember that the manufacturer must attest to the fact that the custom-made device in question “conforms to the ERs set out in Annex I [of the applicable directive] and, where applicable, indicate which ERs have not been fully met, together with the grounds” (Directive 90/385/EEC Annex 6(2.1); Directive 93/42/EEC Annex VIII(2.1)). This includes the labeling requirements in Annex I of the directives. By deÞnition, custom-made devices (such as dental appliances and hearing-aid inserts) are usually one-off devices that are subject to special procedures under the directives and a special conformity mark. However, intermediate products speciÞcally intended for use in making custom-made devices may be considered as medical devices in their own right. For example, dental alloys, dental ceramics, and modular components for prostheses may be considered as medical devices if the intended use is for a medical purpose (CEC, DeÞnitions §I.1.1(c)). A device that must undergo further processing after reaching the Þnal user is not automatically considered a custom-made device. Examples of Þnal-user processing include (CEC, DeÞnitions §I.1.1(c)): • • • • • •

sterilization of medical devices supplied in a nonsterile state, assembling of systems, conÞguration of electronic equipment, preparation of a dental Þlling, Þtting of contact lenses, and adaptation of a prosthesis to the needs of the patient.

These activities are not considered to be part of the manufacturing process if they are carried out by the healthcare professional as part of his or her professional activity. If, however, a specialist in such processing carries out these steps, they may be considered manufacturing or assembly activities within the meaning of the directives. DEVICES

FOR

TRADE FAIRS, EXHIBITIONS,

AND

DEMONSTRATIONS

Member states may not create obstacles to the display of devices that do not conform to the directives at trade fairs, exhibitions, demonstrations, and so on provided these devices are properly marked. A clearly visible sign must indicate that the device in question cannot be marketed or put into service until it complies with the applicable directive(s) (Directive 90/385/EEC § 4(3); Directive 93/42/EEC §4(3); Directive 98/79/EC, § 4(3)). POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE AND VIGILANCE A manufacturer’s responsibility does not end with the sale of a medical device. The manufacturer’s responsibility continues through the useful life of the device in the form of an obligation to operate a system for obtaining feedback from the market (postmarket surveillance) and reporting serious incidents to the competent authority (vigilance). POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE The conformity-assessment annexes of the directives include a requirement that the manufacturer maintain a postmarket surveillance system for devices bearing the CE mark of conformity. This

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

requirement is most clearly stated in the conformity-assessment annexes of the MDD. The manufacturer is required to “initiate and keep up to date a systematic procedure to review experience gained from devices in the post-production phase and to implement appropriate means to apply any necessary corrective action” (Directive 93/42/EEC Annex II(3.1)). The manufacturer is required to establish a system that collects data from a variety of sources, which can be as diverse as (a) customer complaints, (b) service/maintenance records, (c) patient registries, and (d) ongoing follow-up of patients involved in clinical investigations. These data must be periodically reviewed, looking for trends and seeking to identify systematic problems. When necessary, corrective action must be initiated. If an incident is serious enough, it must be reported to the competent authorities under the vigilance requirement of the directives. VIGILANCE The purpose of the vigilance system is to improve the protection of patients, users, and others. This improvement is to be achieved by reducing the likelihood of the same type of adverse event being repeated in different places at different times. Reported incidents are to be evaluated and, when appropriate, information that could be used to prevent repetition of the incident, or to alleviate the consequences of such an incident, is to be disseminated to all the member states. The vigilance system is intended to allow data to be correlated between competent authorities and manufacturers. It is anticipated that this sharing of information will facilitate implementation of corrective action earlier than would be the case if data on adverse incidents were collected, analyzed, and action taken on a state-by-state basis (CEC, Vigilance §3). Incidents that need to be reported are deÞned in the directives as (Directive 90/385/EEC §8(1); Directive 93/42/EEC §10(1); Directive 98/79/EC §11(1)): • those that lead to a death; • those that lead to a serious deterioration in the state of health of a patient or user, including: • life-threatening illness or injury, • permanent impairment of a body function or permanent damage to a body structure, • a condition that requires medical or surgical intervention to prevent permanent impairment of a body function or permanent damage to a body structure, and • any technical or medical reason relating to the characteristics or performance of a device that, for the reasons listed above, has lead to a systematic recall of devices of the same type by the manufacturer. The Commission recognizes that interpretation of the term “serious” is not easy, and that it should be made in consultation with a medical practitioner whenever possible (CEC, Vigilance §5.4.2). The Commission has suggested that many points need consideration, such as: • whether a risk was foreseeable and clinically acceptable in view of the potential patient beneÞt • whether the outcome was adversely affected by a preexisting condition of the patient. In cases of doubt, the Commission counsels that there should be a predisposition to report an incident, rather than to not report (CEC, Vigilance §5.4.2). Just because a death or serious deterioration in the health of a patient or user did not occur is not justiÞcation for failing to report the near incident. The directives state that an incident with the real potential of causing a death or serious deterioration in the state of health is reportable. It may

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be that good fortune or the intervention of healthcare professionals prevented serious or fatal consequences in the incident. However, it is sufÞcient that an incident associated with the device occurred and that the incident was such that if it occurred again, it might lead to death or serious deterioration in health. The manufacturer should also report if an examination of that device or the information supplied with the device indicates some factor (e.g., some inadequacy in the labeling) that could lead to an incident involving death or serious deterioration in health. Inadequacies in the labeling would include signiÞcant omissions and deÞciencies, as well as inaccuracies. For example: • The omission of important safety-related information would be reportable. An example would be the failure to include a warning of a side effect that may be produced by the device while working within speciÞcations. However, the absence of information that should generally be known by the intended user in not considered an omission (CEC, Vigilance §5.5.3). • A deÞciency would exist if there were a lack of clarity in the instructions that leads, or could lead, to an injury. • Inaccuracies are errors of fact that caused, or could cause, misuse or incorrect maintenance or adjustment of the device. In Appendix 4 of the Guidelines on a Medical Device Vigilance System, the Commission provided some examples of incidents that should (or should not) be reported. These include: • An infusion pump delivers the wrong dose because of an incompatibility between the pump and the infusion set used. If the combination of pump and the infusion set used was in accordance with the IFU for either the pump or the infusion set, then the incident should be reported. If the combination was used against the IFU for both pump and the infusion set, then the incident should not be reported. • An aortic balloon catheter leaked because of inappropriate handling of the device in use, causing a situation that was potentially dangerous to the patient. If the inappropriate handling was in any way due to inadequacies in the labeling, then the incident should be reported as a near incident. If the labeling clearly indicated that such handling was inappropriate, the incident need not be reported. THE SAFEGUARD CLAUSE Article 4 in each of the directives precludes the member states from creating obstacles to placing on the market or putting into service a device that bears the CE conformity marking. This provision of the directives notwithstanding, the member states have an overriding right and obligation to protect the health and safety of their citizens. This power and obligation is the basis of the Safeguard Clause (Article 7 of the AIMDD; Article 8 of the MDD; Article 8 of the IVDD). Under the Safeguard Clause, a member state is required to take action if it is demonstrated that a device bearing the CE conformity marking and used for its intended purpose could endanger the health and/or safety of persons, animals, or goods. The member state must take all necessary measures to restrict or forbid the placing of the device on the market or to have the product withdrawn from the market. The Safeguard Clause is the last resort in the overall system of market vigilance and postmarket surveillance required by the directives (CEC, Guide p. 53). The member state must establish that the CE conformity marking has been improperly afÞxed to the device by making a Þnding that is objective and based on veriÞable evidence. The assessment

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

of the risk to persons, animals, or goods is, however, the full responsibility of the member states. They bear responsibility for evaluating whether there is a foreseeable potential danger likely to have serious consequences (CEC, Guide p. 53). The member states administer the Safeguard Clause within their own territories. It is up to the Commission, however, to manage the Safeguard Clause at the Community level and ensure that it is applied to the whole Community as soon as possible (CEC, Guide p. 54). In theory, any noncompliance with the ERs, including noncompliance with the labeling requirements, that poses a foreseeable potential danger likely to have serious consequences, could be justiÞcation for a member state to activate the Safeguard Clause. However, activation of the Safeguard Clause is seen by the Commission as a last resort if other corrective actions, taken as part of the vigilance process, fail to alleviate the problem. The Commission is concerned that the public authorities in the member states not abuse the Safeguard Clause. CE MARKING OF CONFORMITY The purpose of the CE conformity marking is to symbolize to all interested parties that a product conforms to the provisions of the technical harmonization directives relevant to the product. It also indicates that the economic operator responsible has undergone all of the evaluation procedures required by EU law with respect to his or her product. The CE conformity marking consists of the initials “CE” taking the form shown in Figure 14.1. The CE conformity marking may be reduced or enlarged, provided the proportions given in the graduated drawing in Figure 14.1 are respected. The minimum height of the CE conformity marking (dimension C in Figure 14.1) is 5 mm. However, a waver of the minimum dimension may be obtained for very small devices (Directive 93/42/EEC Annex XII). The CE conformity marking must be afÞxed by the manufacturer or the manufacturer’s duly authorized representative within the EU at the end of the production control phase. The CE conformity marking must be visibly, legibly, and indelibly afÞxed to the product or to its data plate. However, where this is not possible or is not warranted because of the nature of the product (i.e., in the case of AIMDs), it must be afÞxed to the packaging, if any, and to the accompanying documents. AfÞxing any other marking that is liable to deceive third parties as to the meaning of the CE conformity marking is prohibited (Decision 93/465/EEC Annex I(i)). Other markings (e.g., marks indicating conformity to national or European standards) may be afÞxed to a product, provided such marks are not liable to be confused with the CE conformity marking. These marks may be afÞxed to the product, its packaging, and the accompanying docu0.85 C 0.15 C

0.5 C

C

0.05 C

Source: Directive 93/42/EEC Annex XII.

FIGURE 14.1 CE conformity marking.

0.55 C

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mentation provided such marks do not compromise the legibility and visibility of the CE conformity marking (Decision 93/465/EEC Annex I(j)). When a NotiÞed Body is required to be involved in the conformity-assessment procedure, the identiÞcation number of the NotiÞed Body must follow the CE conformity marking (Directive 93/42/EEC §17(2); Directive 90/385/EEC §12(2); Directive 98/79/EC §16(2)). NotiÞed Body identiÞcation numbers are assigned by the European Commission as part of the body notiÞcation procedure. NotiÞed body identiÞcation numbers are published periodically in the OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities. Each NotiÞed Body will have a single identiÞcation number no matter how many directives under which it is notiÞed (Decision 93/465/EEC Annex I(g)). The CE conformity marking is the only marking that certiÞes that a product conforms to the applicable directive. The member states must refrain from introducing into their national regulations any reference to a conformity marking other than the CE conformity marking in connection with a technical harmonization directive. Member States must make provision in their national law to exclude any possibility of confusions and to prevent abuse of the CE conformity marking. If it is determined that the CE conformity marking has been afÞxed unduly, the manufacturer, or the manufacturer’s agent, is obligated to make the product comply under the conditions imposed by the member state. If the noncompliance continues, the member state must take all appropriate measures to restrict or prohibit the placing of the product on the market, or to ensure that the product is withdrawn from the market in accordance with the procedures in the Safeguard Clause of the relevant directive. CE CONFORMITY MARKING

ON

DEVICES COVERED

BY THE

MDD

Medical devices covered by the MDD, other than custom-made devices or devices intended for clinical investigations, that meet the ERs that apply to the device in Annex I of the MDD must bear the CE conformity marking. The CE conformity marking must appear in a visible, legible, and indelible form in the following locations (Directive 93/42/EEC §17(2)): • The CE conformity marking must appear on the instruction leaßet. • Where practical and appropriate, the CE conformity marking must appear on the device or its sterile package. • If a separate sales package is provided, the CE conformity marking must appear on this layer of packaging. If, for a particular medical device, the participation of a NotiÞed Body in the conformity assessment procedure is required, the CE conformity marking must be accompanied by the identiÞcation number of the responsible NotiÞed Body (Directive 93/42/EEC §17(3)). CE CONFORMITY MARKING

ON

DEVICES COVERED

BY THE

AIMDD

AIMDs other than those devices that are custom-made or are intended for clinical investigations, that meet the ERs in Annex I of the AIMDD must bear the CE conformity marking. The CE conformity marking must appear in a visible, legible, and indelible form in the following locations (Directive 90/385/EEC §12(2)): • The CE conformity marking must appear on the sterile package. • If a separate sales package is provided, the CE conformity marking must appear on this layer of packaging. • The CE conformity marking must also appear on the instruction leaßet.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

There is no requirement in the AIMDD that the CE conformity marking appear on the AIMD itself. As all AIMDs require the participation of a NotiÞed Body in the conformity assessment procedure, the CE conformity marking is always accompanied by the identiÞcation number of the responsible NotiÞed Body. CE CONFORMITY MARKING

ON

DEVICES COVERED

BY THE

IVDD

As with the devices covered by the other directives, IVD devices, other than those intended for performance evaluation, that meet the ERs in Annex I for the IVDD must bear the CE conformity marking. The CE conformity marking must appear in a visible, legible, and indelible form in the following locations (Directive 98/78/EC §16(2)): • The CE conformity marking must appear on the IFU. • The CE conformity marking must also appear on the sales packaging. • Where practical and appropriate, the CE conformity marking must appear on the device itself. When a NotiÞed Body is involved in one of the conformity-assessment procedures set out in Annexes III, IV, VI, and VII of the IVDD, the identiÞcation number of that NotiÞed Body must accompany the CE marking. CE CONFORMITY MARKING

ON

DEVICES COVERED

BY THE

R&TTED

The R&TTED requires that all equipment complying with the essential requirements set out in Article 3 must bear the CE conformity marking. The CE conformity marking must appear in a visible, legible, and indelible form in the following locations (Directive 1999/5/EC Annex VII(3)): • On the product or its data plate • On the packaging • In the IFU* When the conformity-assessment procedures identiÞed in Annex III, IV, or V of the R&TTED are used, the CE conformity marking must be accompanied by the identiÞcation number of the responsible NotiÞed Body (Directive 1999/5/EC §12(1)). If more than one NotiÞed Body is involved in the conformity-assessment process for a device, then all the numbers need to appear in association with the CE conformity marking. In addition to placing the CE conformity marking on the product, the R&TTED requires that the manufacturer or the person responsible for placing the equipment on the market provide the user with the following information that shall be prominently displayed (Directive 1999/5/EC §6(3)): • The intended use of the apparatus with respect to the provisions of the R&TTED. • A declaration of conformity to the essential requirements of the R&TTED. The Telecommunication Conformity Assessment and Market Surveillance Committee (TCAM)** has agreed that the following statement is sufÞcient to satisfy this requirement (CEC, R&TTED FAQ pp. 5–6): * At some points, the R&TTED refers to accompanying documents. At others, it mentions the IFU. There appears to be no signiÞcant differences so the author has used the term IFU to be consistent with the medical device directives. ** In implementing the R&TTED, the Commission is assisted by a committee, the TCAM, composed of representatives of the member states and chaired by a representative of the Commission.

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209

HEREBY, [NAME OF MANUFACTURER], DECLARES THAT THIS [TYPE OF EQUIPMENT] IS IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS AND OTHER RELEVANT PROVISIONS OF DIRECTIVE 1999/5/EC.

• The manufacturer’s name and a type, batch, or serial number (Directive 1999/5/EC §12(4)). For telecommunications terminal equipment, this information must be sufÞcient to identify interfaces of the public telecommunications networks to which the equipment is intended to be connected. For radio equipment, such information must identify the member states or the geographical area within a member state where the equipment is intended to be used. It is sufÞcient to place this information on the packaging and the IFU of the apparatus. In addition, the manufacturer must alert the user to potential restrictions or requirements for authorization of use of the radio equipment in certain member states by placing an equipment-class identiÞer in proximity to the CE conformity marking when such an equipment-class identiÞer has been assigned. Equipment-class identiÞers are assigned by the European Commission drawing on the expertise of CEPT/ERC and of the relevant European standards bodies in radio matters. The equipment-class identiÞer must take a form to be decided by the Commission, the details of which shall be published in the OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities. Radio equipment that uses a frequency band that is not harmonized throughout the community must also bear the “alert sign” in close proximity to the CE conformity marking. The alert sign should be the same size as the CE conformity marking. The alert sign is shown in Figure 14.2 and is drawn on the same reference grid as the CE conformity marking in Figure 14.1. The combination is sufÞcient to inform the user that the radio equipment is subject to restrictions established by one or more member states. These member states may, under the provisions of the Treaty of Rome, prohibit or restrict the placing on the market, or require the withdrawal from the market, radio equipment that has caused or which can reasonably be expected to cause harmful interference with existing or planned services on nationally allocated frequency bands (Directive 1999/5/EC §9(5)). CE CONFORMITY MARKING

ON

DEVICES COVERED

BY

OVERLAPPING DIRECTIVES

Placing the CE conformity marking on a product indicates that this product complies with all applicable directives that provide for afÞxing of the CE conformity marking (Directive 93/42/EEC §4(5)). However, from time to time a product may not qualify for a CE conformity marking under all of the applicable directives. For example, an investigational medical device may not bear the CE 0.15 C

0.5 C

C

Source: Directive 1999/5/EC Annex VII.

FIGURE 14.2 Alert sign.

0.05 C

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

conformity marking under any of the medical device directive. However, it may be required to have a CE conformity marking under the R&TTED. To address this problem, a paragraph was added to Article 4 of the MDD. Under the terms of this paragraph, the manufacturer may choose, during the transitional period, the arrangement of directives that apply. During this period, the CE conformity marking indicates that the device fulÞlls only the provisions of the directives applied by the manufacturer. The manufacturer must clearly identify in a prominent place in the package insert/IFU the directives with which the product complies (Directive 93/42/EEC §4(5)). This declaration must include the number and title of the directive as it appeared in the OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities (CEC, Demarcation §3.2.3). Such a statement might take the following form: THIS DEVICE COMPLIES WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF DIRECTIVE 1999/5/EC ON RADIO EQUIPMENT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS TERMINAL EQUIPMENT AND THE MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF THEIR CONFORMITY.

INVESTIGATIONAL DEVICE MARKING A device intended for use in clinical investigations cannot bear the CE conformity marking because, by deÞnition, there is insufÞcient evidence to demonstrate that the device meets all of the ERs of the applicable directive. Therefore, the directives provide a special mark that allows the clinical device to be put into service for its intended purpose. The mark also indicates that the economic operator responsible for the product has undergone all of the evaluation procedures required by EU law in respect to his or her product. If the device is intended for clinical investigations, its labeling must bear the phrase: EXCLUSIVELY

FOR CLINICAL INVESTIGATION

This phrase must appear in the same places on the labeling as the CE conformity marking. PERFORMANCE-EVALUATION DEVICE MARKING An IVD device undergoing a performance evaluation cannot bear the CE marking of conformity because, by deÞnition, there is insufÞcient evidence that the device meets all of the ERs of the IVDD. Therefore, the IVDD provides a special mark that allows the investigation device to be put into service for its intended purpose. The mark also indicates that the economic operator responsible for the product has undergone all of the evaluation procedures required by EU law in respect to his or her product. If the device is intended for performance evaluation, its labeling must bear the phrase: FOR

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION ONLY

This phrase must appear in the same places on the labeling as the CE conformity marking. CUSTOM-MADE DEVICE MARKING Like a device intended for use in clinical investigations, the custom-made device cannot bear the CE conformity marking. Therefore, the directives provide a special mark which allows the custom made device to be put into service for the sole use of a particular patient. The mark also indicates that the economic operator responsible for the product has undergone all of the evaluation procedures required by EU directives in respect to the product. If the device meets the deÞnition of a custommade device, its labeling must bear the phrase:

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CUSTOM-MADE

DEVICE

This phrase must appear in the same places on the labeling as the CE conformity marking. OTHER DIRECTIVES OF INTEREST Besides the medical device directives, several other EU directives may have an impact on the labeling of medical devices. The manufacturer is responsible for identifying the applicable directives and complying with their provisions. Some of the major ones are described in the following sections. PROPRIETARY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS A drug and its delivery system that are placed on the market as a single unit (e.g., a preÞlled syringe) is covered by the Proprietary Medicinal Products Directive.* However, the syringe must also conform to the applicable ERs of the MDD. The labeling, however, should comply with the requirements applicable to medicinal products. LOW-VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT The Low-Voltage Directive** as amended in 1993, requires electrical equipment operating at 501000 V a.c. or 75-1000 V d.c. to comply with the safety requirements listed in Annex I of the directive. From January 1, 1997, equipment operating in this range must bear the CE conformity marking. Medical electrical equipment is excluded from the scope of this directive. However, ancillary equipment that is provided with a medical device (e.g., personal computers) may be subject to this directive. MACHINERY The Machinery Directive*** came into full force on January 1, 1995. This directive covers equipment with power-operated moving parts. Medical machinery in direct contact with the patient is excluded. DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES Devices that incorporate dangerous substances are subject to regulation under the ClassiÞcation, Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances Directive (DSD).**** Such devices must be labeled according to DSD Annex II. This directive is applicable to IVDs; its requirements are discussed in Chapter 19.

* Council Directive 65/65/EEC of 26 January 1965 on the approximation of provisions laid down by law, regulation, or administrative action relating to proprietary medicinal products. 1965. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 8, no. L22 (February 9). ** Council Directive 73/23/EEC on the harmonization of the laws of the Member States relating to electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage limits. 1973. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 15, no. L77 (March 26) as amended by Council Directive 93/68/EEC of 22 July 1993 amending Directives 87/404/EEC (simple pressure vessels), 88/378/EEC (safety of toys), 89/106/EEC (construction products), 89/336/EEC (electromagnetic compatibility), 89/392/EEC (machinery), 89/686/EEC (personal protective equipment), 90/384/EEC (nonautomatic weighing instruments), 90/385/EEC (active implantable medicinal devices), 90/396/EEC (appliances burning gaseous fuels), 91/263/EEC (telecommunications terminal equipment), 92/42/EEC (new hot-water boilers Þred with liquid or gaseous fuels) and 73/23/EEC (electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage limits). 1993. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 36, no. L 220 (August 30). *** Council Directive 98/37/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 on the approximation of the laws of the member states relating to machinery. 1998. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 41, no. L 207 (July 23). **** Council Directive 91/325/EEC of 1 March 1991 adapting to technical progress for the twelfth time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classiÞcation, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances. 1991. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 34, no. L 180 (July 7).

212

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

PACKAGING

AND

PACKAGING WASTE

A directive covering all packaging placed on the market was adopted by the European Parliament on December 20, 1994. The Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive (Directive 94/62/EEC) came into force on December 31, 1994. This directive aims to harmonize the national laws concerning the management of packaging and packaging waste in order to reduce their impact on the environment. This directive covers all packaging placed on the market in the EU, and all packaging waste, whether it is used or released at industrial, commercial, ofÞce, shop, service, household, or any other level, regardless of the material used. Member states were required to bring into force the laws, regulations, and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this directive before June 30, 1996. The directive establishes targets that the Member States are required to meet. By June 30, 2001, 50 to 65 percent by weight of the packaging waste must be recovered. Within the same time period, 25 to 45 percent by weight of the total packaging waste must be recycled. In addition, a minimum of 15 percent by weight of each packaging material must be recycled. Within 10 years, the Council of the European Union will establish new requirements for recovery and recycling of packaging waste with a view to substantially increasing these targets (Directive 94/62/EEC p. 365/14). Greece, Ireland, and Portugal may because of special circumstances, attain a lower initial target. However, these countries must attain the same level as the other Member States by December 31, 2005. The directive also establishes the maximum concentration of heavy metals (i.e., lead, cadmium, mercury, and hexavalent chromium) that may be present in packaging or packaging components (Directive 94/62/EEC p. 365/15). By June 30, 1998, the sum of concentration of heavy metals could not exceed 600 ppm by weight. By June 30, 1999, this was reduced to 250 ppm by weight. By June 30, 2001, the sum of concentration levels could not exceed 100 ppm by weight. The European Commission will determine (a) the conditions under which these concentration levels will not apply to recycled materials or closed product loops and (b) the types of packaging that are exempted from the 100 ppm requirement (Directive 94/62/EEC p. 365/16). To facilitate collection, reuse, and recovery including recycling, packaging shall indicate the nature of the packaging materials used. By December 31, 1995, the European Commission was to establish a system of numbering and abbreviations, and determine which materials shall be subject to the identiÞcation system. The system utilizes the following numbering: from 1 to 19 for plastic, from 20 to 39 for paper and cardboard, from 40 to 49 for metal, from 50 to 59 for wood, from 60 to 69 for textiles, and from 70 to 79 for glass. The identiÞcation system may also use abbreviations for the relevant materials. The identiÞcation marks will appear in the center of or below the graphical marking indicating the reusable or recoverable nature of the packaging (Directive 94/62/EEC p. 365/18). The Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive does not establish the graphical markings to indicate the reusable or recoverable nature of the packaging. The marking shown in Table 14.3 are the ones contained in the amended proposal (CEC, Amended Proposal p. 14). However, this table was removed from the Þnal directive, apparently because the member states were unable to agree on the symbols. Rather, the directive speciÞes that these markings were to be established by the European Commission before December 31, 1996 (Directive 94/62/EEC p. 365/14). At the time of publication, this task has not been completed. The directive does require that the markings, once they are established, must appear either on the packaging itself or on a label. The marking must be clearly visible and easily legible. The marking must be appropriately durable and lasting even when the packaging is opened (Directive 94/62/EEC p. 365/15).

