MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout theMLA Handbookand in chapter 7 of theMLA Style Manual. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.
Basic in-text citation rules
In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations. This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.
- The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited page.
- Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page.
In-text citations: Author-page style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).
Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).
Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).
Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. Oxford UP, 1967.
In-text citations for print sources with known author
For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3).
Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).
These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. University of California Press, 1966.
In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author
When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.
In-text citations for sources with non-standard labeling systems
If a source uses a labeling or numbering system other than page numbers, such as a script or poetry, precede the citation with said label. When citing a poem, for instance, the parenthetical would begin with the word “line”, and then the line number or range. For example, the examination of William Blake’s poem “The Tyger” would be cited as such:
The speaker makes an ardent call for the exploration of the connection between the violence of nature and the divinity of creation. “In what distant deeps or skies. / Burnt the fire of thine eyes," they ask in reference to the tiger as they attempt to reconcile their intimidation with their relationship to creationism (lines 5-6).
Longer labels, such as chapters (ch.) and scenes (sc.), should be abbreviated.
In-text citations for print sources with no known author
When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name, following these guidelines.
Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.
Titles longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened into a noun phrase by excluding articles. For example, To the Lighthouse would be shortened to Lighthouse.
If the title cannot be easily shortened into a noun phrase, the title should be cut after the first clause, phrase, or punctuation:
We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming").
In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:
"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs. 1999. www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.
If the title of the work begins with a quotation mark, such as a title that refers to another work, that quote or quoted title can be used as the shortened title. The single quotation marks must be included in the parenthetical, rather than the double quotation.
Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions
Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels'sThe Communist Manifesto. In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:
Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).
Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection
When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source (for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection), cite the author of theinternal source (i.e., the article or essay). For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published inNaturein 1921, you might write something like this:
Relativity's theoretical foundations can be traced to earlier work by Faraday and Maxwell (Einstein 782).
See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited.
Citing authors with same last names
Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:
Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).
Citing a work by multiple authors
For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:
Best and Marcus argue that one should read a text for what it says on its surface, rather than looking for some hidden meaning (9).
The authors claim that surface reading looks at what is “evident, perceptible, apprehensible in texts” (Best and Marcus 9).
Corresponding Works Cited entry:
Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations, vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1
For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.
According to Franck et al., “Current agricultural policies in the U.S. are contributing to the poor health of Americans” (327).
The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies (Franck et al. 327).
Corresponding Works Cited entry:
Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine, vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.
Citing multiple works by the same author
If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.
Citing two articles by the same author:
Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).
Citing two books by the same author:
Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" (Write to Learn 6). Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" (A Writer Teaches Writing3).
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number(s):
Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" (Elkins, "Visual Studies" 63).
Citing multivolume works
If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)
. . . as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1: 14-17).
Citing the Bible
In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter, and verse. For example:
Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).
If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation:
John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).
Citing indirect sources
Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:
Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" (qtd. in Weisman 259).
Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.
Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays
Sources that take the form of a dialogue involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialogue should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name (e.g., JAMES.). After the period, write the dialogue. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.
Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Usually, the author and title of the source can be given in a signal phrase before quoting the excerpt, so the concluding parenthetical will often just contain location information like page numbers or act/scene indicators.
Here is an example from O'Neill'sThe Iceman Cometh.
Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. In the very first scene, O'Neill's characters treat alcohol as a panacea for their ills:
WILLIE. (Pleadingly) Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink.
ROCKY. Den grab it. It's right under your nose.
WILLIE. (Avidly)Thanks. (He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows.) (1.1)
Citing non-print or sources from the Internet
With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL'sEvaluating Sources of Informationresource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page.
Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:
- Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
- Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
- Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, likeCNN.comorForbes.com,as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
Miscellaneous non-print sources
Two types of non-print sources you may encounter are films and lectures/presentations:
Werner Herzog's Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog's long-time film partner, Klaus Kinski. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film.
During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention.
In the two examples above “Herzog” (a film’s director) and “Yates” (a presentor) lead the reader to the first item in each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:
Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo. Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.
Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002. Address.
Electronic sources may include web pages and online news or magazine articles:
One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo "has become notorious for its near-failure and many obstacles" (Taylor, “Fitzcarraldo”).
The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. Its "MLA Formatting and Style Guide" is one of the most popular resources.
In the first example (an online magazine article), the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below).
In the second example (a web page), a parenthetical citation is not necessary because the page does not list an author, and the title of the article, “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” is used as a signal phrase within the sentence. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:
Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant, 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/. Accessed 29 Sep. 2009.
"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/. Accessed 2 April 2018.
To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:
. . . as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3; Dewey 21).
Time-based media sources
When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).
When a citation is not needed
Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge (For example, it is expected that U.S. citizens know that George Washington was the first President.). Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes “common knowledge” that differ from common norms.
The MLA Handbook describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encountera source or author category that the handbook does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.
In these cases, it's typicallyacceptable to apply the generalprinciples of MLA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite.
You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citingIndigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers—an author category that does not appear in the MLA Handbook. In cases like this, however, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.
Using In-text Citation
MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).
Type the question after the initial quotation mark. According to MLA 7th edition rules, "Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage." Therefore, before the second quotation mark is put into place, type in the question mark.How do you cite a lab report in MLA? ›
Report Citation Structure
Last, First M. Report Title. Publisher, date published, URL (if applicable). Note: If the author and publisher of the report are the same, start your citation with the title of the report instead.
MLA requires the use of an in-text citation whether you put the words of others in your own words (paraphrase) or state them exactly as found in the original source (direct quote).What is an example of an in text citation? ›
Using In-text Citation
APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.
In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks.How do you quote a question and answer? ›
Explanation: According to AP style, a question mark is inside quotation marks if that part is the question and outside the quotation marks if the whole sentence is a question. (The same rule applies to exclamation marks and dashes. Periods and commas always go inside quotation marks.)How do you cite an answer? ›
What citation format is required for your manuscript? Generally, you would include the author's name, the posting date, a link to the answer (which you can obtain by clicking the "share" link), and (optionally) the title of the question to which the answer was posted.How do you in-text cite when there is a question mark? ›
Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
Author's Last Name, First Name (or Department name if no author). "Title of Document." Date of document. Organization associated with document. Description of document (e.g., flyer, leaflet, memo or handout).
Year. Title of lab manual [lab manual]. Place of Publication: Publisher.How do you cite sources in a lab report? ›
In-text citations should be placed in the sentence immediately upon the first instance that the source is used, and indicate specifically where information was obtained- Author and year for an article; Author, year and page number for books; and Author and Lab number for BIOL 22L protocols.Which in-text citations is formatted correctly in MLA style? ›
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.How do you do an in-text citation for a website in MLA? ›
Use a shortened version of the title in your in-text citation. The shortened title must match the first words of your Works Cited entry. “Title of Article.” Website Name, Day Month Year, URL.Do you need to repeat in-text citations? ›
Although it may not be necessary to repeat the full in-text citation for the paraphrase in each sentence, it is still necessary to begin subsequent paragraphs with a full in-text citation (APA, 2020, p. 270).What are the four parts of an in text citation? ›
Reference list entries include the four elements of the author, date, title, and source.How many times should you include an in text citation in your assignment? ›
If the work you are citing has one or two authors, include them in your citation every time.What is the difference between in text citation and parenthetical in text citation? ›
In-text citation template and example:
In subsequent citations, use only the surname. In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the author. If you are directly quoting the source, the page number should also be included in the in-text citation.
The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows: Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.How do you in text cite multiple authors MLA? ›
If a source has two authors, name both authors in your MLA in-text citation and Works Cited entry. If there are three or more authors, name only the first author, followed by et al. Moore, Jason W. Moore, Jason W., and Raj Patel.
If no author is listed, use a shortened title of the work. Put the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (such as books or entire websites), and include page numbers (if there are any).
Place a question mark or exclamation point within closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies to the quotation itself. Place the punctuation outside the closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies to the whole sentence. Phillip asked, "Do you need this book?"What do you do when a quote ends in a question mark MLA? ›
If the quotation ends with an exclamation point or question mark, that punctuation is included INSIDE the quotation mark. The period after the parenthetical reference is also retained.What are the 3 rules for using quotations? ›
- Rule 1. Use double quotation marks to set off a direct (word-for-word) quotation. ...
- Rule 2a. Always capitalize the first word in a complete quotation, even midsentence. ...
- Rule 2b. Do not capitalize quoted material that continues a sentence. ...
- Rule 3a. ...
- Rule 3b. ...
- Rule 3c. ...
- Rule 4. ...
- Rule 5a.
1) His citation says he showed outstanding and exemplary courage. 2) Turner was issued a traffic citation for reckless driving. 3) The essay begins with a citation from 'Hamlet'. 4) Space does not permit the citation of the examples.How do you start a sentence with a citation? ›
Spencer (2006) notes that it is acceptable "to state the author's name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always putting it in the parenthetical citation" (pp. 5-6). A 'parenthetical' citation has all of the citation information within parentheses.How do you cite a panel discussion in MLA? ›
Follow the name(s) of the panelist(s) with the title of the discussion, which may be the same as a presentation- the presentation and the following discussion are cited separately. Follow the title with the title of the event, date, and location. Bavis, Jim and Stein, Tammi, panelists. Panel discussion.Do you put question mark before or after citation? ›
3. A question mark, exclamation point, or dash is placed within the quotation marks when it is part of the quoted material. Otherwise it is placed outside the quotation marks.Does a question mark go after the citation? ›
If the question mark or exclamation point is YOURS, you put it after the citation.How do you cite a question example? ›
Question Mark Placement
- "When did you stop smoking?" (p. 1).
- "When did you smoke your first cigarette?" (p. 1).
- "How long have you been smoke free?" (p. 2).
Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).How do you cite a lab manual in APA in text? ›
When you include information from a lab manual in text, put a citation inside parentheses. Insert the name of the issuer of the manual, such as a company, a college department or an instructor's surname. Add a comma and then list the publication year, such as: (Department of Physics, 2012).