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213

TABLE 14.3 Markings to Facilitate Reuse and Recovery of Packaging and Packaging Waste No.

Symbol

Description

1

Reusable packaging

2

Recoverable packaging (alternative #1)

3

Recoverable packaging (alternative #2)

4

Identification system: Plastic shall use a numbering from 1 to 19; paper and cardboard from 20 to 39; metal from 40 to 49; wood from 50 to 59; textiles from 60 to 69; glass from 70 to 79. The identification may also be done by using the abbreviation of the material(s) used (e.g., HDPE: high-density polyethylene). Numbering or abbreviations or both may be used to identify materials. The said identification methods shall be located in the center of or below the graphical marking indicating reusable or recoverable nature of the package.

5

X%

Packaging made partly or entirely of recycled materials X % = Percentage of recycled material used in the manufacture of the product.

Source: CEC, Amended Proposal p. 23.

LOCAL REQUIREMENTS The technical harmonization directives are a major step toward creating an internal market that is open to the free movement of medical devices. They do not, however, entirely eliminate the power of the member states to place requirements on medical devices. The authority of the member states to require local-language labeling is an obvious example. Member States may set other general requirements such as the German law, which makes the manufacturer responsible for recovering waste packaging. Compliance with such a law may require that package labels bear certain symbols or other information unrelated to the medical purpose of the device. The manufacturer is responsible for identifying any relevant local laws in the countries where it plans to do business and for complying with their provisions. THINGS TO REMEMBER The EU regulations for medical devices are contained in three technical harmonization directives—the MDD, the AIMDD, and the IVDD. The purpose of the directives is to ensure the free movement of medical devices within the internal market. Devices that conform to the requirements of a directive may bear the CE conformity marking. The purpose of the CE conformity marking is to symbolize to all interested parties that a product conforms to the provisions of the technical harmonization directives relevant to the product. It also indicates that the economic operator responsible for the product has undergone all of the evaluation procedures required by EU law with respect to his or her product. The directives also recognize two other product classes that may move freely in the internal market. These are custom-made devices and devices intended for clinical investigations. These products bear special inscriptions in lieu of the CE conformity marking. As with the CE conformity

214

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

marking, these inscriptions indicate that the manufacturer certiÞes under its own responsibility that the devices meet the requirements of the directive. A manufacturer’s responsibility does not end with the sale of a medical device. The manufacturer’s responsibility continues through the useful life of the device in the form of an obligation to operate a system of obtaining feedback from the market (postmarket surveillance) and reporting serious incidents to the competent authority (vigilance). Article 4 of each of the directives permits the Member States to require that product labels and the IFU be in their national language or languages, or in another community language, at the time the device reaches the Þnal user. This requirement is independent of whether the Þnal user is a healthcare professional or a lay person. In addition to the requirements of the medical device directives, a product may be subject to other EU directives such as those covering dangerous substances. The member states may impose general requirements such as the German law, which makes the manufacturer responsible for recovering waste packaging. The manufacturer is responsible for identifying and complying with any relevant EU directives and local laws in the countries where it plans to do business.

15 The Medical Device Directive (MDD) The Medical Device Directive (MDD) is the most extensive of the three directives covering the medical device sector. It applies to all medical devices and their accessories, unless they are covered by the Active Implantable Medical Device Directive (AIMDD) or the In Vitro Diagnostic Device Directive (IVDD). Other excluded products are: • medicinal products covered by the Proprietary Medicinal Products Directive (MPD); • cosmetic products covered by the Cosmetic Products Directive;* • devices that incorporate human blood, human blood products, human plasma, or blood cells of human origin; • transplants, tissues, or cells of human origin, and devices incorporating or derived from tissues or cells of human origin; • transplants, tissues, or cells of animal origin, unless a device is manufactured utilizing animal tissues that have been rendered nonviable or nonviable products derived from animal tissues; and • radiation-emitting equipment (i.e., x-ray equipment) covered by Directives 80/836/EURATOM** and 84/446/EURATOM.*** The MDD does not apply to personal protective equipment that is covered by the Personal Protective Equipment Directive.**** In deciding whether a product is a medical device or personal protective equipment, the intended purpose for the product as expressed in the labeling should be considered. The device would be considered a medical device if the product is intended to be used in a medical context with the aim to provide protection for the health and safety of the patient, regardless whether the product also simultaneously protects the user. Examples of protective equipment classiÞed as medical devices or as personal protective equipment are given in Table 15.1. Some devices are on the borderline between the MDD and the MPD. As a general rule, a relevant product is regulated either by the MDD or the MPD. Normally the procedures of both directives do not apply cumulatively (CEC, Guidelines 65/65/EEC §A.2). The principal intended action is critical in making the determination of which directive applies. A medical device typically fulÞlls its intended purpose by physical means (e.g., mechanical action, physical barrier, replacement of or support to organs or body functions). A medicinal product produces its intended action by pharmacological, immunological, or metabolic means. A medical device may be assisted in its function by pharmacological, immunological, or metabolic means. However, as soon as these means cease being ancillary to the principal purpose of the product, the product is no longer a device but becomes a medicinal product (CEC, Guidelines 65/65/EEC §A.2). * Council Directive 76/768/EEC of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to cosmetic products. 1976. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 19, no. L 262 (September 27). ** Council Directive 80/836/EURATOM of 15 July 1980 amending the Directives laying down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. 1980. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 23, no. L 246 (September 17). *** Council Directive 84/466/EURATOM 3 September 1984 laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. 1984. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 27, no. L 265 (October 5). **** Council Directive 89/686/EEC of 21 December 1989 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to personal protective equipment. 1989. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 32, no. L 399 (December 30).

215

216

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

TABLE 15.1 Examples of Protective-Equipment Classification Protective equipment classiÞed as medical devices: • Surgical gloves, examination gloves • Face masks • Corrective glasses (including those intended at the same time for sun protection) • Surgeons’ gowns and hats Protective equipment classiÞed as personal protective equipment: • Protective gloves (e.g., for use in a medical laboratory) • Clothing for protection against ionizing radiation • Sun glasses • Eye-protection devices for professional use (e.g., for welders, regardless of whether or not they contain corrective glasses adapted to the needs of the user) • Gum shields for boxers Source: CEC, DeÞnitions §3.3

The claims made about the product in the labeling will represent an important factor in the classiÞcation of the product as a medical device or a medicinal product. In the draft guidance document on the demarcation between the MDD and the MPD, the European Commission offers examples of products classiÞed as medical devices or medicinal products. These examples can be found in Table 15.2. Some medical devices (e.g., infusion pumps, iontophoresis devices, nebulizers) are designed to deliver a medicinal substance. These products are regulated as medical devices. The medicinal substance(s) that the device is intended to deliver is approved separately following the normal procedures for medicinal products. However, if the device and the medicinal substance form a single integral product that is not reusable, the single product is regulated as a medicinal product (CEC, Guidelines 65/65/EEC §6.2). Examples include a preÞlled syringe, a nebulizer precharged with a speciÞc medicinal substance, and a patch for transdermal drug delivery. In such cases, the essential requirements (ERs) of the MDD apply as far as the device elements (i.e., safety and mechanical features), but the labeling should comply with the requirements applicable to the medicinal substance. A medical device may incorporate substances as an integral part that, if used separately, may be considered medicinal substances. Such products are classiÞed as devices as long at the action of the medicinal substance is ancillary to that of the device. A catheter coated with heparin or a condom coated with a spermicide are examples of devices incorporating a medicinal substance. However, merely coating a product with a chemical does not imply that the chemical is a medicinal substance. Coatings that are in use and that are not medicinal substances are hydromers and phosphorylcholines (CEC, Guidelines 65/65/EEC §A.5). The MDD deÞnes an accessory as “an article which whilst not being a device is intended speciÞcally by its manufacturer to be used together with a device to enable it to be used in accordance with the use of the device intended by the manufacturer of the device” (Directive 93/42/EEC §1(2(b))). Because accessories are regulated as devices, it does not matter if an article is a device or an accessory. However, it does matter whether the article is an accessory or a general-purpose article. A screwdriver used to install X-ray equipment is a general-purpose device and is not regulated. A sterilizable screwdriver designed for use with bone screws is an accessory that is subject to the requirements of the directive (Higson p. 11). Software that is intended to control the function of a medical device is regulated as a medical device. The MDD is a “speciÞc directive” with regard to the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EMCD). As a speciÞc directive, the MDD covers all aspects related to electromagnetic compatibility

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217

TABLE 15.2 Examples of Medical Devices/Medicinal Products Examples of products classiÞed as medical devices: • Bone cement • Dental Þlling materials • Tissue adhesives • Resorbable osteosynthesis materials (e.g., polyglycolic acid) • Sutures, absorbable sutures • Hard-tissue scaffolds and Þllers (e.g., collagen, calcium phosphate, bioglas) • Intrauterine devices (e.g., copper, silver) • Blood bags Examples of products classiÞed as medical devices because they are accessories to medical devices: • Contact-lens care products (disinfecting, cleaning, rinsing, and hydrating solutions) • Disinfectants speciÞcally intended for use with medical devices (e.g., endoscopes) a) • Lubricants speciÞcally intended for use together with medical devices (e.g., for gloves, endoscopes, condoms) • Skin-barrier powders and pastes or other skin-care products speciÞcally intended for use together with ostomy bags Examples of medicinal products: • Injectable X-ray contrast media, nuclear magnetic resonance enhancing agents • Water for injection and intravenous ßuids • Anesthetic gases • ArtiÞcial tears • Topical disinfectants • Solutions for peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis • Agents for preservation of organs intended for transplantation Examples of medical devices incorporating a medicinal substance with ancillary action: • Catheters coated b) with heparin or an antibiotic agent • Bone cement containing antibiotic • Blood bags containing anticoagulant • Hemostatic devices enhanced by incorporation of collagen • Condoms coated with spermicides • Electrodes with steroid-coated tip • Wound dressings, surgical, or barrier drapes with antimicrobial agent a

Multipurpose disinfectants or sterilization agents are not covered by the MDD; they will be covered in the future by the forthcoming directive on biocides. b Merely coating a product with a chemical does not imply that the chemical is a medicinal substance. For example, hydroxyapatite, frequently used as coating for orthopedic and dental implants, is not considered a medicinal substance. Source: CEC, Demarcation §§A.3, A.4, and A.5

(EMC) (immunity and electromagnetic interference [EMI]) of medical devices. However, in 1999, the Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive (R&TTED) came into force. The R&TTED applies to any equipment that is capable of communicating by means of the emission or reception of radio waves utilizing the spectrum allocated to terrestrial/space radio communications or is intended to connect directly or indirectly by any means to interfaces of public telecommunications networks. Medical devices that also fall within the scope of the R&TTED are now subject to the protection requirements with respect to EMC contained in the EMCD. DEVICE CLASSIFICATION Because the MDD covers such a broad range of devices, the Commission determined that the same conformity-assessment procedure would be inappropriate for all of the devices covered by the directive. It would not be feasible, economical, nor justiÞable to subject all covered devices to the most rigorous conformity-assessment procedures available. A graduated system of controls is more

218

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

appropriate. A graduated system provides a level of control that corresponds to the level of potential hazard inherent in the type of device concerned (CEC, ClassiÞcation p. 3). The MDD introduced a classiÞcation system that places all covered devices into one of four classes—Class I, IIa, IIb, and III. The classiÞcation of a device determines the basic process that the manufacturer must follow to demonstrate that the device complies with all of the applicable ERs and that the manufacturer has taken all necessary steps to ensure that the manufacturing processes produce devices that conform to the design documentation. For many Class I devices the manufacturer may self-certify conformity with the MDD. Class III devices require an examination of technical documentation (i.e., the design dossier) and quality-system certiÞcation by one or more NotiÞed Bodies. Class IIa and IIb devices fall between the two extremes. Regardless of the extent of the conformity-assessment process that is required for a particular device class, it is important to remember that every device must fully conform to all of the applicable ERs in the directive. This includes the labeling requirements in the directive, as well as any labeling requirements in standards used to demonstrate compliance with the ERs. There is one notable exception where the extent to which an ER is applicable is dependent on the device classiÞcation. This exception has to do with the instructions for use (IFU) of the device and is described later in this chapter in the section, “Instructions For Use.” MISBRANDING The information provided by the manufacturer that accompanies a medical device is covered by the ERs of the MDD. Annex I of the MDD includes speciÞc minimal requirements for information that must be on the label and the IFU. These requirements include (Directive 93/42/EEC Annex I(13)): • • • • •

general labeling provisions, devices with a measuring function, particulars to be present on the label, IFU, and patient information.

Failure to follow or satisfy these requirements may lead to the device being deemed improperly labeled (i.e., misbranded). Misbranding would be grounds for a NotiÞed Body to refuse to give the manufacturer authorization to afÞx the CE conformity marking. Discovery of improper labeling of a device that bears the CE conformity marking would be a reportable incident under the vigilance system (CEC, Vigilance §5.5.3). In the extreme case, the failure to properly label the device could cause a competent authority to activate the Safeguard Clause, leading to the removal of the device from the market. The following sections discuss each of these Þve areas in detail. As an aid to cross-referencing to the MDD, the number of the ER in Annex I (e.g., §12.9) is listed with the corresponding topic. GENERAL LABELING PROVISIONS The MDD requires that each device must be accompanied by the information needed to use it safely and to identify the manufacturer. In determining the information required, the manufacturer must take into account the training and knowledge of the potential users. As far as practical and appropriate, the information needed to use the device safely should be placed on the device itself and/or on the packaging of each unit or, where appropriate, on the sales packaging. If individual packaging of each device is impractical, then the information must be set out in the documentation supplied with one or more devices.

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219

The MDD encourages the use of symbols to convey the required information. Symbols simplify labeling and reduce the need for multiple translations of words into national languages. When a manufacturer wishes to use symbols and colors to convey the required information, it must use the symbols and identiÞcation colors deÞned in the harmonized standards. For example, a manufacturer who wishes to use symbols to identify the “on” and “off” positions of a power switch should use Symbols 9 and 10 in Appendix C. A European standard (EN 980) has been drafted to reduce the need for multiple translations of words into national languages, to simplify labeling where possible, and to prevent the separate development of different symbols to convey the same information. These symbols are shown in Table 15.3. This standard was drafted under a mandate from the European Commission, and is a harmonized standard under the MDD, AIMDD, and the IVDD. Colors and minimum dimensions are not speciÞed in the standard. However, all symbols must be legible when viewed under an TABLE 15.3 Graphical Symbols for Use in Labeling Medical Devices a)

No.

Symbol

CEN Publication

Description

1

980 §4.1

Do not reuse

2

980 §4.2

Use by date

b)

3

LOT

980 §4.3

Batch code

4

SN

980 §4.4

Serial number

980 §4.5

Date of manufacture

980 §4.6

Sterile

5 6

STERILE

c)

7

STERILE

EO

980 §4.7.1

Method of sterilization using ethylene oxide

8

STERILE

R

980 §4.7.2

Method of sterilization using irradiation

9

STERILE

980 §4.7.3

Method of sterilization using steam or dry heat

980 §4.8

Catalog number

980 §4.9

Attention, see IFU

980 §4.10

Method of sterilization using aseptic technique

980 §5.2

Manufacturer

980 §5.3

Authorized representative in the European Community

980 §5.4

Contains sufficient for

tests

10

REF

11 12

STERILE

A

13 14 15

EC

REP

Σ

a) The symbols in this table are for convenience of reference only and have no official sanction. The b) reader is referred to CEN EN 980.

This symbol is accompanied by a date expressed as four digits for the year, two digits for the c) month, and, when appropriate, two digits for the day.

This symbol is accompanied by a date expressed as four digits for the year and two digits for the month. Source: EN 980

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

TABLE 15.3 (CONTINUED) Graphical Symbols for Use in Labeling Medical Devices

No.

Symbol

CEN Publication

?

Description

980 §5.5

For IVD performance evaluation only

980 §5.6

In vitro diagnostic medical device

18

980 §5.7.1

Upper limit of temperature

19

980 §5.7.2

Lower limit of temperature

20

980 §5.7.3

Temperature limitation

21

980 §5.8

Consult IFU

22

980 §5.9

Biological risks

16 17

IVD

a) The

symbols in this table are for convenience of reference only and have no official sanction. The reader is referred to CEN EN 980. Source: EN 980

\

illumination of 215 lux using normal vision, corrected if necessary, at a distance that takes into account the speciÞcs and size of the individual device (EN 980 §3). If a needed symbol is not deÞned in a harmonized standard, then the manufacturer is free to use symbols deÞned in other recognized sources such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) publication 15223 or the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) publication 60878. If necessary, the manufacturer may develop special symbols, remembering that, to be effective, a symbol should be clear when viewed in context of the device. If a symbol or color is not deÞned in a harmonized standard, it must be described in the documentation accompanying the device. Unless a symbol that appears in a harmonized standard is very well known through long use, it is a good idea to explain the symbol in the accompanying documentation. CONTROLS

AND

DISPLAYS (§12.9)

The function of the user-adjustable controls and visual displays must be clearly speciÞed on the device and/or in the IFU (EN 1041 p. 9). INTENDED PURPOSE (§13.4) The MDD requires that the manufacturer must state the intended purpose of the device clearly on the label and in the IFU unless the intended purpose is obvious to the user, taking into account the potential user’s training and knowledge. The formulation of the statement of intended purpose(s) for a device is important for two reasons. First, ER number 3 requires that the manufacturer must be able to demonstrate, with clinical data if necessary, that the device achieves the performances claimed in the labeling. Secondly, the statement of intended purpose will have an effect on the classiÞcation of the device and, hence, the conformity-assessment process that must be followed before the manufacturer can afÞx the CE conformity marking. Phrases that are used in the classiÞcation rules in Annex IX of the MDD should be included, usually in the negative sense (Higson p. 118). For example:

The Medical Device Directive (MDD)

NOT

221

INTENDED FOR CONTINUOUS USE FOR MORE THAN

NOT NOT

30

DAYS.

FOR INTERNAL USE.

FOR USE ON THE CENTRAL CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.

DEVICES WITH A MEASURING FUNCTION The MDD places speciÞc requirements on devices that incorporating a measuring function. The MDD requires these devices to be designed and manufactured in such a way that the measuring function provides sufÞcient accurate and stability to meet the intended purpose of the device. The manufacturer must state the limits of accuracy provided by the device. MEASUREMENT, MONITORING,

AND

DISPLAY SCALES (§10.2)

The measurement, monitoring, or display scales must be designed and manufactured in line with accepted ergonomic principles, taking into account the intended purpose of the device. UNITS

OF

MEASURE (§10.3)

Devices that incorporate a measuring function must express the result of the measurement in legal units conforming to the provisions of Council Directive 80/181/EEC. The basic units are those of the International System of Units (SI), which is described in ISO 1000 (IEC, A2 p. 17). Units outside the SI that can be used on medical equipment are listed in Table 15.4. PARTICULARS ON THE LABEL ER 13.3 of the MDD speciÞes the minimum information that must be included on the label of a covered medical device. Although the requirements described in the following sections appear to be comprehensive, closer examination will reveal that they have been constructed around sterile medical devices. Manufacturers of other devices need to pay attention to the requirements of key product standards such as EN 60601-1 (IEC 60601-1) for medical electrical equipment.

TABLE 15.4 Units Outside the International System that Can be Used on Equipment Plane Angle Units: • revolution • grade • degree • minute of angle • second of angle Time Units: • minute • hour • day Energy Units: • electron volt • pressure of Blood and Other Body Fluids • millimeters of mercury Source: IEC, A2 pp. 12–13

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

MANUFACTURER IDENTIFICATION (§13.3(A)) The label must bear the name or trade name of the manufacturer. A well-known trademark or logo may be sufÞcient to specify the manufacturer. The label must also bear the address of the manufacturer’s registered place of business. The full postal address may not be required if the address is of sufÞcient detail to enable the manufacturer to be contacted (e.g., postcode and country) (EN 1041 p. 10). If the manufacturer’s registered place of business in not in the EU, the label, the outer packaging, or the instructions for use must also bear the name and address of the manufacturer’s authorized representative in the European Union (EU) (EN 1041 p. 10). If neither the manufacturer nor the manufacturer’s authorized representative is based in the EU, the importer is deemed responsible under the terms of the directive for placing the imported product on the EU market. In this case, the label, the outer packaging, or the IFU also must bear the name and address of the importer. IDENTITY

OF THE

DEVICE (§13.3(B))

The label must provide sufÞcient detail to allow the intended user to identify the device. For many medical devices, the identity will be obvious to the intended user from inspection of the device itself. Unpacked devices or those provided only with a storage or transport package may not require further identiÞcation. Similarly, transparent packaging may reduce the need for a detailed description on the label by allowing the intended user to see the device while it remains in the package. For more complex devices, the identity can be indicated on the device itself, on the packaging, or in the accompanying documentation. It may be appropriate to list the contents and give the quantity of each item in the package. This would be particularly important if there are accessories that are required for use of the device that are not included in the package. If it is not practical to list the contents on the package label (i.e., because of space limitations), the information should be given in the accompanying documentation. STERILE DEVICE MARKING (§§13.3(C), 13.3(M),

AND

8.7)

If a device, or a part of a device, is provided in a sterile condition, the label must bear the word “STERILE.” To avoid the need for translation, the word sterile has been turned into a symbol (see Symbol 6 in Table 15.3). The sterile symbol should be prominently displayed on the label. If only part of the device is sterile, this should be stated on the label (e.g., “sterile ßuid path”) (EN 1041 p. 11). When applicable, the label must bear the method of sterilization. Symbols have been developed that combine the method of sterilization with the word “STERILE” (see Symbols 7, 8, and 9 in Table 15.3). In this way, the single symbol satisÞes the requirements in both ERs 13.3(c) and 13.3(m). In determining when the particulars of the method of original sterilization are required on the label, a prime consideration is the need for those storing, handling, and using the device to know the method of sterilization (EUCOMED p. 5). A product that is labeled sterile in Europe must conform to the deÞnition in Subclause 3.4 of EN 556-1:2001. To be considered sterile, a product must be put through a process that achieves a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10-6 (EN 556-1 §4.1). Occasionally, a device may be available from a manufacturer in both sterile and nonsterile conÞgurations. If the packaging of the two conÞgurations is similar, the user may be confused and mistakenly treat a nonsterile device as if the manufacturer had sterilized it. To avoid confusion, the manufacturer should provide a prominent warning of the nonsterile nature of the device (EN 1041 p. 9).

The Medical Device Directive (MDD)

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION (§§13.3(D)

223

AND

13.5)

The MDD requires that, whenever reasonable and practical, devices and their detachable components must be identiÞed to allow action to be taken in case of any potential risk. Such identiÞcation will enable the manufacturer to recall the device and/or its detachable components, if necessary. To satisfy this requirement, the device should bear a batch or serial number. In addition, detachable components that are intended by the manufacturer to be used separately from the original device are to be identiÞed with a batch or serial number (EN 1041 §4.1.8). To distinguish the identiÞcation code on the label, the batch code is to be preceded by the word “LOT.” To avoid the need for translation, the word lot has been turned into a symbol (see Symbol 3 in Table 15.3). A serial number may be identiÞed using the serial-number symbol (see Symbol 4 in Table 15.3). In either case, the use of the symbol precludes the need for translation. EXPIRATION DATING (§13.3(E)) Typically, the expiration date reßects either a time-related deterioration in safety, or the extent of the time period for which the manufacturer accepts responsibility for safe use. When a device, for whatever reason, has an expiration date beyond which it may not be used in complete safety, this “use by” date must appear on the label. The expiration date may be identiÞed using the “use by” symbol (see Symbol 2 in Table 15.3). The MDD requires that the expiration date must be expressed as a four-digit year and a twodigit month (i.e., yyyy-mm). Some devices require more precision in specifying the expiration date. For these devices, a two-digit day may be added (i.e., yyyy-mm-dd). YEAR

OF

MANUFACTURE (§13.3(L))

If the device does not require an expiration date, the label must include the four-digit year of manufacture (i.e., yyyy). The year of manufacture may be included in the lot or serial number (e.g., 19940001234). If the year of manufacture is included as a separate piece of information on the label, it should be identiÞed with the appropriate text or the “date of manufacture” symbol (see symbol 5 in Table 15.3). SINGLE-USE DEVICES (§13.3(F)) When a device is intended by its manufacturer to be used only once, its label must bear an indication that the device is for single use. Phrases such as “for single use only,” “do not reuse,” and “use only once” on the label are sufÞcient to convey this information. To avoid translation, the manufacturer may use the “do not reuse” symbol (see Symbol 1 in Table 15.3) to satisfy this requirement. STORAGE

AND

HANDLING CONDITIONS (§13.3(I))

If there are special storage, handling, and transport conditions that are critical for the safe and proper functioning of the device, these must be provided on the outermost label on the device (i.e., on the shipping package). Otherwise, the manufacturer must prepare the device to survive the storage and handling conditions normally expected by the user for devices of the type in question. It would be generally understood that the devices should be protected from extremes of temperature, weather, and electromagnetic radiation. If, however, the device needs to be maintained within a particular range of temperature and relative humidity, this information should be indicated on the outer label (EUCOMED p. 3).

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

SPECIAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (§13.3(J)) The manufacturer must take into account the technical and clinical knowledge and the skill of the intended user when determining the type and extent of the operating instructions that must be included on the label for the safe use of the device. In many cases, operating instructions are required on the label only if the mode of operation of the device is novel or unfamiliar and would not be self-evident to the intended user (EN 1041 p. 12). WARNINGS

AND

PRECAUTIONS (§13.3(K))

It is impractical to provide particulars on all warnings and/or precautions that should be in effect with a particular device. In addition, the larger the amount of text, the greater the risk that important information will be missed in the volume of words. The manufacturer should focus on those warnings and/or precautions associated with novel or unfamiliar features that would not be self-evident to the intended user (EUCOMED p. 4). MARKINGS

FOR

SPECIAL-PURPOSE DEVICES (§§13.3(G)

AND

13.3(H))

For the special markings on investigational and custom-made devices, see the appropriate sections in Chapter 14. DEVICES INCORPORATING STABLE HUMAN BLOOD DERIVATIVES (§13.3(N)) A device that incorporates as an integral part a substance that, if used separately, might be considered a medicinal product or a constituent of a medicinal product that is derived from human blood or human plasma that acts upon the human body with an action ancillary to that of the device is subject to additional approval and labeling requirements (Directive 2000/70/EC §2(a)). In addition to meeting the requirements of Directive 93/42/EEC, such a device must be assessed and authorized using the procedure in Directive 2000/70/EC. When a device incorporates as an integral part a human blood derivative, the NotiÞed Body must seek a scientiÞc opinion from the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) on the quality and safety of the derivative. In particular, the provisions of Directives 75/318/EEC* and 89/381/EEC** are to be considered. The usefulness of the derivative as a part of the medical device must be veriÞed, taking account of the intended purpose of the device. In accordance with Article 4(3) of Directive 89/381/EEC, a state laboratory designated by a member state shall test a sample from each batch of bulk and/or Þnished product of the human blood derivative. The label of such a device must bear an indication that the device contains a human blood derivative. INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE (IFU) The MDD requires that IFU must be on the device itself and/or on the packaging for each unit. When appropriate, the information needed to use the device safely may be placed on the sales package. When individual packaging of each unit is not practical, the IFU must be set out on a leaßet supplied with one or more devices. * Council Directive 75/318/EEC of 20 May 1975 on the approximation of the laws of member states relating to analytical, pharmaco-toxicological and clinical standards and protocols in respect of the testing of proprietary medicinal products. 1975. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 18, no. L 147 (June 9). ** Council Directive 89/381/EEC of 14 June 1989 extending the scope of Directives 65/65/EEC and 75/319/EEC on the approximation of provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action relating to proprietary medicinal products and laying down special provisions for medicinal products derived from human blood or human plasma. 1989. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 32, no. L 181 (June 28).

The Medical Device Directive (MDD)

225

The IFU must be included in the packaging for every device. An exception to this requirement has been established for devices that fall into Class I or IIa. As mentioned earlier, this is one point where the classiÞcation of a device affects the application of the ERs. For devices that fall into Class I or IIa, no IFU are needed if these devices can be used safely without such instructions. These would be devices where the user, because of special training and experience, would be familiar with the proper use of the device. ER 13.6 of the MDD speciÞes the minimum information that, when appropriate, must be included in the IFU for a covered medical device. PARTICULARS

FROM THE

LABEL (§13.6(A))

The IFU must contain all of the applicable information required on the label of the device except: • the lot or serial number of the device and • the expiration date or year of manufacture. PERFORMANCE INTENDED

BY THE

MANUFACTURER (§13.6(B))

The IFU must set out the performance claimed by the manufacturer. Care should be taken to describe the performance of the device in clear and objective terms. ER number 3 requires that the manufacturer must be able to verify any performance claims. The manufacturer must warn the user of the undesirable side effects reasonably associated with the use of the device. Undesirable side effects should be listed in descending order based on their clinical signiÞcance as determined by their severity and frequency. The labeling should provide frequency data from adequately reported clinical studies when the data are not well known to the intended user and/or when this information is needed in deciding between the use of the device and an alternative procedure or approach. CONNECTION

TO

OTHER MEDICAL DEVICES (§§9.1

AND

13.6(C))

If a device must be installed with or connected to other medical devices or equipment in order to operate as required for its intended purpose, the IFU must describe the characteristics of the device in sufÞcient detail so the user can obtain a safe combination. The extent of the information provided should take into account the training and experience of the anticipated users. Material must be provided if establishing a safe connection is not self-evident or requires knowledge that is outside the normal and expected training and experience of the user. SufÞcient detail about the characteristics (e.g., connections) can be provided by referencing relevant published standards that provide the characteristics (EN 1041 p. 13). INSTALLATION

AND

MAINTENANCE (§13.6(D))

The IFU should provide information that allows the user to verify that equipment has been properly installed and can be operated properly and safely. The IFU do not have to explain all of the steps necessary for proper installation. Similarly, the IFU must alert the user to the nature and frequency of maintenance and calibration required to ensure that the device operates properly. The step-bystep procedures for maintaining and calibrating the device do not need to be included in the IFU. If installation and/or maintenance of the device is not performed by the manufacturer or the manufacturer’s agent, then required installation and maintenance procedures should be available in a separate document (i.e., a service manual) (EUCOMED p. 6).

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

RECIPROCAL INTERFERENCE (§13.6(F)) Medical devices may interact with one another or with other medical treatments in ways that harm the patient, damage the device, or render one or the other of the treatments ineffective. The IFU must identify the risks of reciprocal interference. An example is damage to an external pacemaker caused by deÞbrillation of a patient. Another example would be an adverse reaction caused by use of certain medications in a patient who is connected to a heart-lung machine that incorporates anticoagulant coatings in the blood circuit. STERILE PACKAGING (§13.6(G)) If the device is provided in a sterile condition, the IFU must include instructions to the user in the event of damage to the sterile package. These instructions could range from returning the device to the manufacturer to procedures for resterilizing the device. If resterilization is recommended, then the IFU must provide the details of the appropriate methods of sterilization. The IFU should also contain warnings about inappropriate sterilization (e.g., “Do not autoclave”). REUSABLE DEVICES (§13.6(H)) If the manufacturer intends that the device is reusable, then the IFU must describe the appropriate processes to allow the device to be prepared for reuse. This would include cleaning, disinfecting, and packaging of the device, and, if appropriate, details on the method of resterilizing it. The instructions should clearly state any restrictions on the number of reuses. DEVICE PREPARATION (§13.6(I)) Some devices may require that the user alter the characteristics of the device (e.g., Þnal assembly, sterilization) before use. In such cases, the IFU must provide sufÞcient detail to enable the intended user to prepare the device. If the device is to be sterilized before use, the instructions for cleaning and sterilization must be such that, if they are correctly followed, the device will be suitable for the intended purpose. The IFU does not have to contain instructions for handling that are implicit in normal use by the intended user. For example, it is not necessary to recommend to a physician that a sterile device be removed aseptically from the packaging. RADIATION-EMITTING DEVICES (§§11.4.1

AND

13.6(J))

Devices that emit radiation (ionizing, laser, infrared, etc.) for medical purposes must include in the IFU a detailed description of the nature, type, intensity, and distribution of the radiation. In addition to providing information on the nature of the radiation, the IFU must describe means for protecting the patient and the user, ways to avoid mishandling, and the risks inherent in installation. IMPLANTABLE DEVICES (§13.6(E)) If the device is implantable, the IFU must include any appropriate operating instructions, warnings, and precautions to avoid risks uniquely associated with the implantation of the device. These risks could include such things as body rejection phenomena, erosion through the skin, embolism, and infections. This category should include those risks that are recognizable and foreseeable as opposed to those that are unknown and/or improbable (EUCOMED p. 7).

The Medical Device Directive (MDD)

227

PATIENT INFORMATION The information described in the previous sections is directed at the user of the device. It is primarily intended to enable the device to be used safely and for the purpose intended. In contrast, the information in this section is intended to enable qualiÞed medical staff to brief the patient on contraindications or precautions that the patient needs to take into account. Because a qualiÞed professional will interpret the information, it need not be written in a manner that can be read and understood by the patient. If the information is not needed to brief the patient, or is obvious, it need not be included (EUCOMED p. 8). When appropriate, the IFU should contain information allowing the medical staff to brief the patient on the topics described in the following sections. CHANGES

IN

PERFORMANCE (§13.6(K))

The IFU should explain the precautions that the patient should take in the event of changes in the performance of the device. This could include instructions on what signals to look for that would indicate a change in performance, and what action (i.e., contact the healthcare provider immediately) is appropriate if any signals are observed. EXPOSURE

TO

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS (§13.6(L))

Some devices may be affected by exposure to reasonably foreseeable environmental conditions. The MDD lists magnetic Þelds, external electrical inßuences, electrostatic discharge, pressure or variations in pressure, acceleration, and thermal ignition sources as examples. If there are reasonably foreseeable environmental conditions that the patient should avoid, the IFU should provide the necessary brieÞng material to the medical staff. For example, if the device is susceptible to interference from high-powered electromagnetic Þelds, the instructions leaßet might tell the medical staff to instruct the patient to avoid work environments where arc welders, induction furnaces, resistance welders, radio, or microwavefrequency transmitters are in use. ADMINISTRATION

OF

MEDICINAL PRODUCTS (§13.6(M))

The IFU must provide adequate information on the medicinal product or products that the device is designed to administer. This includes any restrictions in the choice of substances to be delivered by the device. DISPOSAL

OF THE

DEVICE (§13.6(N))

If there are unusual risks or special precautions that the patient should take when disposing of the device, these need to be coveresd in the IFU. For example, the IFU might remind the medical staff to instruct the patient to dispose of a device incorporating a needle in a container designed for sharp objects. MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES INCORPORATED

INTO THE

DEVICE (§13.6(O))

If a medicinal substance is incorporated as an integral part of a device, the IFU must enable the medical staff to brief the patient on any precautions to be taken. These precautions could include avoiding ingesting certain substances (e.g., foods, alcohol, drugs) while using the device. MEASURING ACCURACY (§13.6(P)) For devices that incorporate a measuring function, the IFU must provide any information that should be communicated to the patient regarding the accuracy claimed by the manufacturer.

228

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

SPECIAL LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC DEVICES Many medical devices have speciÞc labeling requirements that go beyond the minimums described in the MDD. For speciÞc devices, the manufacturer should pay careful attention to the content of the device standards used to demonstrate compliance with the ERs of the directive. However, the existence of multiple standards may lead to conßicting or ambiguous requirements—including labeling requirements. When this happens, the manufacturer must avoid conßicting, contradictory, or ambiguous labeling. When resolving these inconsistencies, the following approach is recommended: • The labeling must satisfy all of the applicable requirements in Annex I of the MDD. These requirements specify the minimum content of the labeling and must be met. • Labeling or marking requirements speciÞc to any standards that the manufacturer uses to demonstrate compliance with the ERs of the directive are added. • To these requirements, the manufacturer must add the information that he or she considers necessary for the safe use of the device. • If any of these sources introduce conßicting labeling requirements in either content or presentation, these should be resolved as follows: • Requirements of the directive override all others; • Requirements in harmonized standards override requirements in non-harmonized standards; and • SpeciÞc standards override general standards. A key standard that manufacturers of active medical devices should take into account in this regard is EN 60601-1 on medical electrical equipment. Medical electrical equipment is the category that covers most electrical instruments and apparatus used in the patient environment, and those electrically powered devices having a direct effect on the safety of the patient. They are medical devices that make physical or electrical contact with the patient, and/or transfer energy to or from the patient, and/or detect such energy transfer. Implantable devices, such as cardiac pacemakers, are not considered medical electrical devices and are covered by the AIMDD. EN 60601-1 is essentially identical with the second edition of the IEC Standard 60601-1. In 1995, the IEC amended IEC 60601-1. In parallel, this amendment was adopted by the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) as an amendment to EN 60601-1. One of the purposes of this amendment is to fully align EN 60601-1 with the ERs of the MDD. The requirements described in the remainder of this section were extracted from the amended Clause 6 of EN 60601-1. MARKINGS

ON

MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

All required markings must be clearly legible and removable only with a tool or by application of considerable force. If the equipment is permanently installed, then all required markings must be visible when the equipment is mounted in its normal use position. For transportable equipment or stationary equipment that is not permanently installed, it is preferred that required markings are visible during normal use. However, when necessary, the required marking must become visible when the equipment is moved or has been removed from the rack in the case of dismountable rack units. However, warning statements and operating instructions must be afÞxed in a prominent location so they are legible, with normal vision, from the operator’s position.

The Medical Device Directive (MDD)

229

Markings required on the outside of the equipment depend largely on the type of power source. EN 60601-1 deÞnes three conÞgurations. They are: • Equipment that receives its energy from the supply mains in the facility where it is used (mains powered). • Equipment that is able to operate from an internal electrical power source (internally powered). • Equipment that is supplied by another speciÞed power source (other than supply mains). Such equipment must be isolated from the supply mains. The markings required on the outside of the equipment are described in Table 15.5. For permanently installed equipment, the nominal supply voltage or voltage range may be marked on either the outside or inside of the equipment enclosure. The preferred location of the markings is adjacent to the supply-connection terminals. Medical electrical equipment must have on its external surface a permanent label that sets out the equipment type as B, BF, or CF. Each equipment type has associated with it a maximum risk current that can ßow through any person upon contact with the equipment. A device may not exceed the maximum allowable risk current speciÞed in the risk-current limit in Table IV in Subclause 19.3 of EN 60601-1 for the labeled-equipment type of the device. If the equipment has more than one part in contact with the patient, and the parts in contact with the patient have different degrees of protection, then the appropriate symbols must be clearly marked on each applied part, or on or near the relevant outlets. Special markings are required on equipment that has been protected against the effects of the discharge of a cardiac deÞbrillator. These markings are described in Table 15.5. The packaging of equipment or accessories that are provided in a sterile form must be marked with the word “STERILE.” As an alternative, the sterile symbol may be used (see Symbol 6 in Table 15.3). When the size of the equipment or the conÞguration of the enclosure makes it impractical for all of the required information in Table 15.5 to be afÞxed to the outside of the equipment, then at least the information in items 1, 2, 3, 7, and, if applicable, 12 should be included on the outside of the enclosure. The remaining items may then be included in the accompanying documentation. If it is impractical to include any markings on the outside of the enclosures, then all of the required information may be placed in the accompanying documentation. EN 60601-1 speciÞes requirements for marking controls and instruments on medical electrical equipment, as well as for marking on the inside of the equipment. These markings on the controls must include the following information, as applicable: • The main power switch must be clearly identiÞed with its “ON” and “OFF” positions indicated by a symbol, adjacent indicator light, or other unambiguous means (see Appendix C, Symbols 9 and 10). Indicator lights and push buttons should follow the conventions listed in Table 15.6. • EN 60601-1 requires that all operator controls and indicators must be clearly identiÞed. • The different positions of control devices and switches must be indicated by Þgures, letters, or other visual means (see Appendix C, Symbols 26 and 27). If the control is intended to adjust a device setting during normal operation, and changing the setting could cause a safety hazard to the patient, the control must be equipped with: • an associated indicating device (e.g., instruments or scale) or

230

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

TABLE 15.5 Marking on the Outside of Medical Electrical Equipment

Items to be marked 1. Name and/or trademark and address of the manufacturer or supplier claiming that the equipment complies with EN 60601-1 2. Model or type identiÞcation (i.e., a combination of Þgures, letters, or both used to identify the equipment) 3. Mains-supply characteristics (rated voltage/voltage range, current waveform—a.c., d.c., or dual supply, number of phases, etc.) 4. Supply frequency (Hz) 5. Rated power input 6. Auxiliary mains socket output 7. Equipment classiÞcation c 8. DeÞbrillation protection d 9. Mode of operation e 10. Fuses 11. Output 12. Physiological effects f 13. Category AP/APG equipment (see Appendix C, Symbols 23 and 24) 14. High-voltage terminals accessible without a tool (see Appendix C, Symbol 25) 15. Cooling requirements 16. Mechanical-stability marking if special precautions are required 17. Protective packaging, if required during transport and storage 18. Earth-terminals markings g 19. Removable protective means 20. Marking required for medical electrical systems h 21. Other legally required markings

Mains Operated Equipment

Internally Powered Equipment a

Equipment Supplied from a Specified Power Source b

*

*

*

*

*

*

*** *** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **

** ** ** ** ** ** **

** ** ** ** ** ** **

**

**

**

** **

** **

** **

**

**

**

** ** ** **

** ** ** **

** ** ** **

***

* Marking is required on all equipment. ** Marking is required if applicable to the equipment. *** Marking is not required on permanently installed equipment that is marked appropriately on the inside. a Internally powered equipment is capable of operating from an internal electrical power source. b The equipment is intended to be supplied from a power source other than supply mains. c ClassiÞcation includes the degree of protection against electrical shock (see Appendix C, symbol 11), the protection against leakage current (see Appendix C, Symbols 17, 18, and 19), and the harmful ingress of liquids using the IP Code deÞned in IEC 60529. d Amendment 2 introduced new symbols (see Appendix C, Symbols 20, 21, and 22) for deÞbrillation-proof equipment. For clear differentiation, Symbols 17 and 20 must not be applied in such a way as to give the impression of being inscribed in a square. If protection against deÞbrillation is partly in the patient cable, then a symbol instructing the operator to consult the accompanying documentation must be displayed near the relevant outlet (see Appendix C, Symbol 14). e If equipment is unmarked, continuous operation is assumed. f Equipment producing physiological effects that cause danger to the patient and/or operator must prominently display a symbol instructing the patient/operator to consult the accompanying documentations for warnings (see Appendix C, Symbol 14). If the device produces nonionizing radiation such as high-power microwaves, then Symbol 43 in Appendix C must be displayed. g Earth terminal markings include the markings for connection to a potential equalized conductor (see Appendix C, Symbol 8), a functional earth terminal (see Appendix C, Symbol 5), and a protective earth conductor (see Appendix C, Symbol 6). h If the documentation accompanying the medical electrical system gives a warning related to a particular safety hazard from a nonmedical equipment component of the system, then a symbol instructing the patient/operator to consult the accompanying documentations for warnings (see Appendix C, Symbol 14) must be provided on the particular nonmedical electrical equipment or on a particular part of that equipment. Sources: EN 60601-1; EN 60601-1-1

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TABLE 15.6 Colors for Indicator Lightsa) and Push Buttonsb) and their Recommended Meanings Color

Meaning

Red Yellow Green Any other color a) b)

Warning of danger and/or the need for urgent action Caution or attention required Ready for use A meaning other than that associated with red or yellow

Required Usage

Recommended Usage

X X X X

Dot matrix or other alphanumeric displays are not considered to be indicator lights. An unilluminated push button may be colored red only if it is used to interrupt the function of the equipment in the event of an emergency.

Source: EN 60601-1

• an indication of the direction in which the magnitude of the function changes. • Amendment 2 requires that numeric indications must be expressed in SI units. S.I. units are described in ISO 1000. Units outside the International System that can be used on medical equipment are listed in Table 15.4. A label near the point where the power-supply conductors connect to the equipment must show the correct method of connecting the supply connector, unless no hazard would occur if the connections were interchanged. If there is insufÞcient room to appropriately label the connections on the equipment, the instructions can be included in the accompanying documentation. In permanently mounted equipment, the terminal for connection to the neutral-supply conductor must be indicated by a capital letter “N.” The protective earth terminal must be marked (see Appendix C, Symbol 6) adjacent to the terminal unless the protective earth terminal is part of a detachable power cord. For permanently connected equipment having a terminal box that reaches a temperature of more than 75°C when tested according to the normal temperature test speciÞed in EN 60601-1, the following statement must be placed near the point of connection (IEC 60601-1 pp. 54–55): FOR

SUPPLY CONNECTION, USE WIRING MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR AT LEAST

__°C.

The labels identifying the correct method of connecting the supply, the supply-neutral terminals, the protective earth terminal, and instructions about parts that reach high temperatures may not be afÞxed to any part that must be removed in order to make the supply connections. In addition, the labels must remain visible after the connections are made. The presence of parts that carry more than 1,000 V a.c., 1,500 V d.c, or 1,500 V peak value must be clearly marked (see Appendix C, Symbol 25). The functional earth terminal must be marked with the prescribed symbol (see Appendix C, Symbol 5). For those devices that contain heating elements or heating lamps, the maximum power loading must be permanently and indelibly marked near the heating element or lamp holder. For devices with internal fuses accessible only with the aid of a tool, the fuse ratings and characteristics must be marked near the fuse. Information on fuses may also appear in the instruction manual accompanying the equipment. However, a marking on the equipment (e.g., a diagram number) must establish a reference to the place in the instruction manual where information on the fuses is located. Equipment that incorporates batteries must have the type of battery and mode of insertion marked adjacent to the battery holder. The required information must be placed in the accompanying documentation if (a) the operator is not intended to change the batteries, and (b) changing the

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batteries requires the aid of a tool. A mark (see Appendix C, Symbol 14) referring the operator to the accompanying documents is to be placed adjacent to the battery compartment. The device may contain capacitors that remain charged after the equipment has been de-energized. If the capacitors or the circuit parts connected to them become accessible when an access cover is removed, the hazard must be clearly marked. DOCUMENTS ACCOMPANYING MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Medical electrical equipment must be accompanied by documents giving the IFU a technical description of the equipment, and an address to which the user can refer. Any markings required on the device that have not been permanently afÞxed to the equipment should be explained. All warning statements and explanations of warning symbols on the equipment must be provided in the accompanying documents (IEC 60601-1 pp. 59–63). Instructions for Use (IFU)

The IFU must contain all of the information that the intended user needs to operate the equipment so that it achieves its intended purpose. This includes such things as: • the function and intended application of the equipment; • the function of controls, displays, and signals; • the sequence of operations, including: • preparing the device for use; • steps to conÞrm the safe operation of the device including a description of alarms and indicators; • operation immediately before use, paying particular attention to abnormal displays, the underlying trouble, and the interlocks to prevent hazardous output; • operation during use, including the sequence of operations, the methods for reading displays, and necessary adjustments for maintaining normal function; • measures following use to prepare for the next use of the device; and • measures for both short- and long-term storage of the device; • information about potential EMI or other interference between the equipment and other medical devices, together with advice on avoiding such interference; • instructions for connecting and disconnecting detachable parts and accessories; • replacement of materials consumed during operation of the equipment; • a description of recognized accessories, detachable parts, and materials, if the use of other parts or accessories could degrade the minimum safety of the equipment; • instructions for cleaning, preventive inspections, and maintenance to be performed including the frequency of such maintenance; • identiÞcation of parts on which preventive inspections, maintenance, and calibration should be performed by others such as the manufacturer’s authorized representatives; and • the meaning of Þgures, symbols, warning statements, and abbreviations used on the equipment. For equipment parts that come into contact with the patient, the IFU should contain a clear description of the methods for cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization of the device. When sterilization is required, the instructions should identify suitable sterilization agents and list temperature, pressure, humidity, and time limits that the equipment can tolerate.

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A device may be connected to other equipment for the purpose of sending or receiving signals to or from other equipment (e.g., for display, recording, or data processing). If the signal outputs or inputs are intended only for connection to other equipment that meets the requirements of EN 60601-1 (i.e., leakage-current limits), this must be speciÞed in the IFU. Some medical electrical devices may be capable of operating both from power-supply mains and from an internal power source (i.e., batteries). If the internal power source is not automatically maintained at a fully usable state, the IFU must contain a warning statement describing the necessity for periodic checking or replacement of the internal power source. If this type of equipment relies on a protective earth conductor in addition to basic insulation for protection against electric shock, the IFU must warn the user that the equipment must be operated from its internal power source if the integrity of the connection to the external protective earthing system is in doubt. Amendment 2 expanded the requirement to include not only concern about the integrity of the protective earth conductor, but also its arrangement. If the device uses primary batteries, the IFU must contain a warning to remove the batteries when the device is not likely to be used for some time if a safety hazard can arise from leaving the batteries in the equipment. The IFU of a device that uses rechargeable batteries must contain instructions to ensure safe use and adequate maintenance. If a speciÞc power supply or battery charger is required to ensure compliance with EN 60601-1, these accessories must be identiÞed in the IFU. To complete the alignment with the MDD, Amendment 2 added a requirement that the IFU identify any risks associated with disposal of waste products, residues, and so on, and of the equipment and accessories at the end of their useful lives. The manufacturer should provide advice on minimizing these risks. Technical Description

The technical description provides detailed information that supports and supplements the IFU. It should include details on all the markings required on the outside of the equipment (see Table 15.5). In addition, the technical description should explain all the characteristics (or an indication of where they may be found) that the user needs to understand for safe operation of the device. This could include such items as: • an explanation of the device performance, giving special attention to the physiological effect and outputs that may be hazardous to the patient or user; • the appropriate environmental conditions required for the accurate, safe, and correct use of the device (i.e., ambient temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure); • if applicable, a description of the required power source (i.e., voltage, frequency, power rating, and allowable ranges); • required site-preparation and installation procedures, including such items as the space required for use, environmental conditions, protective barriers (radiation, ionizing, and electromagnetic), and so on; • the construction of the equipment (for example, using photographs, block diagrams, wiring diagrams, etc.) with special attention to the interconnection of system elements; • a description of the mechanical structure required for the safe use of the device, which includes such items as precautions to be taken with movable parts, motor circuits, radiation shields (like those on X-ray and laser equipment), and mobile equipment; • an explanation of the activation principle for the safe and correct use of the device; and • for portable devices, the preparation of the device for safe transport.