Author's Last Name, First Initial.; Title of Lab Manual; Publisher: Place of Publication, Year; pp pages.How do you cite an Escience lab? ›
- MLA. Course Name. Edition., Company Name, Year Published, Website. Example: Anatomy and Physiology. ...
- APA. Course Name (Edition). (Year). Company Location: Company Name. ...
- Chicago. Course Name. Edition. Company Location: Company Name, Year Published.
To cite a report in a reference entry, include the author, year, title of the report, the report number (if there is one), and the publisher. In-text citations would follow the typical format of including the author (or authoring organization) and year of publication.How many references should a lab report have? ›
There's no right or wrong answer answer as to how many references you need – it depends on how many you've cited in your writing! The most important thing is that you don't plagiarise. Make sure you include references for everything that you've cited in the text, so that it's clear where your information has come from.What type of citations are used in scientific papers? ›
The most frequently used citation style used in science is APA (American Psychological Association) style or Vancouver, created by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).What is the difference between references and citations? ›
The terms reference and citation are also often used to refer to the same thing although a citation tends to mean the part of the text within your assignment where you acknowledge the source; whilst a reference usually refers to the full bibliographic information at the end.What information should be included in an in-text citation from a publication when you know who the author is? ›
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.How do you put sources in MLA format? ›
To create a proper MLA works cited list when there are multiple sources by the same author, place the references in alphabetical order by the title. Only include the author's name in the first reference. In place of the author's name in subsequent entries, place three dashes, followed by a period.
When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion. Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number (if there is one).What does an MLA in-text citation look like? ›
MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).How do you in-text cite a website in MLA 9? ›
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Page or Document." Title of Website, Publisher or Sponsoring Organization, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Accessed Date Month (abbreviated) Year.How do you in-text cite an article in MLA 9th edition? ›
MLA 9th edition uses a shortened form of citation that consists of the author's last name and the page number that information was found on; these components are placed within parentheses. Punctuation marks such as commas, periods, question marks, and semi-colons are usually placed after the in-text citations.Can I cite the same source multiple times MLA? ›
The MLA Style Center
If you continue to cite the same source in subsequent paragraphs and no other source intervenes, you do not need to identify the source again unless ambiguity would result.
The MLA Style Center
No. The citation should appear only after the final sentence of the paraphrase. If, however, it will be unclear to your reader where your source's idea begins, include the author of the source in your prose rather than in a parenthetical citation.
How many in-text citations should I have? A good rule to follow, is to have about two sources per paragraph. This means that each source will be cited more than once throughout your paper.How do you cite a website in text citation? ›
Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).How do you cite a citation in a paper? ›
Your in-text citation should include both authors: the author(s) of the original source and the author(s) of the secondary source. For example: (Habermehl, 1985, as cited in Kersten, 1987). In your reference list you should provide the details of the secondary source (the source you read).How do you cite a book in MLA? ›
The basic form for a book citation is: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
The general format for citing online videos in MLA style is as follows: "Title of video." YouTube, uploaded by Screen Name, day month year, www.youtube.com/xxxxx. If the author of the video is not the same as the person who uploaded the video, your citation would be formatted as follows: Author last name, First Name.How do you cite a website in MLA format in text? ›
Use a shortened version of the title in your in-text citation. The shortened title must match the first words of your Works Cited entry. “Title of Article.” Website Name, Day Month Year, URL.How do I cite a website in MLA format in my paper? ›
Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known.How do I cite a website in MLA format? ›
Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Work.” Title of Site, Sponsor or Publisher [include only if different from website title or author], Date of Publication or Update Date, URL. Accessed Date [only if no date of publication or update date].How do you MLA cite an article? ›
The basic format is as follows: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.How do you put citations in a research paper? ›
- Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite, and then on the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Insert Citations.
- From the list of citations under Insert Citation, select the citation you want to use.
Author's Last Name, First Name. Case Study Title (Title case study and italicized). Location of the Publisher. Publisher, Date.How do you cite an essay in a textbook MLA? ›
Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor Name(s). Publisher, Year, pp Page range of entry.How do you cite a Book in-text citation? ›
In-text citations: Author-page style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.
The guidelines for citing an essay in MLA format are similar to those for citing a chapter in a book. Include the author of the essay, the title of the essay, the name of the collection if the essay belongs to one, the editor of the collection or other contributors, the publication information, and the page number(s).
Yes, you can cite a YouTube video in APA and MLA format. To cite a video in MLA or APA, you need to include the author, date, title of the video, where you found the video, and URL.How do you cite an online video in MLA? ›
Format: Author(s). “Title of Video.” Website Title in Italics, Website Publisher (if different than title), uploaded by Name of User, Date of Upload, URL. YouTube: Example: “Biology: Cell Structure.” YouTube, uploaded by Nucleus Medical Media, 18 Mar.How do you cite your sources? ›
- For books: author, title, place of publication, publisher, and publication year.
- For articles: author, title of article, title of journal, volume, issue, date, page numbers, and doi or permalink.
- For web page resources: author, title of page, Web address or URL, and date of access.