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Amendment 2 draws special attention to providing the range(s), accuracy, and precision of the displayed values or an indication of where this information can be found. The technical description should contain the type and rating of fuses utilized in the supply-mains circuit. This is required if the type and rating is not apparent from the rated current and mode of operation of the device. If the device incorporates interchangeable and/or detachable parts that are subject to deterioration in normal use, the technical description must provide the user with instructions for replacement of those parts. As part of the technical description of the device, the manufacturer must include a statement that it will make available information that will assist the user’s appropriately qualiÞed technical personnel to repair those parts that the manufacturer has designated as repairable. This information could include circuit diagrams, component-parts lists, descriptions, and calibration instructions. This information could be provided in a service manual. If the device cannot withstand the shipping and storage conditions speciÞed in Subclause 10.1 of EN 60601-1, the technical description must contain the permissible environmental conditions for transport and storage. This information must be repeated on the outermost packaging of the device. Amendment 2 made this requirement more rigorous by requiring that the permissible environmental conditions for transport and storage be provided at all times. Medical Electrical Systems

Medical electrical equipment may be integrated with nonmedical electrical equipment to form a medical electrical system. In this case, the system must be accompanied by documents containing all data necessary for its safe and reliable use. This may include information that is in addition to the documentation accompanying all of the medical electrical equipment and other nonmedical electrical equipment, as follows (EN 60601-1-1 pp. 15–16): • Information for cleaning and, where applicable, for sterilization and disinfection of equipment used in the system • Additional safety measures that are to be applied following installation of the system • An indication of which parts of the system are speciÞed to be suitable for use within the patient environment (e.g., by markings) • Additional measures that should be applied during preventative maintenance • An instruction that multiple portable socket-outlets provided with the system are to only be used to supply power to equipment that is intended to form part of the system • A warning that the multiple portable socket-outlets are not to be placed on the ßoor • A warning that the additional multiple portable socket-outlets or extension cords are not to be connected to the system • A warning not to connect items that are not speciÞed as part of the system • The maximum permitted load for any multiple portable socket-outlet(s) used with the system • An explanation of the risks of connecting nonmedical electrical equipment that has been supplied as a part of the system directly to a wall outlet when the nonmedical electrical equipment is intended to be supplied via a multiple portable socket-outlet with a separating transformer • An explanation of the risks of connecting electrical equipment that has not been supplied as a part of the system to the multiple portable socket-outlet • Any restrictions in the environmental conditions to ensure safety • Instructions to the operator not to touch simultaneously the patient and parts of nonmedical electrical equipment that are accessible without the use of a tool during routine maintenance, calibration, and so on

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• Advice to: • The installer, recommending that the system be installed in a way that enables the user to achieve optimal use • The user, to carry out all required cleaning, adjustment, sterilization, and disinfection procedures THINGS TO REMEMBER The MDD is the most extensive of the three directives covering the medical device sector. It applies to all medical devices and their accessories, unless they are covered by the AIMDD or by the IVDD. The information provided with a medical device by the manufacturer is covered by the ERs in Annex I of the MDD. Failure to follow or satisfy these requirements may lead to the device being deemed improperly labeled (i.e., misbranded). The labeling requirements are contained in ER 13 in Annex I. The directive speciÞes the contents of the label (ER 13.3) and the instructions for use (ER 13.6). The labeling must satisfy all of the applicable requirements in Annex I of the MDD. These requirements specify the minimum content of the labeling and must be met. Many medical devices have speciÞc labeling requirements that go beyond the minimums described in the MDD. For speciÞc devices, the manufacturer should pay careful attention to the content of the device standards used to demonstrate compliance with the ERs of the directive. A key standard that manufacturers of active medical devices should take into account in this regard is EN 60601-1 on medical electrical equipment.

Active Implantable Medical 16 The Device Directive (AIMDD) The Active Implantable Medical Device Directive (AIMDD) covers the placing on the market and putting into service of a subset of products in the medical device sector. To qualify under the AIMDD, a product must be a medical device that is, at the same time, both “active” and “implantable.” The “device” deÞnition relates to a product intended by the manufacturer for a medical purpose “whether used alone or in combination, together with any accessories or software for its proper functioning” (Directive 90/385/EEC §1(2(a))). The medical purpose may be achieved by a stand-alone device or as a result of several devices being used as a system. When the medical purpose is achieved by a system, each part of the system must be regarded as a medical device. As a consequence, the device deÞnition may be applied to the system or to interchangeable parts intended, together with other devices, to form a system. Each part of the system is covered by the AIMDD regardless of whether the part by itself is “active” or “implantable” (CEC, Field, § 2.1.1). Examples of active implantable medical devices (AIMDs) include such products as an implantable pacemaker with or without electrodes, leads (electrodes) for an implantable pacemaker, or a pacemaker programmer. The AIMDD speciÞes that a device is active if it “relies for its functioning on a source of electrical energy other than that generated by the human body or gravity” (Directive 90/385/EEC §1(2(b))). For example, a hydrocephalus pressure relief that allows the release of cerebrospinal ßuid when a build-up of pressure overcomes a spring is not “active.” Even if the device can be adjusted by an external “programmer,” the device is not an AIMD because the medical purpose of the device is to relieve pressure, not to be adjusted (CEC, Field §2.1.2). In another example, a cochlear implant activated by an external power transmitter is considered an “active” implant. The implanted component depends on the external power source to do useful work, that is, to carry out its primary function of converting the power it receives into signals that stimulate the appropriate sensory channels of the brain (CEC, Field §2.1.2). A device that merely transmits heat, light, pressure, or vibration into the body is not automatically considered “active.” To be considered “implantable,” a device must be “totally or partly introduced, surgically or medically, into the human body or by medical intervention into a natural oriÞce, and which is intended to remain after the procedure” (Directive 90/385/EEC §1(2(c))). The AIMDD is concerned about potential risks that may be inherent due to the impossibility of maintenance, calibration, or control, and problems relating to the aging of material in long-term implants. An external druginfusion pump, although active and intended for long-term use, is not considered an AIMD even though it is connected to a catheter “partially introduced” into the body. Such a device does not present the hazards associated with “implantable” devices (CEC, Field §2.1.3). “Accessories” to AIMDs are by deÞnition AIMDs in their own right. This does not mean that the deÞnition presupposes that the attributes “active” and “implantable” must necessarily be met by a product described by the manufacturer as an accessory. All that is necessary is that the article enables the AIMD to be used for its intended purpose. A catheter used with an implantable drug pump is not “active,” but it is clearly necessary for the functioning of the AIMD and is, therefore, also an AIMD. Following this same logic, a programmer or external activator for controlling an AIMD is covered by the deÞnition of “active implantable medical device” (CEC, Field §2.2). 237

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

TABLE 16.1 Examples of Active Implantable Medical Devices 1. Implantable cardiac pacemakers 2. Implantable deÞbrillators 3. Leads, electrodes, and adapters for 1 and 2 4. Implantable nerve stimulators 5. Bladder stimulators 6. Sphincter stimulators 7. Diaphragm stimulators 8. Cochlear implants 9. Implantable active drug-administration devices 10. Catheters and sensors for implantable active drug-administration devices 11. Implantable active monitoring devices 12. Programmers, software, and transmitters Source: CEC, Field §2.3

Examples of some devices considered by the European Commission to be AIMDs covered by the AIMDD are shown in Table 16.1. MISBRANDING The information provided by the manufacturer with an AIMD is covered by the essential requirements (ERs) of the AIMDD. Annex I of the AIMDD includes speciÞc minimal requirements for information that must be on the label and in the instructions for use (IFU). These requirements include (Directive 90/385/EEC §§14, 15, and 16): • • • • •

general labeling provisions, particulars to be present on the sterile package label, particulars to be present on the sales package label, IFU, and patient information.

Failure to follow or satisfy these requirements may lead to the device being deemed improperly labeled (i.e., misbranded). Misbranding would be grounds for a notiÞed body to refuse to authorize the manufacturer to afÞx the CE conformity marking. Discovery of improper labeling of a device that bears the CE conformity marking would be a reportable incident under the vigilance system (CEC, Vigilance §5.5.3). In the extreme case, the failure to properly label the device could cause a competent authority to activate the Safeguard Clause leading to removal of the device from the market. The following sections discuss each of these Þve areas in detail. As an aid to cross-referencing to the AIMDD, the number of the ER in Annex 1 (e.g., §14.1) is listed with the corresponding topic. Points or “indents” under a numbered heading are assigned small roman numerals for ease of reference in the remainder of this chapter (e.g., the Þrst indent under ER 14.1 is referenced as 14.1(i)). GENERAL LABELING PROVISIONS The AIMDD requires that each device must be accompanied by the information needed to use it safely and to identify the manufacturer. In determining the information required, the manufacturer should take into account the training and knowledge of the potential users.

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The AIMDD encourages the use of symbols to convey the required information. Symbols simplify labeling and reduce the need for multiple translations of words into national languages. When a manufacturer wishes to use symbols to convey the required information, it must use the symbols deÞned in harmonized standards established under the AIMDD. For example, a manufacturer who wishes to use a symbol to advise the user to consult the accompanying documentation for detailed information would use Symbol 11 in Table 15.3. If a needed symbol is not deÞned in a harmonized standard, the manufacturer is free to use symbols deÞned in other recognized sources such as International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60878. If necessary, the manufacturer may develop special symbols, remembering that, for a symbol to be effective, its meaning should be clear when viewed in context of the device. If a symbol is not deÞned in a harmonized standard, it must be described in the documentation accompanying the device. Unless a symbol that appears in a harmonized standard is very well known through longterm use, it is a good idea to explain it in the accompanying documentation. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION (§11) The AIMDD requires that devices and, if appropriate, their component parts be identiÞed to allow action to be taken in case of any potential risk in connection with the devices and their components. Such identiÞcation will enable the manufacturer to recall the device or to take other action (e.g., increased follow-up of patients), if necessary. To satisfy this requirement, the device should bear a batch or serial number (EN 1041 p. 6). To distinguish the identiÞcation code, the batch code can be preceded by the lot symbol (see symbol 3 in Table 15.3). If the identiÞcation code is a serial number, this may be identiÞed using the serial number symbol (see symbol 4 in Table 15.3). In either case, the use of the symbol precludes the need for translation. Although not speciÞcally mentioned in the AIMDD, the European General Standard for AIMDs (EN 45502-1) speciÞes that the manufacturer’s name (or well-known trademark or logo) and the model number should be present on the device (EN 45502-1 p. 14). Incorporating the model designation into a code in the batch or serial number (e.g., YAG-1994001234) has been an acceptable solution for providing this information. The European General Standard for AIMDs also requires that when an AIMD incorporates a power source, the manufacturer must distinguish between different models of the power source (EN 45502-1 p. 15). One solution is to include a unique code for each model of power source in the serial number. This coding allows users and the manufacturer to track the longevity of a particular model of power source. NONINVASIVE IDENTIFICATION (§12) The AIMDD requires that devices bear a code by which they and their manufacturers can be unequivocally identiÞed. In particular, the device code should allow the identiÞcation of the type of device and the year of manufacture. This information can be included in the lot or serial number (e.g., YAG-1994001234). For implantable devices with active components (e.g., batteries, electronic circuitry) it should be possible to read this code without the need for a surgical operation. A common method for achieving this objective is to include symbol(s) in the device that are opaque to X-rays. These radio-opaque symbols can be read using an ordinary X-ray. CONTROLS

AND

DISPLAYS (§13)

The function of the user-adjustable controls and visual displays on a device or its accessories must be clearly speciÞed in a way that is understandable to the medical practitioner and, when appropriate,

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the patient. When information must be provided to the patient, consideration should be given to providing a copy that can be retained by the implanting practitioner (EN 1041 p. 6). PARTICULARS ON THE STERILE PACKAGE LABEL If a device or a part of a device is provided in a sterile condition, it must be enclosed in a package that allows the contents to be sterilized. The contents of the sterile package must be sterile when placed on the market and must remain sterile until the package is opened or damaged. Because of the scope of application of the AIMDD, there will be a number of system components (e.g., a pacemaker programmer) that are classiÞed as AIMDs under the directive but that are not provided in a sterile condition. For these devices, the requirements for the sterile package label do not apply. The label on the sterile package must bear the particulars described in the following sections. If the sterile package is also the package that protects the device during storage and handling by the purchaser,* it must also bear the particulars required on the sales package (see the next section, “Particulars on the Sales Package Label”). MANUFACTURER IDENTIFICATION (§14.1(III)) The sterile package label must bear the name or trade name of the manufacturer (a well-known trademark or logo may be sufÞcient to specify this.) The label must also bear the address of the manufacturer’s registered place of business. The full postal address may not be required if the address is sufÞciently detailed to enable the manufacturer to be contacted (e.g., postcode and country) (EN 1041 p. 6). IDENTITY

OF THE

DEVICE (§14.1(IV))

The label of the sterile package must provide sufÞcient detail to allow the intended user to identify the device. For many AIMDs, the identity will be obvious to the intended user from a simple description such as “implantable pacemaker” or “cardiac pulse generator.” A transparent package may reduce the need for a detailed description on the label by allowing the intended user to see the device while it remains in the sterile package. It may be appropriate to list the contents and give the quantity of each item in the package. This would be particularly important if there are accessories that are needed to use the device but that are not included in the package. If it is not practical to list the contents on the sterile package label (i.e., because of space limitations), then the information should be given in the accompanying documentation. The European General Standard for AIMDs (EN 45502-1) speciÞes that the device description on the sterile package should include the model number, and, if applicable, the batch or serial number of the device (EN 45502-1 p. 13). The lot symbol (see Symbol 3 in Table 15.3) or the serial number symbol (see Symbol 4 in Table 15.3) can be used to distinguish these codes on the label. STERILE DEVICE MARKING (§§14.1(I), 14.1(II),

AND

14.1(VII))

The label of the sterile package must bear the following information:

* The package may be enclosed in another layer of packaging for shipping to the purchaser (i.e., a shipping package).

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• An indication that permits the package to be recognized as a sterile package • A declaration that the contents of the package are in a sterile condition • The method of sterilization To avoid the need for translation of this information, symbols have been developed that combine the method of sterilization with the word “STERILE” (see Symbols 7, 8, and 9 in Table 15.3). In this way, the single symbol satisÞes all three of these ERs. A product that is labeled as sterile in Europe must conform to the deÞnition in Subclause 3.4 of EN 556-1:2001. To be considered sterile, a product must be put through a process that achieves a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10-6 (EN 556-1 §4.1). The label of the sterile package must bear instructions for proper opening of the package so the device can be removed in an aseptic manner (EN 45502-1 p. 14). EXPIRATION DATING (§14.1(IX)) Virtually all AIMDs that are provided in a sterile package will have an expiration date that reßects a time-related deterioration in safety. The sterile pack must disclose the expiration date beyond which the device may not be used in complete safety. The expiration date may be identiÞed using the “use by” symbol (see Symbol 2 in Table 15.3). The expiration date should be expressed as a year and month (e.g., in the form yyyy-mm). Some devices require more precision in specifying the expiration date. For these devices, a two-digit day may be added so that the date following the “use by” symbol would take the form yyyy-mm-dd. DATE

OF

MANUFACTURE (§14.1(VIII))

The label of the sterile package must disclose the year and month of manufacture in the form yyyymm. The year and month of manufacture may be included in the lot or serial number (e.g., 20020701234). For many AIMDs, sterilization is the last manufacturing operation. It is also the operation that determines the expiration date of the product (i.e., a two- or four-year shelf life based on the integrity of the microbial barrier). For these devices, the month and year of manufacture may be combined with one of the methods of sterilization symbols (see Symbols 7, 8, and 9 in Table 15.3). If the month and year of manufacture are included as separate information on the label, they should be identiÞed with the appropriate text or the date of manufacture symbol (see Symbol 5 in Table 15.3). CONNECTION

TO

OTHER DEVICES (§9.(IV))

If the device in the sterile package must be connected to other devices or accessories not in the sterile package in order to operate as required for its intended purpose, the sterile pack label must identify the connector types or conÞgurations required (EN 45502-1 p. 14). The characteristics of the connection must be described in sufÞcient detail that the user can obtain a safe combination. This description could take the form of a reference to published standards (e.g., IS-1 Connector Standard*) that speciÞes those characteristics. MARKINGS

FOR

SPECIAL-PURPOSE DEVICES (§§14.1(V)

AND

14.1(VI))

For the special marking on investigational and custom-made devices, see the appropriate sections in Chapter 14. * The IS-1 designation refers to the International Connector Standard (ISO 5841-3:2000) whereby pulse generators and leads so designed are assured of a basic mechanical Þt.

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PARTICULARS ON THE SALES PACKAGE LABEL The sales package is the packaging layer that protects and identiÞes the AIMD during the storage and handling by the purchaser. The sales packaging may be enclosed in another layer of packaging (e.g., shipping package) for delivery to the purchaser. ER 14.2 of the AIMDD speciÞes the minimum information that must be included on the label of an AIMD. If any of the required information cannot be placed on the sales package label, a notice to “see instructions for use” may be placed on the label to inform the user that the accompanying documentation needs to be consulted for important information. This is particularly true if there are warnings, precautions, or other important operating or safety instructions that should be consulted before using the device. To avoid translation, the “see instructions for use” symbol (see Symbol 11 in Table 15.3) may be used to satisfy this requirement. MANUFACTURER IDENTIFICATION (§14.2(I)) The label must bear the name or trade name of the manufacturer. A well-known trademark or logo may be sufÞcient to specify the manufacturer. The label must also bear the address of the manufacturer’s registered place of business. The full postal address may not be required if the address is of sufÞcient detail to enable the manufacturer to be contacted (e.g., postcode and country) (EN 1041 p. 7). If the manufacturer’s registered place of business in not in the European Union (EU), the label, the outer packaging, or the instructions for use must also bear the name and address of the manufacturer’s authorized representative in the EU (EN 1041 p 10). If neither the manufacturer nor the manufacturer’s authorized representative is based in the EU, then the importer is deemed responsible under the terms of the directive for placing the imported product on the EU market. In this case, the label, the outer packaging, or the IFU must also bear the name and address of the importer. The point is to enable the customer to contact someone within the jurisdiction of the EU who can take responsibility for the product. IDENTITY

OF THE

DEVICE (§§14.2(II), 14.2(III),

AND

14.2(IV))

The label on the sales package must provide sufÞcient detail to allow the intended user to identify the device. For many AIMDs, the identity will be obvious to the intended user from a simple description such as “implantable pacemaker” or “cardiac pulse generator.” As part of the device identiÞcation, the sales package label should include the model designation of the device (EN 45502-1 p. 11). If applicable, the sales package label should bear the batch number or serial number of the device. To distinguish the identiÞcation code on the label, the batch code may be preceded by the lot symbol (see Symbol 3 in Table 15.3). If the identiÞcation code is a serial number, this may be identiÞed using the serial number symbol (see Symbol 4 in Table 15.3). It may be appropriate to list the contents and give the quantity of each item in the package. This would be particularly important if there are accessories needed in order to use the device that are not included in the package. The sales pack label should include a description of the purpose for the device if this is not obvious to the intended user from the device description. If necessary for the proper use of the device, the sales package label should bear any additional information and relevant characteristics necessary for identiÞcation. This information may be presented in an abbreviated form, provided the full details are given in the accompanying documents (EN 1041 p. 7).

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STERILE DEVICE MARKING (§14.2(VII)) If the sales package contains an implantable article, the label must contain a declaration that the package contains a sterile device. EXPIRATION DATING (§14.2(IX)) If the sales package contains an implantable article, the label must bear an expiration date beyond which the article may not be used in complete safety. The expiration date may be communicated with the “use by” symbol (see Symbol 2 in Table 15.3). The expiration date should be expressed as the year and month (e.g., in the form yyyy-mm). Some devices require more precision in specifying the expiration date. For these devices, a two-digit day may be added so that the date following the “use by” symbol would take the form yyyy-mm-dd. DATE

OF

MANUFACTURE (§14.2(VIII))

The label of the sales package must disclose the year and month of manufacture in the form yyyymm. The year and month of manufacture may be included in the lot or serial number (e.g., 20020701234). If the year and month of manufacture are included as a separate piece of information on the label, they should be identiÞed with the appropriate text or the date of manufacture symbol (see Symbol 5 in Table 15.3). STORAGE

AND

HANDLING CONDITIONS (§14.2(X))

If there are exceptional storage, handling, and transport conditions that are critical for the safe and proper functioning of the device, these must be provided on the sales package. If one or more sales packages are enclosed in another container (i.e., a shipping package), the shipping package label must also bear the exceptional storage, handling, and transport conditions. Otherwise, the manufacturer must prepare the device to survive the storage and handling conditions normally expected by the user for devices of the type in question. It would be generally understood that the devices should be protected from extremes of temperature, weather, and electromagnetic radiation. If, however, the device needs to be maintained within a particular range of temperature and relative humidity, or protected from impact, vibration, or pressure, this information should be indicated on the outer label (EN 45502-1 p. 12). CONNECTION

TO

OTHER DEVICES (§9(IV))

If the sales package contains an implantable device that must be connected to other devices or accessories that are not included in the package in order to operate as required for its intended purpose, the sales package label must identify the connector types or conÞgurations required (EN 45502-1 p. 11). The characteristics of the connection must be described in sufÞcient detail to enable the user to obtain a safe combination. This description could take the form of a reference to published standards that specify those characteristics (EN 1041 p. 13). DEVICE CONTAINING RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES (§8(V)) If the package contains any radioactive substance, the label of the sales package must describe the nature, type, and activity of the radiation. MARKINGS

FOR

SPECIAL-PURPOSE DEVICES (§§14.2(V)

AND

14.2(VI))

For the special marking on investigational and custom-made devices, see the appropriate sections in Chapter 14.

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE (IFU) The AIMDD requires that when an AIMD is placed on the market, it must be accompanied by IFU. ER 15 of the AIMDD speciÞes the minimum information that, when appropriate, must be included in the IFU for an AIMD. PARTICULARS

FROM THE

LABELS (§15(II))

The AIMDD requires that the IFU must contain all of the applicable information required by the directive to be on the sterile package label (if a sterile package exists) and on the sales package label of the device except for: • the month and year of manufacture, and • the expiration date. There is no requirement in the European General Standard for AIMDs (EN 45502-1) to include the batch or serial number of the device as part of “a description of the device.” As a practical point, the manufacturers of AIMDs often provide an adhesive sticker (often several) bearing the device serial number as an aid and convenience to the user, who must record the serial number in different places including the patient’s chart and device registration forms. SpeciÞcally, the AIMDD requires that the following information from the labels must appear in the IFU: • The IFU must include the name and address of the manufacturer. The minimum address information required is the postcode and country, if this is sufÞcient to allow the customer to contact the manufacturer and, if necessary, the manufacturer’s agent within the EU. However, because space is not usually a critical issue in the documentation accompanying the device, it is advisable to include the full postal address along with a telephone number. • The IFU must provide a description of the device. For many AIMDs, the identity will be obvious to the intended user from a simple description such as “implantable pacemaker” or “cardiac pulse generator.” As part of the device identiÞcation, the IFU should include the model designation of the device. • If the IFU accompany a sterile package, they must include a declaration that the implantable parts of the AIMD have been sterilized. • The IFU must include information about any exceptional environmental or handling constraints (e.g., protection from temperature, humidity, pressure, vibration, or impact) necessary to allow the AIMD to be properly transported and stored. PERFORMANCES INTENDED

BY THE

MANUFACTURER (§15(III))

The IFU must describe the intended use for the device and the device speciÞcations, as well as set out the performance claimed by the manufacturer. Care should be taken to describe the performance of the device in clear and objective terms. ER 2 requires that the manufacturer must be able to verify any performance claims. The manufacturer must warn the user of undesirable side effects reasonably associated with the use of the device. Undesirable side effects should be listed in descending order based on their clinical signiÞcance as determined by their severity and frequency. The labeling should provide frequency data from adequately reported clinical studies when the data are not well known to the intended

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user and/or when this information is needed in deciding between the use of the device and an alternative procedure or approach. SELECTING

A

SUITABLE DEVICE (§15(IV))

The IFU must provide the information necessary for the clinician to select the appropriate device for the patient. In addition to the intended uses and side effects discussed in the previous section, this information could include contraindications and functional characteristics important in making a device selection. In addition, the IFU should describe in sufÞcient detail the accessories and related devices (e.g., a programmer) needed for the AIMD to achieve its intended purpose. DEVICE OPERATION (§15(V)) The IFU should provide information that will allow the clinician to use the AIMD safely for the purpose intended. The IFU must alert the clinician to the nature and frequency of maintenance, calibration, and other required activities (e.g., reÞlling a drug reservoir) to ensure that the device operates properly. If there are external controls or indicators that must be manipulated or read by the patient, the IFU should provide clear directions so that the patient can properly use the device. An example of such an external control device would be a patient activator for an implanted neurological stimulator, which might enable the patient to activate the implant and set the level of stimulation. For a device intended to administer medicinal substances, the IFU must advise the clinician of the substances that the device is designed to deliver. Any limitations on the choice of substance should be included (e.g., requiring preservative-free morphine sulfate). RECIPROCAL INTERFERENCE (§§15(VII)

AND

8(IV))

Medical devices may interact with one another or with other medical treatments in ways that harm the patient, damage the devices, or render one or the other of the treatments ineffective. Of particular concern are those treatments and procedures that could permanently damage the AIMD. These include procedures that result in an electrical current through the body from an external source (i.e., electrocautery), the use of therapeutic ultrasound, therapeutic ionizing radiation, and diathermy (EN 455021 p. 28). The IFU must identify the risks of “reciprocal interference” and contain warnings regarding the interactions between the AIMD and other instruments or equipment that are likely to be used in the course of clinical investigations or medical treatments. Examples could include damage to a pacemaker caused by deÞbrillation of a patient or the risk of ventricular Þbrillation induced by currents coupled into the heart from electrocautery being used in the vicinity of an implanted pacemaker/lead system. The IFU should advise the clinician of steps to be taken before the procedure in question (e.g., turning the device off) and/or to carefully monitor the AMID during treatment. The IFU may also need to warn the clinician that damage to the device may not be immediately detectable. STERILE PACKAGING (§15(VIII)) If the device is provided in a sterile package, the IFU must include instructions to the user in the event of damage to the sterile package. These instructions could range from returning the device to the manufacturer to procedures for resterilizing the device. If resterilization is recommended, then the IFU must provide the details for the appropriate methods. The IFU should also contain warnings about inappropriate sterilization (e.g., “Do not autoclave”).

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REUSABLE DEVICES (§15(IX)) Typically, implantable parts of an AIMD system are not intended to be reused once they have been implanted in a patient. However, if the manufacturer intends that the device is reusable, then the IFU must include a warning that the device can be reused only if it has been reconditioned, under the responsibility of a manufacturer, to comply with the ERs of the AIMDD. IMPLANTABLE DEVICES (§15(VI)) If the device is implantable, the IFU must include any appropriate operating instructions, warnings, and precautions to avoid risks uniquely associated with the implantation of the device. These risks could include such things as body rejection phenomena, erosion through the skin, embolism, and infections. This category should include those risks that are recognizable and foreseeable as opposed to those that are unknown and/or improbable (EUCOMED p. 7). YEAR

OF

AUTHORIZATION

TO

AFFIX

THE

CE MARK (§15(I))

The AIMDD, unlike the other two medical device directives, requires that the IFU bear the year that the manufacturer received authorization to afÞx the CE conformity marking to the product. This date will appear on the certiÞcate issued by the NotiÞed Body. DEVICE CONTAINING RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES (§8(V)) Devices that contain any radioactive substances should include in the IFU a detailed description of the nature, type, intensity, and distribution of the radiation. In addition to providing information on the nature of the radiation, the IFU should describe means of protecting the patient and the user, ways of avoiding mishandling, and the risks inherent in the use of the device. MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES INCORPORATED

INTO THE

DEVICE (§10.)

If a medicinal substance is incorporated as an integral part of a device, the IFU should describe the substance using the International Nonproprietary Name or other commonly used name, the quantity available, and an explanation of the beneÞcial effect of the medicinal substance. NONINVASIVE IDENTIFICATION (§12.) The IFU should include an explanation of the method of interpreting the code used to noninvasively identify the device (EN 45502-1 p. 49). PATIENT INFORMATION The information described in the previous sections is directed primarily at the clinician. This information is intended to enable the device to be used safely and for the purpose intended. In contrast, the information in this section is intended both for enabling the clinician to use the device, and to enable qualiÞed medical staff to brief the patient on contraindications or precautions that should be taken into account. As a qualiÞed professional will interpret the information, it need not be written in a manner that can be read and understood by the patient. If the information is not needed to brief the patient, or is obvious, it need not be included (EUCOMED p. 8). When appropriate, the IFU should contain information on the topics described in the following sections.

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247

ENERGY SOURCE (§15(X))

If the device has an implantable energy source, the IFU should contain information that enables the clinician to estimate the lifetime of the energy source under the conditions of use. CHANGES

IN

PERFORMANCE (§15(XI))

The IFU should explain the precautions that the clinician and the patient should take in the event of changes in the performance of the device. This could include instructions on what signal to look for that would indicate a change in performance and what action should be taken by the patient (i.e., contact a healthcare provider immediately) and the clinician (i.e., replace the device) if any signals are observed. For example, some AIMDs are equipped with an audible alarm intended to alert the patient to conditions such as a low battery, low reservoir volume (i.e., for an implantable drug pump), or other internal errors. The patient must be instructed as to what action to take if such an alarm occurs. EXPOSURE

TO

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS (§15(XII))

Some devices may be affected by exposure to reasonably foreseeable environmental conditions. The AIMDD lists magnetic Þelds, external electrical inßuences, electrostatic discharge, and pressure, or variations in pressure, as examples. If there are reasonably foreseeable environmental conditions that the patient should avoid, the IFU should provide the necessary brieÞng material to the medical staff. For example, the instructions leaßet might tell the medical staff to instruct the patient to avoid work environments where arc welders, induction furnaces, resistance welders, radio, or microwavefrequency transmitters are in use—if the device is susceptible to interference from high-powered electromagnetic Þelds. Patients might also be instructed to seek medical guidance before entering areas with warning notices advising against entry by pacemaker patients (EN 45502-1 p. 30). ADMINISTRATION

OF

MEDICINAL PRODUCTS (§15(XIII))

The IFU must provide adequate information on the medicinal product or products that the device is designed to administer. This includes any restrictions in the choice of substances to be delivered by the device. THINGS TO REMEMBER The AIMDD covers the placing on the market and putting into service of any medical device that is, at the same time, both “active” and “implantable.” The medical purpose may be achieved by a stand-alone device or as a result of several devices being used as a system. Each part of the system is covered by the AIMDD regardless of whether the part by itself is “active” or “implantable.” “Accessories” to AIMDs are by deÞnition AIMDs in the own right. This does not mean that the deÞnition presupposes that a product described by the manufacturer as an accessory must necessarily meet the attributes “active” and “implantable.” Following this logic, a programmer or external activator for controlling an AIMD is covered by the deÞnition of “active implantable medical device.” The information provided by the manufacturer with an AIMD is covered by the ERs in Annex I of the AIMDD. Failure to follow or satisfy these requirements may lead to the device being deemed improperly labeled (i.e., misbranded). The labeling requirements are contained in ERs 14.1 (sterile package), 14.2 (sales package), and 15 (IFU).

The In Vitro Diagnostic Device 17 Directive (IVDD) The In Vitro Diagnostic Device Directive (IVDD) covers the placing on the market and putting into service of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices and their accessories. For the purposes of the IVDD, accessories are treated as IVD devices in their own right (Directive 98/79/EC §1(1)). An IVD device is “any medical device which is a reagent, reagent product, calibrator, control material, kit, instrument, apparatus, equipment, or system whether used alone or in combination, intended by the manufacturer to be used in vitro for the examination of specimens, including blood and tissue donations, derived from the human body” (Directive 98/79/EC §1(2(b))). The IVDD entered into force on December 7, 1998. The directive speciÞed that member states must apply the provisions of the directive from June 7, 2000. The directive further speciÞed that for a period of Þve years following the entry into force of this directive, member states must accept the placing on the market of devices that conformed to the rules in force in their territory on the date this directive entered into force. For an additional two years, these devices might continue to be put into service (Directive 98/79/EC §22). As with the other directives, the IVDD includes accessories that are intended by the manufacturer to be used together with the IVD device to enable the IVD device to achieve its intended purpose. This directive will consider specimen receptacles, whether vacuum-type or not, speciÞcally intended by their manufacturers for the primary containment and preservation of specimens derived from the human body for the purpose of IVD examination to be IVD devices. The directive will apply equally to IVD devices intended for professional-use and to IVD devices intended by the manufacturer for normal use in the home environment (i.e., for self-testing). IMPROPER LABELING The information provided by the manufacturer with an IVD device is covered by the essential requirements (ERs) of the IVDD. Annex I of the IVDD includes speciÞc minimal requirements for information that must be on the label and in the instructions for use (IFU). These requirements include (Directive 98/79/EC Annex I(8)): • • • • • •

general labeling provisions, devices with a measuring function, particulars on the label of reagents, particulars on the label of IVD instruments and equipment, IFU, and devices incorporating dangerous substances.

Failure to follow or satisfy these requirements may lead to the device being deemed improperly labeled. The following sections discuss each of these six areas in detail. As an aid to cross-referencing to the IVDD, the number of the Essential Requirements (ER) in Annex I (e.g., §8.4) is listed with the corresponding topic.

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

GENERAL LABELING PROVISIONS The IVDD requires that each device must be accompanied by the information needed to identify the manufacturer and to use it properly, taking into account the training and knowledge of the potential users. As far as practical and appropriate, the information needed to use the device safely and properly should be placed on the device itself and/or, where appropriate, on the sales packaging. If individual full labeling of each unit is not practical, then the information must be placed on the packaging and/or in the documentation supplied with one or more devices. As with the other medical device directives, the IVDD encourages the use of symbols to convey the required information. When a manufacturer wishes to use symbols and colors to convey the required information, it must use the symbols and identiÞcation colors deÞned in the harmonized standards. If a needed symbol is not deÞned in a harmonized standard, then the manufacturer is free to use symbols deÞned in other recognized sources such as International Standards Organization (ISO) Publication 15223. If necessary, the manufacturer may develop special symbols, remembering that, to be effective, the meaning of a symbol should be clear when viewed in context of the device. If a symbol or color is not deÞned in a harmonized standard, it must be described in the documentation accompanying the device. Unless a symbol that appears in a harmonized standard is very well known through long use, it is a good idea to explain the symbol in the accompanying documentation. INTENDED PURPOSE (§8.5) The IVDD requires that the manufacturer must state the intended purpose of the device clearly in the IFU and, when appropriate, on the label unless the intended purpose is obvious to the user, taking into account the potential user’s training and knowledge. IVDS INTENDED

FOR

“SELF-TESTING” (§7)

Many IVD devices are intended by their manufacturers to be used normally in the home environment. These devices must be designed and manufactured in such a way that they perform appropriately for their intended purpose, taking into account both skills and means available to the user, and reasonably expected variations in the user’s technique and environment. The information and instructions provided by the manufacturer should be easily understood and applied by the user. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION (§8.6) The IVDD requires that, whenever reasonable and practical, devices and their detachable components be identiÞed to allow action to be taken in case of any potential risk. Such identiÞcation will enable the manufacturer to recall the device and/or its detachable components, if necessary. To satisfy this requirement, the device should bear a batch or serial number. In addition, detachable components that are intended by the manufacturer to be used separately from the original device are to be identiÞed with a batch or serial number (EN 1041 p. 6). To distinguish the identiÞcation code on the label, the batch code is to be preceded by the word “LOT” or the lot symbol (see Symbol 3 in Table 15.3). A serial number may be identiÞed using the serial number symbol (see Symbol 4 in Table 15.3). In either case, the use of the symbol precludes the need for translation. DEVICES WITH A MEASURING FUNCTION Devices that are instruments or apparatus having a measuring function must provide adequate stability and accuracy within appropriate limits, taking into account the intended purpose of the

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device and the availability of appropriate reference measurement standards. The manufacturer must specify the accuracy limits of the device (Directive 98/79/EC Annex I(4.1)). MEASUREMENT, MONITORING,

AND

DISPLAY SCALES (§3.6)

The measurement, monitoring, or display scales must be designed and manufactured in line with accepted ergonomic principles, taking into account the intended purpose of the device. This includes color changes and other visual indicators. UNITS

OF

MEASURE (§9.2)

Devices that incorporate a measuring function must express the result of the measurement in legal units conforming to the provisions of Council Directive 80/181/EEC.* The basic units are those of the International System of Units (SI), which is described in ISO 1000. PARTICULARS ON THE LABEL OF REAGENTS IVDD ER 8.4 speciÞes the minimum information that must be included on the label of an IVD device. The requirements described in the following sections are constructed around the needs of IVD reagents. Here, the manufacturers need to pay attention to the requirements of key product standards such as EN 375 and EN 376. These standards subdivide the requirements in the directive into the details in the label on the “immediate container,” and details in the label on the “outer container.” The label requirements in the following sections will follow this format. The “immediate container” is deÞned as the packaging layer that protects the content(s) from contamination and/or physical damage (e.g., a sealed vial, an ampule, a bottle, a foiled pouch, or a sealed plastic bag. The “outer container” is the layer of packaging that encloses the immediate container(s), creating a single entity or assembly of different or identical components. These packages are similar in concept to the “sterile package” and “sales package” described in the Active Implantable Medical Device Directive (AIMDD). IMMEDIATE CONTAINER The label of the immediate container should provide the information listed in the following sections in legible characters. If the available space is too small to contain this information or if the labeling would interfere with the reading of analytical results, the information may be reduced to the product name, supplier, lot number, expiration date, appropriate warnings, and precautions. The listing of contents, intended use, and storage instructions may be given on the label of the outer container, or in the IFU if this is more appropriate (EN 375 §4.2.1; EN 376 §4.2.1). For small professional-use IVDDs, the indication of the microbiological state (e.g., sterile) may also be given on the label of the outer container or in the IFU if this is more appropriate (EN 375 §4.2.1). If the outer container encloses components intended to perform a single measurement, the components present in such a container must be identiÞed in the same manner described in the IFU (e.g., name, letter, number, symbol, color, or graphic). If appropriate, the immediate container should carry any needed cautionary statements (EN 376 §4.2.1).

* Council Directive 80/181/EEC of 20 December 1979 on the approximation of the laws of the member states relating to units of measurement and on the repeal of Directive 71/354/EEC. 1980. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 23, no. L 039 (February 15).

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Product Name (§13.4(b))

The product name on the label must ensure that the user can properly identify the product. In addition, components of a kit must be identiÞed by name, letter, number, symbol, color, or graphic in the same manner as described in the IFU or on the outer container (EN 375 §4.2.3; EN 376 §4.2.3). Manufacturer (Supplier) (§8.4(a))

The name and address of the manufacturer must be given on the label of the immediate container. Alternatively, recognized trade name or logo is sufÞcient (EN 375 §4.2.2; EN 376 §4.2.2). For imported devices, the label of the outer container and the IFU must also contain information about the manufacturer’s authorized representative in the community. Lot Number (§8.4(d))

The label of each immediate container should bear the batch code, preceded by the word “LOT” or the lot symbol (see symbol 3 in Table 15.3). If the contents of the immediate container are serialized, then the immediate container label should bear the serial number preceded by the words “serial number” or the serial number symbol (see Symbol 4 of Table 15.3). Expiration Date (§8.4(e))

The immediate container must bear an expiration date based on the storage instructions stated on the label (EN 375 §4.2.6; EN 376 §4.2.6). The expiration date may be expressed as the year, month, and day (i.e., yyyy-mm-dd), or as the year and month (i.e., yyyy-mm). If the latter form is used, then the expiration date is the last day of the month indicated (EN 375 p. 5; CEN, EN 376 p. 8). The “use by” symbol may be used to identify the expiration date (see Symbol 2 in Table 15.3). Contents (§8.4(b))

The label of the immediate container of a professional-use reagent must identify the contents in terms of mass, volume, and/or the number of measurements that can be made with the contents (EN 375 §4.2.7). For a reagent intended for self-testing, the label should identify the contents by specifying the number of measurements or tests that can be performed (EN 376 §4.2.7). Intended Use (§§8.4(b), 8.4(g), and 8.4(k))

A reagent intended for self-testing must be clearly labeled as such. The label of the immediate container should contain a brief indication of the intended use of the reagent (e.g., “pregnancy test”). The label must also bear, in lay terms, a clear indication that the device is intended for in vitro use (e.g., “not to be swallowed”) (EN 376 §4.2.8). A professional-use reagent may simply be labeled with a general statement (e.g., “for in vitro diagnostic use (only)” or “in vitro test”). Cautionary Statements (§8.4(j))

If an IVD reagent is considered hazardous, the label of the immediate container must bear the appropriate cautionary symbols and/or statements. These are described later in this chapter in the section, “Devices Incorporating Dangerous Substances.”

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TABLE 17.1 Examples of Recommended Storage-Temperature Intervals

Storage Information (§8.4(h))

The label of the immediate container should list the storage conditions necessary to protect the stability of the reagent in an unopened state. Storage conditions for an opened or reconstituted product that are different from those in an unopened state must also be listed on the label of the immediate container. Examples of recommended storage temperature intervals are shown in Table 17.1. Sterile Device Marking (§8.4(c))

When appropriate, the label of the immediate container should indicate that the contents are sterile, using the word “STERILE.” To avoid the need for translation, the sterile symbol may be used (see Symbol 6 in Table 15.3). If the contents of the immediate container have a special microbiological state, or state of cleanliness, this should be indicated on the label. Markings for Investigational Use (§8.4(f))

For the special marking on devices intended to be used for gathering performance evaluation data, see the section, “Performance-Evaluation Device Marking” in Chapter 14. OUTER CONTAINER The label of the outer container should provide the information listed in the following sections in legible characters. Product Name (8.4(b))

The product name must appear on the label of the outer container (EN 375 §4.1.3). When appropriate, the catalog reference (product code) should also appear on the label (EN 376 §4.1.3). The catalog number may be identiÞed with the catalog number symbol (see Symbol 10 in Table 15.3). Manufacturer (Supplier) (§8.4(a))

The name and address of the manufacturer must be given on the label of the outer container. Alternatively, a recognized trade name or logo is sufÞcient (EN 375 §4.1.2; EN 376 §4.1.2). The full postal address may not be required if the address is of sufÞcient detail to enable the supplier to be contacted (e.g., postcode and country) (EN 1041 p. 10). If the supplier is the manufacturer, the label must bear the address of the manufacturer’s registered place of business. A manufacturer who does not have a registered place of business in a Member State may place devices on the market under its own name. However, the manufacturer must appoint

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an authorized representative who is established within the European Union (EU). In this case, the label, the outer packaging, or the instructions for use must also bear the name and address of the manufacturer’s authorized representative (EN 1041 p. 10). If neither the manufacturer nor the manufacturer’s authorized representative is based in the EU, then the importer is deemed responsible under the terms of the directive for placing the imported product on the EU market. In this case, the label, the outer packaging, or the IFU must also bear the name and address of the importer. Lot Number (§8.4(d))

The label of the outer container should bear the batch code, preceded by the word “LOT” or the lot symbol (see Symbol 3 in Table 15.3). If the contents are serialized, then the outer container label should bear the serial number preceded by the words “serial number” or the serial number symbol (see Symbol 4 of Table 15.3). Expiration date (§8.4(e))

The outer container label must bear the expiration date of the component having the earliest expiration date (see the description of “expiration date” in the section on the immediate container label). Contents (§8.4(b))

The label of the immediate container of a professional-use IVD device must identify the contents in terms of mass, volume, and/or the number of measurements that can be made with the contents. The components of a kit must be listed and brießy characterized on the label (e.g., “buffer”). Also, the components of a kit must be designated in the same way as on the immediate container label (EN 375 §4.1.7). Information on additional materials, such as accessories, may be provided on the outer container label or in the IFU. For an IVD device intended for self-testing, the label should identify the contents by specifying the number of measurements or tests than can be performed (EN 376 §4.1.7). Identity of the Device and Intended Use (§§8.4(b), 8.4(g), and 8.4(k))

An IVD device intended for self-testing must be clearly labeled as such. The label of the outer container should contain a brief indication of the intended use of the IVD device (e.g., “pregnancy test”). The label must also bear, in lay terms, a clear indication that the device is intended for in vitro use (e.g., “not to be swallowed”) (EN 376 §4.1.8). The intended use of a professional-use IVD device may be given by means of the product name or analytical method (e.g., “Glucose, Hexokinase Method” or “ASAT”) (EN 375 §4.1.8). Cautionary Statements (§8.4(j))

If an IVD reagent is considered hazardous, the label of the outer container must bear the appropriate cautionary symbols and/or statements. These are described later in this chapter in the section, “Devices Incorporating Dangerous Substances.” Storage Information (§8.4(h))

The label of the outer container should list the storage conditions necessary to protect the stability of the reagent in an unopened state. Examples of recommended storage temperature intervals are

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shown in Table 17.1. Other storage conditions that can affect stability (e.g., light or humidity) must be listed on the label of the outer container. Special Operating Instructions (§ 8.4(i))

The manufacturer must take into account the technical and clinical knowledge and the skill of the intended user when determining the type and extent of the operating instructions that must be included on the label for the safe use of the device. In many cases, operating instructions are required on the label only if the mode of operation of the device is novel or unfamiliar and would not be self-evident to the intended user (EN 1041 p. 12). Sterile Device Marking (§8.4(c))

If the outer container encloses a reagent that is sterile, or has a special microbiological state, or state of cleanliness, the label must contain a declaration that the package contains such a device. Markings for Investigational Use (§8.3(f))

For the special marking on devices intended to be used for gathering performance evaluation data, see the section, “Performance-Evaluation Device Marking” in Chapter 14. PARTICULARS ON THE LABEL OF IVD INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT A comparison of the requirements in ER 8.4 of the IVDD and ER 13.3 of the MDD will demonstrate that the basic requirements for the device label are very similar. There are, however, a few important differences in the requirements. The MDD lists several requirements that are not mentioned in the IVDD. These are: • The IVDD does not require that the label bear an indication that the device is for single use. However, common sense would indicate that a device intended by its manufacturer to be for a single use should be appropriately marked (e.g., by use of the “do not reuse” symbol [see Symbol 1 in Table 15.3]) on the device and/or the package label, and/or the IFU. • The IVDD does not recognize the “custom-made device” designation. • The IVDD does not recognize the “cxclusively for clinical investigation” designation. Instead, the IVDD allows devices intended for performance-evaluation studies outside the manufacturer’s premises to be marked for performance evaluation only. • The label of an IVD device is not required by the IVDD to bear the date of manufacture. • There is no requirement in the IVDD to indicate the method of sterilization on the label. The IVDD does place the following additional requirements that go beyond the MDD: • IVD devices are required, when appropriate for the proper use of the device, to bear a statement that the device is for in vitro use (§8.4(g)). • If the device is intended for self-testing, the label must clearly state this fact (§8.4(k)). The label of an IVD instrument should provide the information listed in the following sections. The markings should be visible from the exterior of the instrument, or be visible after removing a cover or opening a door intended to be removed or opened without the aid of a tool. Marking on the device must remain clear and legible under conditions of normal use and resist the effects of

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cleaning agents speciÞed by the manufacturer. EN 61010-1 provides a test for durability. Following this test, markings must be clearly legible and adhesive labels must not have come loose or become curled at the edges (EN 61010-1 §5.3). EN 61010-1 applies to electrical instruments for measurement, control, and laboratory use in general, not just to IVD instruments. To bridge the gap, the Committee for European Standardization (CEN) has developed an additional standard that applies the requirements of EN 61010-1 to the marking of IVD instruments. EN 1658* details the requirements for marking IVD instruments by applying the requirements of EN 61010-1 with some additions. Published in 1996, EN 1658 has been harmonized under the IVDD. The required markings are not to be placed on the bottom of the instrument except when space is limited on a hand-held instrument (EN 1658 §4.1). In addition, EN 1658 requires that marking must be permanently afÞxed (EN 1658 §4.10). Product Name (§13.4(b))

A model number, name, or other means to identify the instrument must be placed on the label. If the instrument bearing the same distinctive designation (model number) is manufactured at more that one location, the equipment from each manufacturing location shall be marked so that location can be identiÞed. The marking of the factory location may be in code and need not be on the instrument’s exterior (EN 61010-1 §5.1.2 b)). Manufacturer (Supplier) (§8.4(a))

The name and address of the manufacturer must be given on the label of the immediate container. Alternatively, a recognized trade name or logo is sufÞcient (EN 61010-1 §5.1.2(a)). For imported devices, the label of the outer container and the IFU must also contain information about the manufacturer’s authorized representative in the community. Lot Number (§8.4(d))

The instrument label should bear the serial number preceded by the words “serial number” or the serial number symbol (see Symbol 4 of Table 15.3), or the batch code, preceded by the word “LOT” or the lot symbol (see Symbol 3 in Table 15.3). The IVD device does not require the date of manufacture on the labeling of an IVD device. However, EN 1658 requires not only the serial or lot number but also, if appropriate, the date of manufacture in yyyy-mm-dd format (EN 1658 §4.2). Unfortunately, no guidance is provided about the conditions that would make the date of manufacture “appropriate” as a marking on the instrument. Expiration Date (§8.4(e))

One does not usually think of an instrument as having an expiration date. However, some IVD instruments, particularly ones intended for self testing, may have a date before which they should be used. An example could be an instrument with a battery that cannot be changed by the user. If this is the case, the outer container label and possibly the label of the instrument itself should bear an expiration date. If present, the expiration date may be expressed as the year, month, and day (i.e., yyyy-mm-dd), or as the year and month (i.e., yyyy-mm). If the latter form is used, the expiration

* European Committee for Standardization. 1996. Requirements for marking of in vitro diagnostic instruments. EN 1568. (December). Brussels: Comite Européen de Normalisation.

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date is the last day of the month indicated. The “use by” symbol may be used to identify the expiration date (see Symbol 2 in Table 15.3). Intended Use (§§8.4(b), 8.4(g), and 8.4(k))

An instrument intended for self-testing should be clearly labeled as such. The label on the instrument should contain a brief indication of the intended use of the instrument (e.g., “blood-glucose meter”). Warning Markings (§8.4(j))

Warning markings must be visible when the instrument is ready for normal use. If a warning applies to a particular part of the instrument, the marking should be placed on, or near, this part. If it is necessary for the user to refer to the IFU to preserve the protection afforded by the instrument, the instrument must be marked with Symbol 14 in Table 17.2. Symbol 14 is not required to accompany other symbols that are explained in the IFU (EN 61010-1 §5.2).

TABLE 17.2 Symbols for Marking In Vitro Diagnostic Instruments a)

No.

Reference

Description

1

IEC 60417-5031

Direct current

2

IEC 60417-5032

Alternating current

3

IEC 60417-5033

Both direct and alternating current

IEC 604175032-1

Three-phase alternating current

5

IEC 60417-5017

Earth (ground) terminal

6

IEC 60417-5019

Protective conductor terminal

7

IEC 60417-5020

Frame or chassis terminal

8

IEC 60417-5021

Equipotentiality

9

IEC 60417-5007

"On" (Supply)

10

IEC 60417-5008

"Off" (Supply)

11

IEC 60417-5172

Equipment protected throughout by double or reinforced insulation

12

IEC 61010-1 Table 1 No. 12

Caution, risk of electrical shock

13

IEC 60417-5041

Caution, hot surface

14

ISO 7000-0434

Caution, risk of danger

15

IEC 60417-5268

In position of a bi-stable push control

16

IEC 60417-5269

4

a) The b)

Symbol

3

b)

Out position of a bi-stable push control

symbols in this table are for convenience of reference only and have no official sanction. The reader is referred to EN 60601-1. See 5.4.1 of EN 61010-1, which requires manufacturers to state the documentation must be consulted in all cases where this symbol is marked. Source: EN 61010-1:2001

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Warning markings must comply with the following requirements (EN 61010-1 §5.2): • Symbols shall be at least 2.75 mm high. Text shall be at least 1.5 mm high and contrast in color with the background. • Symbols or text molded, stamped, or engraved into a material shall be at least 2.0 mm high. If not contrasting in color, they must have a depth or raised height of at least 0.5 mm. If the IFU state that the user is allowed to gain access, using a tool, to a part of the instrument where the user could come into contact with hazardous voltage during normal use, the instrument must bear a warning that the instrument must be isolated or disconnected from the source of the hazardous voltage before access (EN 61010-1 §5.2). Other Markings (§8.4(i))

EN 61010-1 describes a number of other marking requirements for instruments. Broadly, these can be considered as part of the particular operation instructions required by ER 8.4(i). They include: 1. Mains supply marking—An instrument that is intended to be connected to a supply main must be marked with the following (EN 61010-1 §5.1.3): • Nature of the supply—For a.c. supplies, the label must state the required frequency or range of frequencies (e.g., 50-60 Hz). For information purposes, it may be useful to mark single-phase a.c. equipment with symbol 2 in Table 17.2 or three-phase equipment with Symbol 4 in Table 17.2. For d.c. supplies, the instrument should be marked with Symbol 1 in Table 17.2. For instruments that are suitable to either an a.c. or d.c. supply, Symbol 3 in Table 17.2 can be used. • Rated supply voltage—The label on the instrument should state the rated value of the supply voltage(s) or the range of supply voltages (e.g., 120-230 V). If appropriate, the rated voltage ßuctuations may also be marked. • Power rating—The label on the instrument should state the maximum rated power in watts or volt-amperes, or the maximum rated current, with all accessories or plug-in modules connected. If the instrument can be used with more than one voltage range, separate power ratings should be marked for each voltage range unless the maximum and minimum values do not differ by more than 20 percent of the mean value. • Voltage indicator—If the design of the instrument allows the user to set different rated supply voltages, the instrument must provide an indicator to inform the user of the current setting. For portable equipment, this indicator must be visible from the exterior. If the rated voltage can be set without the use of a tool, the action of changing the voltage rating must also change the indicator. • Accessory mains socket outlets—If the instrument is equipped with accessory mains socket outlets that can accept standard mains plugs, these outlets must be marked with the voltage if different from mains-supply voltage. If the outlet is intended to be used with speciÞc equipment, it shall be marked to identify the equipment for which it is intended. If not, the maximum rated current or power must be marked, or Symbol 14 in Table 17.2 is to be placed beside the outlet with full details included in the IFU. 2. Fuses—The fuse holder of any fuse that can be replaced by the user must be marked so the user can identify the correct replacement fuse (EN 61010-1 §5.1.4). For example, the codes described in IEC 60127 could be used to satisfy this requirement. For fuses that are not replaceable by the operator, instructions would be provided in the maintenance section of the IFU.

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3. Terminals, connections, and operating devices—The purpose of terminals, connectors, control, and indicators should be marked on the instrument (EN 61010-1 §5.1.5). EN 610101 qualiÞes this statement with “if necessary for safety.” EN 1658 removes this qualiÞcation when applying EN 61010-1 to IVD instruments (EN 1658 §4.6). Special attention is give to any connections for ßuids such as gas, water, and drainage. When there is insufÞcient space on the exterior of the instrument, Symbol 14 in Table 17.2 can be used. Special requirements exist for terminals for connection to the supply mains. These terminals are to be identiÞed as follows (EN 61010-1 §5.1.5.1): • Functional earth terminals are to be marked with Symbol 5 in Table 17.2. • Protective conductor terminals are to be marked with Symbol 6 of Table 17.2, except when the protective conductor terminal is a part of an approved mains-appliance inlet. In this case, the symbol can be placed close to or on the terminal. • Terminals of measuring and control circuits that are permitted by EN 61010-1 to be connected to accessible conductive parts must be marked with Symbol 7 of Table 17.2 if this connection is not self-evident. This symbol may be considered as a warning in that it indicates that a hazardous voltage must not be connected to the terminal. The symbol should also be used if the user could make such a connection inadvertently. • Interior terminals that have a hazardous voltage present are to be marked with the voltage, current, charge, or energy value or range of values, or with Symbol 14 of Table 17.2. This requirement does not apply to mains-supply outlets when a standard mains socket outlet is used. • Accessible functional earth terminals connected to accessible conductive parts are to be marked with an indication that this is the case, unless it is self-evident. Symbol 8 of Table 17.2 is acceptable for this marking. Unless a clear indication is provided on the instrument that voltage and current-measuring circuit terminals are not intended to be connected to voltage-to-earth of 50 V a.c. or 120 V d.c., the terminals are to be marked as follows (EN 61010-1 §5.1.5.2): • Measuring-circuit terminals for measurements within Category I as described in Subclause 6.7.4 of EN 61010-1 are marked with the rated voltage or current as applicable and with Symbol 14 of Table 17.2. • Measuring-circuit terminals for measurements within Category II, III, and IV as described in Subclause 6.7.4 of EN 61010-1 are marked with the rated voltage or current as applicable and with the relevant measurement category. The measurement categories marking are “CAT II,” “CAT III,” or “CAT IV.” Examples of acceptable indications that the input is intended to be less than 50 V a.c. or 120 V d.c. to earth include: • the full-scale deßection marking on a single-range indicating voltmeter or maximum marking of a multirange voltmeter, • the maximum range marking of a voltage-selector switch, and • the marked intended function of the instrument (e.g., millivolt meter). Voltage and current-measuring circuits that are permanently connected and not accessible need not be marked. The measurement category and the rate-maximum voltage and current for such terminals can be included as part of the installation instructions. An exception is also permitted for circuit terminals that are dedicated for connection to speciÞc terminals on other equipment, provided that there is a means for identifying these terminals. Markings should be placed adjacent to the terminals unless there is insufÞcient space. In this case,

260

4.

5.

6.

7.

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

the markings may be placed on the rating plate or scale plate, or the terminals may be marked with Symbol 14 in Table 17.2 and the required information appearing in the IFU. Switches and circuit breakers—If the power-supply switch or circuit breaker is used to disconnect the instrument from the supply mains, the on and off positions must be clearly marked. Symbols 9 and 10 in Table 17.2 can, in some cases, also be suitable as the switch identiÞcation. A lamp alone is not considered to be a satisfactory marking. Symbols 9 and 10 are not to be used for switches other than power-supply switches. If a push-button switch is used as the power-supply switch, Symbols 9 and 15 in Table 17.2 may be used to indicate the on position or Symbols 10 and 16 to indicate the off position. The pairs of symbols must appear close together (EN 61010-1 §6.1.6). Instruments protected by double or reinforced insulation—Instruments that are protected throughout by double or reinforced insulation are to be marked with Symbol 11 of Table 17.2 unless the instrument is provided with a protective conductor terminal. Instruments that are only partially protected by double or reinforced insulation should never bear Symbol 11 of Table 17.2 (EN 61010-1 §6.1.7). These markings must be on those parts of the instrument that cannot be removed by the user (EN 1658 §4.7). Field-wired terminal boxes—If the temperature of the terminals or the enclosure of a Þeldwired terminal box or compartment exceeds 60 ºC in normal conditions when measured at an ambient temperature of 40 ºC, or the maximum rated ambient temperature is higher, there must be a marking of the maximum temperature rating of the cable to be connected to the terminals. This marking should be visible before and during connection, or be beside the terminals (EN 61010-1 §6.1.8). Batteries and battery charging—If the instrument is equipped with a means of recharging batteries, and if nonrechargeable batteries would Þt in the battery compartment, there must be a warning in or near the battery compartment. The warning marking must warn against charging nonrechargeable batteries and indicate the type of rechargeable battery that can be used with the recharging circuit. If an explosion or Þre hazard could occur if the wrong battery is used in the instrument, a warning must also be placed on or near the battery compartment. Symbol 14 in Table 17.2 is an acceptable marking (EN 61010-1 §13.2.2). These markings must be on those parts of the instrument that cannot be removed by the user (EN 1658 §4.8.1). For battery-powered IVD instruments and equipment, the speciÞc battery type and polarity of the battery connections must be marked in or near the battery compartment (EN 1658, § 4.8.2).

Markings for Investigational Use (§8.4(f))

For the special marking on devices intended to be used for gathering performance evaluation data, see the section, “Performance-Evaluation Device Marking” in Chapter 14. INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE (IFU) The IVDD requires that each device must be accompanied by the information needed to use it properly. IFU must be on the device itself and/or on the packaging for each unit, or, where appropriate, on the sales packaging. When full labeling of each unit is not practical, the IFU must be set out on the packaging and/or the instruction leaßet supplied with one or more devices. An exception to this requirement is allowed if these devices can be used safely without such IFU. These would be devices where the users, because of their training and experience, would be familiar with their proper use.

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ER 8.7 of the IVDD speciÞes the minimum information that, when appropriate, must be included in the instructions for use for an IVD device. INSTRUCTIONS

FOR

USE

FOR

REAGENTS

IVD reagents must be supplied with IFU. It is common practice to supply the IFU as a package insert. In special cases, the IFU may be given on the outer container or in an operation manual that, in conjunction with the IFU of an instrument or other part of the analytical system, allows the user to safely and properly carry out the test procedure (EN 375 §5.1). The information provided must be sufÞciently detailed to ensure proper performance of the procedure and safe use of the reagent. For reagents intended for self-testing use, an explanation of the measurement results and necessary follow-up action should be included. Any symbols and identiÞcation colors used on any labels that are not in European harmonized standards must also be described (Directive 98/79/EC Annex 1(8.2)). Particulars from the Labels (§8.7(a))

The IFU must contain all of the applicable information required on the outer container label of the IVD, except: • the lot number of the device, and • the expiration date. Application and Intended Use (§8.7(d))

The intended use is to be described in terms of the Þeld of application. For professional-use products, this may be sufÞciently described by the product name or analytical method (e.g., “Glucose, Hexokinase Method” or “ASAT”) (EN 375 §5.5). For self-test products, the intended use must be described in terms that are readily understood by the layperson (e.g., “pregnancy test”). All products should bear a clear statement that they are for in vitro use (e.g., “for in vitro diagnostic use [only]”). For self-test products, this should be aimed at the layperson (e.g., “not to be swallowed”) (EN 376 §5.6). Composition of Reagents (§8.7(b))

In a kit, each component must be identiÞed using the same designations (i.e., name, letter, number, symbol, color, or graphic) as on the label of the immediate container (EN 375 §5.7). In addition, the instructions for use for professional-use products should contain a description of the nature and amount of the active ingredient(s) of each reagent(s) expressed in SI units. An explanation of other ingredients (e.g., stabilizers, host media) that inßuence the reaction should be described. Additional Materials and Devices (§8.7(e))

A list of any materials or equipment required but not provided with the reagent (e.g., stopwatch, cotton wool) must be included so the user can identify and obtain the proper supplies and instruments. Methodology (§8.7(h)(1))

The IFU must include information on the principle behind the method of the test. For self-test products, a brief description of how it works in basic terms, understandable to the layperson should be included (EN 376 §5.12.1).

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

For professional-use products, a more extensive explanation of the method is appropriate. This explanation should indicate the type of reaction (e.g., chemical, microbiological, or immunochemical) and provide a description of the indicator or detection system (EN 375 §5.12.1). Performance Criteria, Limitations, and Possible Errors (§§8.7(d), 8.7(h)(2), and 13.7(h)(4))

The factors and circumstances that can affect the results of the test (e.g., fasting or medication) together with precautions to avoid possible errors must be included in the IFU. For professional-use products, the analytical performance characteristics such as sensitivity, speciÞcity, precision, repeatability, reproducibility, and accuracy must be explained. Any limitations of the method, and, when appropriate, information on the diagnostic sensitivity and speciÞcity should be provided (EN 375 §5.12.2). The professional user also needs to be informed about the use of available reference measurement standards and materials. Any special training that is required should be described. Reagent Preparation (§8.7(h)(3))

If required, the IFU must describe the steps that are needed to prepare the reagent for use (e.g., reconstitution, incubation, dilution, instrument checks). Storage and Shelf Life after Opening (§§8.7(c) and 8.7(j))

The IFU must give the storage conditions and shelf life following the Þrst opening of the immediate container. In addition, the storage conditions and stability of working reagents are to be provided. This information is required if the storage conditions and shelf life are different than those speciÞed on the container. When appropriate, the IFU should tell the user how to identify when reagents have deteriorated to a point that the analytical performance of the IVD is affected (e.g., by change in color). Specimens (§8.7(f))

The IFU must explain the type of sample, the method for obtaining the specimen, any pretreatment required, and, if necessary, the storage conditions for maintaining the sample. For a professionaluse test, the IFU should include instructions for the preparation of the patient (EN 375 §5.10). Test Procedure (§8.7(g))

A detailed test procedure that can be followed by the operator must be provided in the IFU of all IVD devices. For a self-testing device, the detailed procedure (“how to carry out the test”) should explain the steps for preparing the working reagents. When applicable, procedures for carrying out a control should be given. These procedures must be clear to a layperson. Illustrations or line drawings may be useful in simplifying the instructions. If any signiÞcant changes from previous editions of the IFU have been made, the changes should be highlighted and explained (EN 375 §5.14; EN 376 §5.14). Reading and Explanation of Results (§§8.7(i), 8.7(k)(1), 8.7(k)(2), and 8.7 (l))

For a self-test device, the IFU should include a section on the procedures for reading the test results. The results need to be expressed and presented in a way that is readily understandable to a layperson. This section of the IFU should describe the meaning of the test results in the light of the intended use for the test. When applicable, measuring intervals should be included. Proposals for action to be taken by the user in the event of unexpected results should be included (EN 376 §5.13).

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A professional-use device, on the other hand, should provide the mathematical formula used to calculate the results. This could be accomplished by providing the name of a computer program used for that purpose. Suitable quality-control material should be provided together with the imprecision and inaccuracy to be expected, as well as procedures to validate the results. Where appropriate and available, reference intervals should be given for the analyte(s) being determined. including the appropriate reference population. Follow-up Action (§§8.7(t)(1), 8.7(t)(3), and 8.7(t)(4))

The user of a self-test product must be informed of the appropriate follow-up action to be taken in case of a positive, negative, or indeterminate result (e.g., “consult your physician”) (EN 376 §5.14). The user should be informed of the possibility of false positive or false negative results. The IFU should contain a statement clearly directing the user not to take any decision of medical relevance without consulting a medical practitioner. If the IVD is being used to monitor a preexisting condition (e.g., home blood-glucose testing), the IFU should tell the patient to refrain from adapting the treatment unless he or she has received appropriate training. Precautions and Warnings (§8.7(s))

If there are hazards (e.g., chemical, radioactive, or biological) associated with the product or its use, appropriate warnings and precautions should be included in the IFU. These should include the risks reasonably associated with misuse. If there are unusual risks or special precautions that should be taken when disposing of the material, these need to be covered in the IFU. Particular attention should be drawn to proper handling of substances of human or animal origin to prevent the spread of infection. Sterile Package (§§8.7(o) and 8.7(p))

If the product is provided in a sterile condition or in some other special microbiological state or state of cleanliness, the IFU must include instructions to the user in the event of damage to the protective package. These instructions could range from returning the device to the manufacturer to procedures for resterilization or decontamination. If resterilization is recommended, then the IFU must provide the details of the appropriate methods for sterilization. The IFU should also contain warnings about inappropriate sterilization (e.g., “Do not autoclave”). If the user is required to perform any special processes (e.g., sterilization) or other special handling before the IVD device can be used, these must be detailed in the IFU. Radiation-Emitting Products (§5.3)

IVD devices that emit radiation must include in the IFU a detailed description of the nature, type, intensity, and distribution of the radiation. In addition to providing information on the nature of the radiation, the IFU must describe means for protecting the user and ways to avoid mishandling. Literature References (§§8.7(h), 8.7(i), 8.7(k), and 8.7(l))

The instructions for use of a professional-use IVD device should provide applicable literature references in a bibliography (EN 375 §5.18). Particular Information that May Be Omitted (§8.7(t)(2))

For a self-test IVD device, speciÞc particulars required in the IFU (such as composition of the reagents) may be omitted if the information provided is sufÞcient to enable the layperson to know

264

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

how to use the IVD device and to understand the results of the test. The supplier should be able to provide adequate information on the product (e.g., expected accuracy, precision, analytical sensitivity, and speciÞcity) in response to a request from the physician, pharmacist, and/or consumer. Date of Issue for the Instructions for Use (IFU) (§8.7(u))

All material containing the IFU must bear the date on which the instructions were issued or the date on which they were last revised. INSTRUCTIONS

FOR

USE (IFU)

FOR INSTRUMENTS AND

EQUIPMENT

IVD instruments must also be supplied with IFU. It is common practice to supply the IFU in a separate user manual, which provides the necessary information for the safe and correct operation, maintenance, and basic troubleshooting of the instrument. For instruments intended for self-testing use, the user manual needs to be expressed in simple, easy-to-understand terms. A comparison of the requirements in ER 8.7 of the IVDD and ER 13.6 of the MDD will demonstrate that there are a number of similarities between the basic requirements. For instruments and equipment, the basic requirements described in Chapter 15 can be used as a starting point, paying special attention to the requirements of the standards used to demonstrate conformity (i.e., EN 61010-1). There are, however, several important differences in the requirements. The MDD lists a few requirements that are not mentioned in the IVDD. These requirements relate to the use of the medical device with a patient (i.e., risk associated with implantation [ER 16.6(e)], risk of reciprocal interference [ER 13.6(f)], and medicinal products delivered by or incorporated into the device [ERs 13.6(m) and 13.6(o)]). There are also several requirements (ERs 13.6(k) through 13.6(p)) in the MDD that discuss material that must be available to allow the medical staff to brief the patient on contraindications or precautions to be taken. In Chapter 15, these subjects are described under the heading of “Patient Information.” However, when applicable to the IVD instrument in question, this information must be present in a form that is understandable by the intended user, be that user a trained professional or a layperson. The IVDD contains a number of additional requirements that are unique to IVD instruments and equipment. These special requirements are described in the following sections. Particulars from the Labels (§8.7(a))

The IFU must contain all of the applicable information required on the outer container label of the IVD, except: • the lot number of the device; and • the expiration date, in those cases where there is one associated with the instrument. Application and Intended Use (§8.7(d))

The intended use is to be described in terms of the Þeld of application. For professional-use products, this may be sufÞciently described by the product name or analytical method. For self-test products, the intended use must be described in terms that are readily understood by the layperson (e.g., “blood-glucose monitoring system”). All products should bear a clear statement that they are for in vitro use (e.g., “intended for in vitro diagnostic use”).

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Additional Materials (§8.7(e))

This section of the user manual should describe any special materials needed for the effective use of the device, if these materials are not supplied with the instrument. This would include a list of needed reagents, in sufÞcient detail (i.e., product name, manufacturer, concentration, etc.) to allow the appropriate materials to be obtained. Methodology (§8.7(h)(1))

The user manual should include information on the principle behind the method of the test. For self-test products, a brief description of how it works in basic terms, understandable to the layperson, should be included. For professional-use products, this should indicate the type of reaction (e.g., chemical, microbiological, or immunochemical) and a description of the indicator or detection system. A bibliography with references that support the material presented should be included. Performance Criteria, Limitations, and Possible Errors (§§8.7(h)(2) and 8.7(h)(4))

The factors and circumstances that can affect the results of the test (e.g., fasting or medication) together with precautions to avoid possible errors must be included in the user manual. The user manual should provide information about the accuracy of the instrument claimed by the manufacturer. For professional-use products, the analytical-performance characteristics such as sensitivity, speciÞcity, precision, and accuracy must be explained. Also, the professional user needs to be informed about the use of available measurement standards. Any special training that is required should be described. Specimens (§8.7(f))

The manual should explain the type of sample, the method of obtaining the sample, any pretreatment required, and, if necessary, the storage conditions for maintaining the sample. Instrument Operation and Test Procedure (§8.7(g))

Detailed operating instructions that can be followed by the operator to successfully carry out the intended function of the instrument must be provided. If there are any signiÞcant changes from previous editions of the user manual, the changes should be highlighted and explained. The IFU should describe, in a level of detail appropriate to the intended user, the following information (EN 61010-1 §5.4.4): • IdentiÞcation of the operating controls and their use in all operating modes • An explanation of all safety-related symbols used on the equipment. Other symbols and identiÞcation colors used on any labels that are not in the European harmonized standards must also be described (Directive 98/79/EC Annex 1(8.2)) • An instruction on how to position the instrument for proper operation and a warning, if appropriate, not to position the instrument so that it is difÞcult to operate the device or to disconnect the instrument from the mains • Instructions for connection to accessories and other equipment, including an indication of suitable accessories, detachable parts, and any special materials needed • Instruction for replacement of consumable materials

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• Cleaning and decontamination instructions (see the description of maintenance and service requirements below) • Limits on continuous operation (i.e., the duty cycle of the instrument) • Warnings about potentially poisonous gases that can be liberated from the instrument and possible quantities • Detailed instruction about risk-reduction procedures when the instrument contains or uses ßammable liquids For a self-test device, the detailed procedure (“how to carry out the test”) should explain the steps for preparing the instrument and for the test itself. When applicable, procedures for carrying out a control should be given. These procedures must be clear to a layperson. Photographs, illustrations, or line drawings may be useful in simplifying the instructions. Reading and Explaning of Results (§§8.7(i) and 8.7(l))

For a self-test device, the IFU should include a section on the procedures for reading the test results. This section should describe the meaning of the results in the light of the intended use of the test. When applicable, measuring intervals should be included. Proposals for action to be taken by the user in the event of unexpected results should be included (EN 376 §4.4.6). A professional-use device, on the other hand, should provide the mathematical formula used to calculate the results. This could be accomplished by providing the name of a computer program that can be used to calculate the results. Follow-Up Action (§§8.7(t)(1), 8.7(t)(3) and 8.7(t)(4))

The user manual for a self-test product must inform the intended user of the appropriate follow-up action to be taken in case of a positive, negative, or indeterminate result (e.g., “consult your physician”) (EN 376 §4.6.7). The user should be informed of the possibility of false positive or false negative results. A statement clearly directing the user not to take any decision of medical relevance without consulting a medical practitioner should be prominently placed in the user manual. If the IVD device is being used for monitoring a preexisting condition (e.g., home blood-glucose testing), the IFU should tell the patient to refrain from adapting the treatment unless he or she has received appropriate training. Internal Quality Control (§8.7(k))

Suitable quality-control material should be provided. The imprecision and inaccuracy to be expected in the measurement should be explained, and procedures to validate the results included. Where appropriate and available, reference intervals should be given for the analyte(s) being determined. If calibration or adjustment of the instrument is required, this should be explained. Procedures should be provided that are keyed to the knowledge and skills of the expected user. Literature References (§§8.7(h), 8.7(i), 8.7(k), and 8.7(l))

The user manual for a professional-use IVD instrument should provide applicable literature references in a bibliography. Installation, Calibration, and Changes in Performance (§§8.7(n), 8.7(q), and 8.7(j))

If the IVD device is to be used in conjunction with, installed with, or connected to other medical devices or equipment, the IFU must provide sufÞcient details to enable the user to identify the

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correct devices. The user needs to know the characteristics of the interfaces and any limitations in order to obtain a safe and proper combination that will allow the device to perform its intended purpose. When necessary, the IFU must provide directions for proper installation of the instrument. This should include the following, as appropriate (EN 591 §5.8): • The actions that the user should take on delivery of the instrument including instructions for unpacking, checking that all materials are present, and inspection for obvious damage during transport • Any site-preparation work that is necessary for proper installation, including the necessary technical speciÞcation (e.g., power-supply wiring requirements, instructions for protective earthing, requirements for circuit breakers, and other protective devices, load-bearing capacity, ventilation requirements, and other special services such as air or cooling liquid) • If the instrument emits excessive noise, instructions for dealing with sound-pressure levels • The steps to commission the instrument including set-up procedures and checks for proper installation Periodic maintenance and calibration may be necessary in order to ensure that the instrument functions properly. The IFU must describe these procedures in sufÞcient detail to allow the user (professional or layperson) to perform the required tasks. These include (EN 591 §§5.20 and 5.21): 1. Maintenance and service—The IFU need to describe the nature and frequency of required preventive maintenance. This should include instruction for cleaning, and, if required, decontamination, disinfection, and sterilization. The manufacturer must state if there are any restrictions on the number of reuses of the instrument. The manufacturer should also provide a component list including relevant working materials and tools, and a list of consumables (e.g., fuses) necessary to perform the maintenance procedures. Special attention should be given to the inspection and replacement, if necessary, of hoses and other parts containing liquids, if their failure could cause a hazard. For instruments using replaceable batteries, the speciÞc battery type must be stated in the IFU. If an explosion or Þre hazard could occur if the wrong battery is used in the instrument, a warning must appear in the IFU (EN 61010-1 §13.2.2). If the user is intended to service the instrument, additional instructions for the service personnel should be provided. These may be in the IFU or they may be in a separate service manual depending on the nature and complexity of the service procedures and whether or not the service is to be performed by specially trained personnel. At a minimum, the service instructions should describe the procedures to be followed and provide a list of recommended spare parts. Any parts that are required to be inspected by or supplied by the manufacturer or an authorized agent must be clearly identiÞed. If there are special requirements for the service personnel, such as factory-authorized training, these must be described. Depending on the nature of the service to be performed, the service instructions may need to provide detailed technical descriptions including circuit diagrams and testing and troubleshooting procedures. The maintenance procedures should include any tests necessary to check that the instrument is operating properly and is still in a safe condition after the service is performed. 2. Troubleshooting—A troubleshooting guide should be provided that helps the user understand the meaning of error messages and other alarm signals such as warning lights and

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alarm sounds. This information should be organized to help the user quickly locate the needed information and should provide a concise explanation of the cause and the actions required to correct or eliminate the problem. Those situations that require servicing the instrument must be clearly identiÞed. The troubleshooting guide should explain to the user the actions to be taken, including recalibration or other service procedures, if a change in the analytical performance of the instrument is observed. 3. Calibration—Some instruments, especially those for professional use, may require periodic calibration in order to maintain their performance within the manufacturer’s speciÞed limits. The IFU must specify the frequency of routine calibration, the calibration procedures, and any required reference. The user should be advised to maintain records for the calibration of the instrument for quality-control purposes. The manufacturer may provide service calibration-log forms or other record-keeping materials as a customer service. Technical Specification (§§8.7(h)(2) and 8.7(r))

The IFU should contain the technical speciÞcations for the instrument, including (IEC 61010-1 §5.4.2): • the dimensions and mass of the instrument; • the supply voltage or voltage range, frequency or frequency range, and the power or current rating; • requirements for other inputs such as gas or water pressure and the consumption rating; • a description of all input and output connections and any restriction on those connections; • the range of environmental conditions in which the instrument is designed to operate (e.g., temperature, humidity, pressure) and precautions to take regarding exposure to reasonably foreseeable environmental conditions, to magnetic Þelds, external electrical inßuences, electrostatic discharge, pressure or variation in pressure, acceleration, thermal ignition sources, and so on; • the requirements for ventilation, cooling water, and so on; • the sensitivity of the instrument to electromagnetic disturbances in the reasonably foreseeable environment of use and the level of electromagnetic emissions from the instrument; • power-on default settings provided by the manufacturer; • warning if an explosion or Þre hazard exists if the wrong batteries are used in the instrument (EN 61010-1 §13.2.2); and • if appropriate, an indication of the degree of protection against the entry of liquids or particulate matter into the instrument enclosure, for example, by using the rating system in IEC 60529. Particular Information that May Be Omitted (§8.7(t)(2))

For a self-test instrument, speciÞc particulars required in the user manual may be omitted if the information provided is sufÞcient to enable the layperson to know how to use the instrument, and to understand the results of the test. The supplier should be able to provide adequate information on the product (e.g., precision, analytical sensitivity, and speciÞcity) in response to a request from the physician, pharmacist, and/or consumer (EN 376 §5). Date of Issue for the Instructions for Use (IFU) (§8.7(u))

All material containing the IFU must bear the date on which the instructions were issued, or the date on which they were last revised.

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DEVICES INCORPORATING DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES IVDs may incorporate hazardous substances that are subject to regulation under the ClassiÞcation, Packaging, and Labeling of Dangerous Substances Directive (DSD).* Such devices must be labeled according to DSD Articles 23, 24, and 25 (Directive 92/32/EEC pp. 154/12–154/13). As an aid to cross-referencing to the DSD, the number of the article in the directive (e.g., Article 23) is listed with the corresponding topic. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE LABELING (ARTICLE 23) Under the provisions of Article 23 of the DSD, every package must be clearly and indelibly labeled with the following information. • The package label must display the name of the hazardous substance under one of the designations given in Annex I of the latest amendment to the DSD. Annex I is published periodically in the OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities. If the substance is not yet listed in Annex I, the name must be given using an internationally recognized designation. • The package label must include the name, full address, and telephone number of the person established in the EU who is responsible for placing the substance on the market. That person could be the manufacturer, the importer, or the distributor. • The label of the inner and outer container must contain the appropriate danger symbol and signal word shown in Table 17.3. The symbol is printed in black on an orange-yellow background. The particular danger symbol and signal word to be used for each substance is indicated in Annex I of the DSD. For dangerous substances not yet appearing in Annex I of the DSD, the danger symbol and signal word are assigned according to the rules in Annex VI of the DSD. TABLE 17.3 Hazard Symbols and Indications of Danger a)

No. 1

Symbol

Code E

2

Signal Word

Code

Signal Word

Explosive Oxidizing

3

F

Highly flammable

F+

Extremely flammable

4

T

Toxic

T+

Very toxic

5

C

Corrosive

6

Xn

Harmful

Xi

Irritant

7

N

Dangerous for the environment

a) The symbols in this table are for convenience of reference only and have no official sanction. The reader is referred to

Directive 2001/59/EC. For official translation of the signal words, see Annex II of 2001/59/EC. Source: Directive 2001/59/EC p. 225

* Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classiÞcation, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances. 1976. OfÞcial Journal of the European Communities, 10, no. P 196, as amended (August 6).

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

• When more than one danger symbol is assigned to a substance: • The requirement to display the toxic symbol (see Table 17.3, Symbol 4) makes the harmful symbol (see Table 17.3, Symbol 6) and the corrosive symbol (see Table 17.3, Symbol 5) optional, unless Annex I of the DSD provides otherwise; • The requirement to display the corrosive symbol (see Table 17.3, Symbol 5) makes the display of the harmful symbol (see Table 17.3, Symbol 6) optional; and • The requirement to display the explosive symbol (see Table 17.3, Symbol 1) makes the display of the ßammable symbol (see Table 17.3, Symbol 3) optional. • Standard risk phrases indicate the special risks arising from the danger involved in using the substance. The wording of the risk phrases is established in Annex III of the DSD. The particular risk phrase to be used for each substance is indicated in Annex I of the DSD. For dangerous substances not yet appearing in Annex I of the DSD, the risk phrase is assigned according to the rules in Annex VI of the DSD. • Standard safety phrases relating to the safe uses of the substance are to be included. The wording of the safety phrases is established in Annex III of the DSD. The particular safety phrase to be used for each substance is indicated in Annex I of the DSD. For dangerous substances not yet appearing in Annex I of the DSD, the safety phrase is assigned according to the rules in Annex VI of the DSD. • The label must display the European Communities (EC) number assigned to the substance (Directive 97/69/EC §1(2)(a)). The European Commission assigns the EC number to each substance covered by the DSD. In addition, the label of a product containing a substance appearing in Annex I of the DSD must include the words “EC label” (Directive 97/69/EC §1(2)(b)). For substances that are classiÞed as irritant, highly ßammable, ßammable, or oxidizing, the applicable risk phrase and safety phrase need not be provided on the label if the package does not contain more than 125 milliliters of hazardous substance. A harmful substance that is not retailed to the general public need not bear the risk phrase and safety phrase on its label if its package does not contain more than 125 milliliters of the harmful substance. The label of a product containing a substance subject to the DSD must not contain indications such as “nontoxic,” “nonharmful,” or any other similar indications. Where it is not yet possible to label them in accordance with the principles set out in Article 23, the label should bear, in addition to the label deriving from the tests already carried out, the following warning (Directive 92/32/EEC §8(5)): CAUTION - SUBSTANCE

IMPLEMENTATION

OF

NOT YET FULLY TESTED.

LABELING REQUIREMENTS (ARTICLE 24)

A label bearing the particulars required by DSD Article 23 must be afÞxed to one or more surfaces of the package so that the information can be read horizontally when the package is resting in its normal position. The minimum dimensions of the label based on the size of the container are shown in Table 17.4. Each symbol must cover at least one-tenth of the surface area of the label. However, the symbol cannot be less than 1 cm2. The label must be afÞxed to the package immediately containing the substance. These dimensions are intended solely for provision of the information required by the DSD and any necessary supplementary health and safety indications. The required information may be printed on a label afÞxed to the package or may be printed directly on the container.

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271

TABLE 17.4 Minimum Hazard-Label Sizes Capacity of the Package (liters)

Minimum Label Dimension (in millimeters)

£3 3 < Capacity £ 50 50 < Capacity £ 500 >500

52 x 74 74 x 105 105 x 148 148 x 210

Source: Directive 92/32/EEC Article 24(1)

The danger symbol and its background must stand out clearly on the package. The printed information required by the DSD must stand out clearly from the background and be of a size and spacing that can be easily read. Member states may require that the labeling speciÞed in the DSD be printed in their ofÞcial language or languages before the product is allowed on the market. For the purpose of the DSD, the labeling requirements will be considered satisÞed if the following conditions are met: • In the case of an outer package containing one or more inner packages, the requirements are satisÞed if the outer package is labeled in accordance with international rules on the transport of dangerous substances and the inner packaging is labeled according to the DSD. • In the case of a single package, the requirements are satisÞed if the package is labeled in accordance with international rules on the transport of dangerous substances. In addition, the label must include all of the information required by DSD Article 23 except the “danger symbol” in Table 17.3. EXEMPTIONS

FROM

LABELING

AND

PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS (ARTICLE 25)

Member states may permit deviations from the requirements of DSD Articles 23 and 24 under the following conditions: • A member state may permit the labeling required by Article 23 to be applied in some other appropriate manner on packages that are either too small or otherwise unsuitable for labeling according to DSD Article 24(1) and (2). • A member state may permit a package containing dangerous substances that are explosive, very toxic, or toxic to be labeled in some other appropriate way if it contains such small quantities that there is no reason to fear any danger to people. • A member state may permit a package containing dangerous substances that are not explosive, very toxic, or toxic to either be unlabeled or to be labeled in some other way if it contains such small quantities that there is no reason to fear any danger to people. These exceptions do not permit the use of symbols, signal words, risk phrases, or safety phrases that are different from those speciÞed in the DSD. THINGS TO REMEMBER The IVDD covers the placing on the market and putting into service of IVD devices. The information provided by the supplier (the manufacturer, the manufacturer’s agent registered in the EU, or the

272

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

importer) with an IVD device is covered by the ERs in Annex I of the IVDD. Failure to follow or satisfy these requirements may lead to the device being deemed improperly labeled. The labeling requirements are contained in ER 13 in Annex I. The directive speciÞes the contents of the label (ER 13.4) and the IFU (ER 13.7). Practically, the requirements can be separated into those applicable to reagent products and those applicable to instruments and equipment. The labeling for regent products can be divided into the requirements for the immediate container label, the outer container label, and the IFU. For instruments and equipment, the requirements are divided into those applicable to the labels on the device and/or the container, and the user manual. The requirements for instruments and equipment are similar to those described in Chapter 15 for medical devices. The unique requirements for IVD devices are described in this chapter. IVD devices may incorporate hazardous substances that are subject to regulation under the DSD.

Part VII Japan

Pharmaceutical Affairs Law 18 The of Japan The government of Japan has a long history of regulating the quality, efÞcacy, and safety of medical products. Enacted in 1948, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) of Japan places the responsibility for examining the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical products under the Pharmaceutical and Medical Safety Bureau (PMSB) of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW). The PMSB is one of two bureaus within the MHLW responsible for assuring the quality, efÞcacy, and safety of drugs, quasi drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices. The Health Policy Bureau is in charge of the promotion of research and development, the production and distribution of drugs, and so on. The PMSB is the successor to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau (PAB) (Pharmaceutical p. 11). The PAL was revised in 1960 to control and regulate matters related to drugs, quasi drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices to assure their quality, efÞcacy, and safety (PAL §1). The 1960 revision added coverage of a variety of instruments and apparatus developed for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. Since 1960, the PAL has been amended numerous times to keep pace with social needs, technological evolution, and changing market requirements. In 1983, the PAL was modiÞed to allow foreign medical device manufacturers to apply directly to the Japanese government for approval of their products intended for importation into Japan. The PAL was dramatically updated in 1994 to restructure the regulations to take greater account of the range and complexity of modern medical devices. Medical devices are deÞned in Article 2.4 of the PAL as “equipment or instruments intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, or prevention of disease in humans or animals, or intended to affect the structure or functions of the body of humans or animals, and which are designated by cabinet order.” Not all equipment or instruments intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, or prevention of disease are regulated by the PAL. Only those devices listed in a cabinet order are subject to regulation under the PAL. Under the 1960 law, medical devices are categorized based on their purpose. Devices are divided into Þve types: (1) instruments and apparatus, (2) medical products, (3) dental materials, (4) sanitary products, and (5) medical devices exclusively for animals (Guide p. 2). Article 83 of the PAL places responsibility for devices that are intended only for animal use under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. Veterinary devices regulated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries are not covered in this book. The products included in the four types of human-use medical devices are listed in a table that is attached to the Enforcement Ordinance of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (EOPAL). This table “Attached Table 1” is further subdivided into 103 categories. In 1983, the EOPAL was amended by cabinet order to include the generic names of medical devices (PAB No. 752). The 103 categories of human-use medical devices, along with representative devices within many of the categories, are listed in Table E.1 in Appendix E. 1994 REVISION TO THE PAL In 1994, the Japanese Diet adopted a major overhaul of the PAL related to medical devices. The MHLW began enforcing the provisions of the amendments on July 1, 1995, with various provisions of the amendments coming into force within two years of its adoption. 275

276

International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

The 1994 amendments are intended to deal with a number of issues with medical devices that have emerged in the years since the 1960 law was enacted. These include advancements in technology, the perceived need for postmarket surveillance of novel devices, the tracking of certain lifesustaining devices, and the increase in the home use of medical devices. As home-use medical devices are intended to be used by person with no professional training, emphasis is placed on safety without the need for special training. Information for lay users, such as the instructions for use (IFU), should be described in plain language (Guide pp. 361–362). For medical devices used exclusively by professionals, the provisions of the 1994 amendment are based on a four-tiered risk-classiÞcation scheme. The classiÞcation scheme was originally described in a proposal for reclassiÞcation of medical devices written in October 1993 by a Study Group on Policies for Medical Devices chaired by Dr. Takemochi Ishii. The four classes, along with a summary of the regulatory requirements for each class, are described in Table 18.1. Class IV includes devices are life supporting or life sustaining and have an immediate effect in case of a failure. These are the devices designated by the MHLW as those whose location must be known in order to not jeopardize public health and hygiene. Examples include devices implanted in the human body or other devices that may be used outside facilities providing medical treatment (PAL §77-5). Collectively, these devices are known as “designated medical devices.” In addition to approvals and licenses, the manufacturer or importer of designated medical devices are required to register patients and provide postmarket tracking. The devices currently designated by the MHLW are listed in Article 64-6 of the Enforcement Regulations of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (ERPALs). This list is reproduced in Table 18.2. The 1994 amendments introduce the concept of a “new medical device” into the Japanese regulations. New medical devices are deÞned as “medical devices for which the structure, method of use, indications or performance are different from those medical devices which have already been approved for manufacture or import” (PAL §14-4). The MHLW will establish the reevaluation period at the time the initial license is granted. The reevaluation period will typically be three to four years but may be extended by the MHLW for up to seven years. Labeling can effect this classiÞcation through the claims made with respect to the method of use, indications, or performance of the device if they appear to the be signiÞcantly different from devices already approved. When developing the 1994 amendments, the MHLW was concerned that the approval process for medical devices could become an unreasonable barrier to making medical devices of better quality and performance available promptly. The 1994 amendments also require the MHLW to allocate resources to ensure effectiveness and safety through the expansion of postmarket surveillance programs and other measures. To allow the MHLW to focus its resources, the amendment allows the government to entrust a part of the review process for the manufacturing or import approval of medical devices to third-party organizations, known as “designated review organizations” (PAL §14.3). The MHLW would approve or reject the manufacturer’s or importer’s application based on the results of the third-party investigation. The 1994 amendments place greater emphasis on the manufacturer providing procedures in the package insert for proper maintenance of speciÞc medical devices. This amendment also clariÞes that manufacturers and importers must provide information to medical and pharmaceutical professionals on the proper maintenance of devices. THE REGULATIONS The MHLW implements the speciÞc requirements of the PAL through cabinet ordinances and enforcement regulations. The ordinances and regulations relating to medical devices are contained

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277

TABLE 18.1 Summary of the Regulatory Requirements for the Four Classes of Medical Devices in Japan

Class Class I

Class II

Class III

Class IV

Description Devices to which any of the following applies: (1) It does not come into contact with the body, or comes into contact only with normal, healthy skin, and does not require power, does not supply any matter or energy, and furthermore does not give off radiation or electromagnetic waves. (2) It does not come into contact with the body, or comes into contact only with normal, healthy skin and (1) does not apply; even if it malfunctions, the probability of serious danger to the body is considered to be relatively small. (3) It comes into contact only with the teeth and/or the oral cavity mucous membranes; it is not used to Þll the teeth and does not come in prolonged contact with the oral cavity mucous membranes; even if it malfunctions, the probability of serious danger to the body is considered to be relatively small. (4) It comes into contact with tissues, wound sites, etc.;a it is not implanted or placed; even if it malfunctions, the probability of serious danger to the body is considered to be relatively small. Devices to which any of the following applies: (1) It does not come into contact with the body, or comes into contact only with normal, healthy skin; Class I (1) does not apply; if it malfunctions, although the probability of a direct link to danger to human life is relatively small, the probability of serious danger to the body is considered to be relatively large. (2) It comes into contact only with the teeth and/or the oral-cavity mucous membranes; it is not used to Þll the teeth and does not come into prolonged contact with the oral cavity-mucous membranes; if it malfunctions, the probability of serious danger to the body is considered to be relatively large. (3) It comes into contact with tissues, wound sites, etc.,a it is not implanted or placed; even if it malfunctions, the probability of a direct link to danger to life or serious functional disorder is considered to be relatively small. Devices to which any of the following applies: (1) It does not come into contact with the body, or comes in contact only with normal, healthy skin; if it malfunctions, the probability of a direct link to danger to life is considered to be relatively large. (2) It is used to Þll the teeth or comes into prolonged contact with the oralcavity mucous membranes; if it malfunctions, although it is not considered to be directly linked to danger to human life, the probability of serious danger is considered to be relatively large. (3) It comes into contact with tissues, wound sites, etc.;a it is not implanted or placed; if it malfunctions, the probability of a direct link to danger to human life or serious functional disorder is considered to be relatively large. (4) It is implanted or placed; if it malfunctions, the probability of a direct link to danger to life is considered to be relatively small. Devices to which any of the following applies: (1) It utilizes human or animal tissue or cells. (2) It is implanted or placed; if it malfunctions, the probability of a direct link to danger to life is considered to be relatively large.

License Required

Premarket Approval Required

Clinical Trial Required

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yesb

No

Yes

Yes

Yes (on a case-by-case basis)

Yes

Yes

Yes (generally)

a Includes contact with mucous membranes and the cornea, and contact by means of blood and medical ßuids; does not include contact with only the teeth and/or oral cavity mucous membranes. b For Class II devices, submission of a registration is not required if the manufacturer can demonstrate conformity to relevant standards.

Source: Hasegawa p. 196

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International Labeling Requirements for Medical Devices, Medical Equipment, and Diagnostic Products

TABLE 18.2 Designated Medical Devices in Japan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Implantable-type cardiac pacemakers Implantable-type cardiac pacemaker leads Implantable deÞbrillators Implantable deÞbrillator leads ArtiÞcial-heart valves ArtiÞcial-valve rings ArtiÞcial blood vessels (limited to those used in the coronary arteries, thoracic aorta, and abnormal aorta)

Source: ERPALs Article 64-6.

in the EOPAL and the ERPALs. Other regulations and guidelines are promulgated through ofÞcial notiÞcations from the Ministry to the Prefectural authorities (e.g., PAB NotiÞcation No. 127 of February 13, 1989, The Guidelines for Exhibition of Not Yet Approved Medical Devices). The PAL is the primary law under which the MHLW derives authority to take action with regards to the labeling of regulated medical devices. SpeciÞcally: • PAL Article 52 deÞnes the information required on the package insert enclosed with the device, or on the container or wrapper; • PAL Article 53 sets the standard for prominence of required information; • PAL Article 54 establishes impermissible claims; and • PAL Article 63 establishes requirements for the information that must appear on the immediate container or wrapper of the medical device or on the device itself. Articles 52, 53, and 54 are written to apply to drugs. However, PAL Article 64 makes them applicable to medical devices mutatis mutandis.* ENFORCEMENT ORDINANCE

OF THE

PHARMACEUTICAL AFFAIRS LAW (EOPAL)

The EOPAL was enacted in 1961 by the Japanese Cabinet under articles of the PAL that require that the regulations necessary to implement the provision of the PAL be laid down by ministerial order. The EOPAL deals primarily with administrative matters such as procedures for registration of manufacturers. The EOPAL contains the table that establishes the range of medical devices subject to regulation under the PAL (see Table E.1 in Appendix E). The EOPAL contains a few labeling requirements for drugs granted special license before approval. However, there are no direct labeling requirements speciÞed in the EOPAL for medical devices. ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS

OF THE

PHARMACEUTICAL AFFAIRS LAW (ERPALS)

The MHLW established the ERPALs in 1961 under authority of the PAL and Article 16 of the EOPAL. The ERPALs contain speciÞc requirements dealing with product labeling as well as many other aspects of the product- and manufacturer/importer-registration process. These include permissible exceptions or variations in the information required on the immediate container or wrapper of the medical device or on the device itself. These requirements are discussed in Chapter 19.

* The Latin phrase, mutatis mutandis, meaning “the necessary changes having been made,” is used extensively in the PAL to apply provisions that were written to cover drugs and other regulated items including medical devices.

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ADULTERATION AND MISBRANDING Although the PAL does not use the terms “adulteration” or “misbranding,” these concepts do appear in the Japanese law. Storing, exhibiting, or conveying, whether free of charge or otherwise, an adulterated or misbranded medical device is a criminal offense. A person who is found guilty of a violation of the PAL is subject to penal servitude or a substantial Þne, or both. Article 65 of the PAL deÞnes those conditions under which a medical device could be considered adulterated. These conditions include: • a medical device whose properties, quality, or performance does not conform to the properties, quality, or performance approved by the MHLW under Articles 14 and 19.2 of the PAL; • a medical device that does not conform to standards established for the device by the MHLW; • a medical device that consists of any impure, putrid, or decomposing substance; • a medical device in or on which any foreign matter is found; • a medical device that is contaminated, or is likely to be contaminated, by pathogenic microorganisms; or • a medical device that, when used, might jeopardize public health or hygiene. Article 55 of the PAL deÞnes the conditions under which a device could be considered misbranded. A device could be deemed misbranded if the package insert, container, or wrapper (including the inner package) of the medical device, or the labeling on the medical device itself: • contains false or misleading claims about the medical device; • contains a statement of indications or effects not approved by the MHLW pursuant to provisions of Articles 14 and 19.2 of the PAL; • contains directions, dosage, or durations of use that might jeopardize public health or hygiene; • fails to provide the information required by Article 63, or the appropriate material required by Article 53, and additional material laid down in MHLW ordinances or standards established under Article 42 of the PAL; or • fails to display the material required by the law and regulations more prominently than other material in the labeling, and fails to communicate the required material in terms that renders it easily read and understood by the ordinary purchaser or user of the product. A medical device that is misbranded may not be sold, leased, given, stored, or exhibited for the purpose of sale, leasing, or giving. FALSE OR MISLEADING LABELING The PAL declares that a device is misbranded if its labeling makes false or misleading claims. The PAL imposes a particularly stiff penalty on a person found guilty of offering for sale or otherwise conveying a device whose labeling contains false or misleading claims. A person who violates this provision of the PAL is subject to a term of penal servitude not exceeding two years or a substantial Þne, or both. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION Article 66 of the PAL makes it a crime to explicitly or implicitly advertise, describe, or circulate false or exaggerated statements regarding the name, manufacturing process, indications, effects, or

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properties of a medical device. Advertising, describing, or circulating statements that would lead to the false impression that a physician or other person has certiÞed the indications, effects, or properties of a medical device is also construed as a prohibited practice. Further, statements or diagrams suggesting criminal abortion, as well as any obscene statements or diagrams, may not be used in conjunction with a medical device. A person found guilty of violating this provision of the PAL is subject to penal servitude or a Þne or both. Article 67 of the PAL makes it a crime to advertise the name, manufacturing process, indications, effects, or properties of a medical device that requires approval of the MHLW, prior to receiving the approval. A person found guilty of a violation of this provision is also subject to penal servitude or a Þne, or both. The provision in Article 67 not withstanding, the MHLW recognizes that it is an internationally accepted practice to display medical devices at exhibitions before they are approved for market release. To facilitate this process, and to see that it is properly controlled, the Ministry has published comprehensive guidelines for exhibition of medical devices that have not as yet been approved (Japanese MHLW, PAB No. 127). Directed to the prefectural authorities, these guidelines lay out the conditions under which an unapproved device can be exhibited. The prefectural authorities are also instructed to follow the spirit of the guideline when dealing with those areas not speciÞcally covered by the guideline. The guideline recognizes three types of exhibits where an unapproved device may be shown. They are: • exhibitions for specialists within a Þeld that are aimed at promotion of academic research; • exhibitions for the general public that are aimed at promotion of scientiÞc or technical issues and/or related industry; and • exhibitions for the general public that are aimed at giving general information, including the design of medical devices, other than product name, manufacturing method, efÞcacy, or performance. The permissible practices at each of the three types of exhibition are discussed in the following sections. EXHIBITIONS

FOR

SPECIALISTS PROMOTING ACADEMIC RESEARCH

Such exhibits must be sponsored by ofÞcial academic circles composed of academic researchers who are involved with the promotion and development of academic research. Any research group that is deeply connected with any private company is excluded. Exhibitions sponsored by academic research groups registered in the Japan Academic Conference, for example, would be eligible under this provision. The information on the unapproved medical device must be presented by a researcher or by the academic society. The presentation must take place within the hall of the meeting of the scientiÞc society, or within the hall designated by the scientiÞc society. The exhibit must clearly indicate that the device is not yet approved for sale, and the device cannot be sold or given to anyone. Any information presented in the exhibit about manufacturing methods, efÞcacy, or performance must be based only on objective and scientiÞc data or fact. In principle, any documents related to the unapproved device should not be given out in conjunction with the exhibit. The only exception is to supply, at the request of a physician or other specialists, a scientiÞcally evaluated paper such as those reported in the scientiÞc society. At the conclusion of the exhibit, the device must be properly disposed of or returned to the manufacturer. It cannot be sold or given away. However, the following exceptions are allowed:

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• The device may be used in support of an application for approval after going through the necessary formalities (e.g., for the purpose of clinical trials). • The device may be stored in a warehouse if approval is expected in the near future. • The device may be used for other purposes that are allowed under the law. EXHIBITIONS FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC PROMOTION AND/OR RELATED INDUSTRY

OF

SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL ISSUES

These events must be sponsored by ofÞcial organizations. Examples would include exhibitions sponsored by government organizations, local governments, foreign governments, embassies, or other persons having a special status. The information on the unapproved medical device must be presented by the sponsor of the exhibit. The presentation must take place within the hall designated by the sponsor. The exhibit itself must clearly indicate that the device is not yet approved for sale; it cannot be sold or given to anyone. The product name may not be mentioned in the exhibit, with the exception of an imported product that is allowed to display the product name in a language other than Japanese. Any information mentioned about manufacturing method, efÞcacy, or performance must be based only on objective and scientiÞc data or fact. Documents relating to the unapproved device should not be given out. The only exception is to supply general introductory scientiÞc documents made by the sponsor of the exhibition and having nothing to do with any speciÞc company or commodity. At the conclusion of the exhibit, the device must be properly disposed of or returned to the maker. It cannot be sold or given away. However, the following exceptions are allowed: • The device may be used for application for approval after going through the necessary formalities (e.g., for the purpose of clinical trials). • If approval is expected in the near future, the device may be stored in a warehouse. • The device may be used for other purposes as allowed under the law. EXHIBITIONS

FOR THE

GENERAL PUBLIC PROVIDING GENERAL INFORMATION

These exhibitions must be sponsored by one of the ofÞcial organizations mentioned in the previous section or by a public corporation. The information on the unapproved medical device must be presented by the sponsor of the exhibit. The presentation must take place within the hall designated by the sponsor. The exhibit itself cannot mention the product name, manufacturing method, efÞcacy, or performance of the device. However, imported products can display the product name printed on the device at the time of assembly in the exporting country if it is not in Japanese. Any documents relating to the unapproved device should not be given out. The only exception is to supply general introductory scientiÞc documents made by the sponsor of the exhibition and having nothing to do with any speciÞc company or commodity. At the conclusion of the exhibit, the device must be properly disposed of or returned to the manufacturer. It cannot be sold or given away. However, the following exceptions are allowed: • The device may be used for application for approval after going through the necessary formalities (e.g., for the purpose of clinical trials). • If approval is expected in the near future, the device may be stored in a warehouse. • The device may be used for other purposes as allowed under the law.

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IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC (IVD) PRODUCTS In Japan, in vitro diagnostic (IVD) reagents are classiÞed as drugs, while the apparatus used to analyze the results of a test is classiÞed as a medical device. Examples of in vitro test apparatus include analyzers for clinical chemistry, immunological analyzers, and blood-type analyzers.* However, since diagnostic reagents are used outside the human body, they have been placed in a special category with respect to public health and hygiene (PAB No. 662). These “in vitro test drugs” are placed in one of three classes depending on the novelty of the measured items or measuring methods. The licensing procedure has been simpliÞed based on the class in which the in vitro test drug has been placed (Standards p. 27). In addition, Article 1-2-2 of the EOPAL exempts in vitro test drugs from the provisions of drug Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) regulation. Even though IVD reagents are regulated as drugs, the labeling requirements are discussed in Chapter 19. BRINGING DEVICES TO MARKET IN JAPAN Any Þrm that intends to manufacture or import medical devices that fall into one of the categories in Table E.1 in Appendix E must obtain a license, called a kyoka, from the MHLW. The manufacturer, or importer, must also obtain a product approval, called a shonin, for each medical device that has not been exempted from the approval process by Article 18 of the ERPALs. The requirement for a shonin apply equally to devices manufactured in, or imported into, Japan. The basic procedures and requirements for obtaining licenses and product approvals are outlined in the following sections. MEDICAL DEVICE MANUFACTURER’S (IMPORTER’S) LICENSE A Þrm that intends to manufacture or import a medical device that fall into one of the categories in Table E.1 in Appendix E must obtain a license, called a kyoka, for each manufacturing plant or importing ofÞce in Japan. A license is granted after the examination of an application submitted by the manufacturer or importer. For a manufacturing facility, the examination process stresses: • the material conditions, such as building and facilities, under which the devices are manufactured; • that directors in charge of the business are qualiÞed to hold a license under the PAL; • that the person designated as technical director** in charge of manufacturing is qualiÞed; and • if applicable, that product approval has been obtained for the product to be manufactured. Since the importer is held responsible for the quality, efÞcacy, and safety of the device, it must meet the same basic requirements as those of a manufacturer (Guide pp. 29-30). The importer must have adequate facilities for storing imported devices under sanitary and protective conditions. The importer must also provide adequate facilities, equipment, and utensils for testing the imported devices. In lieu of maintaining the testing facilities on the premises, the importer may, on its own responsibility, use testing facilities located at other institutions. The 1994 revision to the PAL added requirements for manufacturing control and quality control at manufacturing plants. Referred to as “medical device good manufacturing practices,” or simply * These devices are classiÞed as hematological testing apparatus in Category 17, Hematological Testing Apparatus, in the table attached to the EOPAL. This is reproduced in Table E.1 – JAPANESE MHWL CATEGORIES OF MEDICAL DEVICES in Appendix E – JAPANESE MEDICAL DEVICE CLASSIFICATION. ** The term “technical director” is the “responsible manager” in the standards for good manufacturing practices (GMP) for medical devices contained in MHLW Ordinance No. 40.

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as “medical device GMPs,” this ordinance* establishes the requirement for a quality-assurance (QA) system for manufacturers of certain medical devices. Some medical devices are exempted from the requirements of medical device GMPs. These are listed in Table E.5 of Appendix E. The medical device GMPs is established by ordinance and are a requirement for obtaining a kyoka for manufacturing medical devices not speciÞcally excluded in the regulation. The MHLW has published complementary guidelines under the title, “Quality Assurance Standards of Medical Devices (standards of medical device QA system) and Quality Assurance Standards for Manufacturing Plants of Medical Devices Such as Medical Illuminators (GMP for medical illuminators etc).”** The standards for medical device QA systems are based on ISO Standard 9001:1994. These standards are more detailed than ISO 9001 and include provisions for control of labeling. If followed, the GMPs speciÞed by MHLW ordinance will be satisÞed with the exception of a few additional matters, such as standards for manufacturing at two or more plants (Guide p. 269). The license to manufacture or import a medical device must be obtained for each manufacturing plant or importing ofÞce in Japan. The license becomes invalid unless it is renewed every third year. A license is granted to manufacture or import each product. Therefore, a Þrm that wishes to begin manufacturing or importing a new product must obtain an additional or supplementary license for the new product. Article 12 of the PAL presumes that any given device is completely manufactured within a single factory. A manufacturer may have multiple factories, each producing a particular device, but all work on a given device takes place with the single factory. The PAL was amended in 1995 to create a partial licensing process, called a kubun-kyoka, that covers those situations where a manufacturer subcontracts part of the manufacturing process to a third party. For the purposes of licensing, the third party could be another company or another plant belonging to the same manufacturer. A manufacturer cannot subcontract the Þnal inspection of the product. A subcontractor cannot further subcontract any part of the work it has undertaken on behalf of the original device manufacturer. The manufacturing processes that are licensable under a kubun-kyoka are (Guide p. 251): • radiation sterilization (gamma ray, electron beam); • ethylene oxide (EtO) sterilization; and • coating of lenses for glasses The medical device classiÞcations to which a kubun-kyoka can be applied are listed in Table 13 attached to the ERPALs. That table is reproduced in Table E.4 of Appendix E. The subcontractor may obtain a kubun-kyoka for a class of devices. The subcontractor is not required to obtain a license for each product (Guide p. 253). MEDICAL DEVICE APPROVAL In principle, a manufacturer or importer must also obtain a product approval, called a shonin, for each medical device that falls into one of the categories listed in Table E.1 in Appendix E. The manufacturer or importer must obtain the product approval on a product-by-product basis. As with the kyoka, a shonin is granted after the examination of a written application submitted by the manufacturer or importer. The examination emphasizes the assurance of the safety, effectiveness, and quality of the device. * Standard for Manufacturing Control and Quality Assurance of Medical Devices. 1995. MHLW Ordinance No. 40. (June 26). ** Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau. 1994. PAB NotiÞcation No. 1128. (December 28). Tokyo: Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance.

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The information required in the shonin application is Þxed in Article 17 of the ERPALs. The manufacturer or importer must submit the required data on MHLW Form 10(2). This includes appropriate warnings, contraindications, and the directions for the proper use of the device. In addition to the data listed on Form 10(2), the manufacturer or importer must attach additional data unless it is conÞrmed that the device is well known in medical Þeld or these is some other justiÞable reason. The scope of this data is speciÞed in Paragraph 1, Item 4, of Article 18.3 of the ERPALs and in Medical Device Division NotiÞcation No. 100 of June 27, 1995 (Guide p. 72). The written application and the accompanying data must be prepared in Japanese. For documents that are difÞcult to prepare in Japanese, such as certiÞcates issued by foreign governments, a Japanese translation must be provided (Guide p. 61). Not all of the devices listed in Table E.1 in Appendix E require a product-by-product approval. Before the 1994 revision, there were 33 categories of devices that were exempt from approval on a product-by-product basis because of their exclusive use by specialists, established effectiveness and safety, and reliable operating technique. The 1994 revision of the PAL signiÞcantly expanded the number of devices exempted from the requirement to obtain a shonin. Table 1 attached to Article 18 of the ERPALs lists those devices that are exempt from approval on a product-by-product basis. This table is reproduced in Table E.2 in Appendix E. The list of devices exempted from the requirement for individual approval was expanded based on the idea that such approval is only needed for devices that pose a signiÞcant risk to the human body (Guide p. 31). Medical devices that conform to Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) are included in those that are exempt from approval on a product-by-product basis. Such an exemption is granted on the basis that these devices are widely used, and their quality and description have been established “in accordance with comprehensive knowledge of current medical science and engineering practice” (Guide p. 31). The manufacturer or importer of a device that is not included in Table E.2 in Appendix E is required to obtain a shonin for the device before it is legal to sell it in Japan. In addition, the manufacturer or importer of a device that is listed in Table E.2 will be required to obtain a shonin if a new device is not substantially equivalent to a device already approved in Japan. Under the 1994 revision to the PAL, a device listed in Table E.2 is considered a “new medical device” when the structure, usage, indications, effects, or performance differs signiÞcantly from a device that has already been approved for manufacturer or import (PAL §14-1, 6(2)). The conditions for approval are set out in Article 14 of the PAL. Approval of a medical device is to be based on an examination of the name, ingredients and quantities, directions and dosage, indications and effects, properties, side effects, and so on. Approval will not be granted if any of the following conditions exist: • The device does not possess the indications, effects, or properties indicated on the application. • The device has no value as a medical device because it has harmful actions that outweigh its indications, effects, and properties. • In addition to the conditions listed above, the device is designated by MHLW ordinance as inappropriate as a medical device. DETERMINE SUBSTANTIAL EQUIVALENCE

AND

REEXAMINATION

The 1994 revision of the PAL introduced the concept of a “new medical device” to the Japanese regulatory system. A new medical device is deÞned in Article 14 of the PAL as one that has a “distinctly different structure, quantities, method of use, indications, performance, etc. from those medical devices,

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which have already been approved for manufacture or import.” As noted before, this would include devices described in Table 1 attached to the ERPALs (Table E.2 in Appendix E) if they are not substantially equivalent to already approved devices. Under the new system, a device is classiÞed as either a “new medical device,” an “improved or modiÞed medical device,” or a “me-too medical device.” During the application process, the MHLW will determine if the submitted device is substantially equivalent to an already-approved device. If substantial equivalence is established, the device is exempted from the reexamination provision of Article 14-4 of the PAL. Because the MHLW may not have the necessary resources to make the substantial equivalence determination, the 1994 revision of the PAL allows the Minister to designate external review organizations who will perform this task. The “designated review organizations” are responsible to the MHLW and operate under rules established in the EOPAL. At the time the regulations were implemented, the MHLW granted the Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment (JAAME) the authority to make the substantial-equivalence determination. A separate organization, the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Examination Center (PMEDC) was set up by the MHLW to handle the review of “new medical devices” or “improved or modiÞed medical devices.” Applications for these devices are submitted directly to the PMEDC, without need for JAAME involvement. The manufacturer is responsible for determining which of the three categories apply to a device. However, if an application for a “me-too medical device” is judged to be an “improved or modiÞed medical device,” the JAAME will return the application to the originator, who must begin the process anew with the PMEDC. If a device is determined to be a “new medical device,” its safety and effectiveness must be reexamined after it has been in the market for a time. The time for reexamination is established by the MHLW at the time of initial approval and may be from three to seven years. The reexamination of the safety and effectiveness of a new medical device is intended to take advantage of any new scientiÞc and technological advances after the time of original approval. CHANGES

IN

APPROVED DEVICES

A person who intends to make a change to an approved device may be required to seek prior approval from the MHLW for the change under Article 14, Paragraph 6, of the PAL. A moderate change in the structure, raw material, or performance of the device would require approval. A change in the name, form, dimensions, indications and effects, method of operation or use, or standards and test method may also be subject to approval by the MHLW. A more drastic change in the structure, raw materials, or performance would create a “new” device, requiring a new application. The determination of when to Þle for an approval of a partial change should be based on a comprehensive evaluation of the speciÞcs of the change. If the alteration is a slight improvement, minor change, or the addition or deletion of components or accessories such that the identity of the existing device is maintained, then an application for approval will not be required. Overall, the change must have no effect on the safety and effectiveness of the device and must preserve the original identity of the device. The person (manufacturer or importer) responsible for the device must make an informed judgment on a case-by-case basis about when an application is required. The following are examples of when an application is not required (Guide p. 168): • Changes in serial numbers and catalog numbers • Changes in color, coating, and plating methods for cabinets, assemblies, and other parts (Changes in materials where biocompatibility is an issue are not exempt.)

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• Changes in the location of keyboards, switches, displays, and other components on a control panel • Changes in the external dimensions within ±10 percent of the approved dimensions unless the changes would affect the performance or use of the device • Changes in software that do not involve changes in speciÞcation, functions, and so on • Changes in the packaging units (e.g., from a 10-g unit to a 20-g unit or from a 5-piece unit to a 10-piece unit) • Changes in packaging materials (excluding packaging materials for sterilized medical devices) • Minor changes in the method or operation or use associated with other changes that do not require partial-change approval Moderate changes in an approved device require a partial-change approval from the MHLW. A moderate change could include a change in name, form, dimensions, indications and effects, method of operation or use, or standards and test methods. A change to the structure, raw materials, ingredients and quantity, or performance could be considered moderate depending on the individual circumstances. However, a change structure, raw materials, ingredients and quantity, or performance could be viewed as drastic, in which case the change creates a new device that requires a new device application (Guide p. 165). A change in labeling that effects the indications, or method of operation or use could constitute a change requiring partial approval. MEDICAL DEVICE APPROVAL

FOR IMPORTED

PRODUCTS

As can be seen in the previous discussion, the PAL makes little distinction between a manufacturer and importer as far as the device approval process is concerned. The importer is responsible for the assurance of the safety, effectiveness, and quality of the approved products produced by foreign manufacturers. An importer does not have to obtain an approval when the foreign manufacturer has obtained the approval directly from the MHLW as described in the following section. The importer of the medical devices into Japan must obtain the facility license (kyoka) for each business ofÞce in Japan. ROLE

OF THE

PREFECTURE GOVERNMENTS

In the Japanese system, the prefectural governments act as intermediaries between the manufacturer or importer and the MHLW. Applications for both kyoka licenses and shonin product approvals are submitted to the governor of the prefecture where the manufacturing facility or business ofÞce is located. In some cases, prefectural government ofÞcials will carry out on-the-spot inspections of buildings and facilities and other items described in the application. If the application remains viable after the inspection, the prefectural governor forwards the application with a rider to the MHLW. In other cases, the prefectural governor simply forwards the application to the Ministry. Once the examination is complete, the letter of license and/or letter of product approval is delivered to the applicant through the prefectural government. Some medical devices are approved by the prefectural government without the intervention of the MHLW. These products include some groups of injection needles and puncture needles, glass syringes, dental scalers, dental-Þlling instruments, impression or articulation instruments, and sightcorrective ophthalmic lenses. For these products, the prefectural governor is completely responsible for the examination of both the kyoka licenses and shonin product-approval applications. However, under the 1994 revision of the PAL, most of these devices no longer require a product-by-product approval. Only sight-corrective ophthalmic lenses that do not conform to JIS standards require a product approval.

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FOR

PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED

287

BY

FOREIGNERS

Since 1983, foreign manufacturers may apply to the Japanese government for approval of their products intended for importation into Japan. To take advantage of this program, a foreign manufacturer must designate an in-country caretaker (agent). The caretaker manages the application procedures for the manufacturer (Guide pp. 201–202). The in-country caretaker plays an important role in the approval process. Hence, the in-country caretaker must meet certain qualiÞcations and fulÞll the duties speciÞed in the PAL and the ERPALs. The in-country caretaker submits applications through the prefectural governor of the prefecture where the in-country caretaker resides. In this case, the prefectural governor simply forwards all applications to the MHLW. The letter of approval is returned through the prefectural governor to the in-country caretaker. The foreign manufacturer receives the letter of approval through the in-country caretaker. Once the letter of approval has been issued to the foreign manufacturer, a domestic Þrm that intends to import that product need only obtain a kyoka license to import the device (Guide p. 36). DESIGNATED MEDICAL DEVICES Certain life-supporting or life-sustaining devices that can have an immediate effect in case of a failure fall into a special category under Article 77-5 of the PAL. These “designated devices” are listed in Article 64-6 of the ERPALs, which is reproduced in Table 18.2. If a serious defect is found in the product after its introduction, it may be necessary to track users of the device so that prompt medical care can be provided. In this context, the person who has a designated device such as animplanted pacemaker would be considered the user. To comply with this provision of the law, the manufacturer or importer who holds the shonin for the product must create and retain speciÞc records about each device in a tracking system. If a foreign manufacturer holds the shonin, the in-country caretaker must maintain the tracking system. Under the PAL, physicians or other healthcare professionals handling designated devices are to provide the required information required by the ERPALs Article 64-7 to the holder of the shonin for the product or his or her in-country caretaker (PAL §77-4(2)). Under the Japanese system, the user of the designated device is presumed to consent to the collection of this information. However, the user may object, in which case the data will not be collected or maintained. The personnel involved in assembling and maintaining the tracking system are legally responsible to maintain the conÞdentiality of the data collected and may only release the information if there is a valid reason. A failure to protect the conÞdentiality of the tracking data may subject the perpetrator to a stiff Þne under Article 87 of the PAL. The holder of the shonin or his or her in-country caretaker must maintain the tracking records until (ERPALs §4-10): • the death of the user of the designated device; • the designated device is no longer in use; or • when, for another valid reason, the data is no longer needed. Information on the data elements required in the tracking record is found in the next section of this chapter. MEDICAL DEVICE VIGILANCE In 1993, the MHLW amended the regulations to strengthen the requirements for tracking of certain medical devices and report of adverse events. The speciÞc types of data required to be retained in

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the tracking system are outlined in the ERPALs. At a minimum, the tracking system systems should contain data about the device, the user, and adverse events. ADVERSE EVENT REPORTING In March 1993, the MHLW amended the ERPALs to provide for increased reporting of adverse incidents involving medical devices approved in Japan, regardless of where the adverse incident occurred. The amendments are intended to broaden the scope of reporting and to collect information on “side effects” as early as possible so that appropriate action can be taken (PAB No. 333 pp. 24). The MHLW began enforcement of the new system on April 1, 1994 (PAB No. 333 p. 1). An incident “caused by a malfunction of a medical device” that results in a death or serious injury is reportable unless the incident is clearly attributable to the user’s lack of knowledge or skill (PAB No. 333 pp. 6-7). From the point of view of device labeling, the occurrence of consequences that are included in the warnings and precautions for use is reportable if there is a deÞnitive change in the number, frequency, or conditions of occurrence. The occurrence of such consequences is also reportable if the severity of the outcome cannot be anticipated from the descriptions in the precautions for use. Also, any case that is suspected of being caused by a device malfunction that is not mentioned in the warnings, precautions, or accompanying documentation is potentially reportable. This type of case becomes reportable if the practitioner in charge of the case believes the incident to be signiÞcant (PAB No. 333 p. 7). DEVICE TRACKING The Japanese law requires the manufacturer or importer of a medical device listed in Table 18.2 to create and maintain a record of the patient who has received the device. These tracking records are intended to expedite and facilitate prompt medical care in the event of a device-related emergency. The content of the tracking record is speciÞed in ERPALs Article 64–7 as ampliÞed by PAB NotiÞcation No. 600 of June 26, 1995, and must include (Guide p. 294): • the name, model number, and serial or lot number of the device; • the name, address, date of birth, sex, and telephone number of the user of the device (i.e., the person who has the device implanted); • the date when the device was implanted and the region of implant; • the name, address, and telephone number of the medical institution where the device was implanted; • the name, address, and telephone number of a medical facility where the user may consult someone about the device; and • the date of registration. THINGS TO REMEMBER The PAL of Japan is the primary law under which the PMSB of the MHLW derives authority to take action with regard to medical devices. The PAL was revised in 1960 to control and regulate matters related to drugs, quasi drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices to assure their quality, efÞcacy, and safety. For manufacturers located outside Japan, the most signiÞcant amendment to the PAL occurred in 1983, when foreign manufacturers were allowed to apply directly to the Japanese government for approval of their products intended for importation into Japan. In 1994, the MHLW overhauled the PAL by introducing a four-tiered, risk-based classiÞcation for medical devices. The new system, which is similar to the system used in the European Union

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and Canada, was adopted by the Japanese Diet in June 1994. The revision includes a mandate that the name of the device, and other required information, appear on the outer container. The PAL requires that any Þrm that intends to manufacture or import medical devices that are subject to regulation must obtain a license, called a kyoka, from the MHLW. The manufacturer, or importer, must also obtain a product approval, called a shonin, on a product-by-product basis for certain medical devices manufactured in or imported into Japan. Although the PAL does not use the terms “adulteration” or “misbranding,” these concepts do appear in the Japanese law. A person who is found guilty of storing, exhibiting, or conveying an adulterated or misbranded medical device is subject to penal servitude or a substantial Þne or both. The PAL declares that a device is misbranded if its labeling makes false or misleading claims. The PAL imposes a stiff penalty on a person found guilty of offering for sale or giving a device whose labeling contains false or misleading claims. The PAL also regulates advertising or promotion of medical devices. It a crime to explicitly or implicitly advertise, describe, or circulate false or exaggerated statements regarding the name, manufacturing process, indications, effects, or properties of a medical device. Advertising the name, manufacturing process, indications, effects, or properties of a medical device that requires approval by the MHLW prior to receiving that approval is also a crime. The MHLW has recognized that it is an internationally accepted practice to display medical devices at exhibitions before they are approved for market release. To facilitate this process, and to see that it is properly controlled, the Inspection and Guidance Division of the PAB has published comprehensive guidelines for exhibition of medical devices prior to their approval. In Japan, IVD reagents are classiÞed as drugs, while the apparatus used to analyze the results of the tests are classiÞed as medical devices. However, since diagnostic reagents are used outside the human body, they have been placed in a special category with respect to